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Page 103 Courtesy of San José STAT

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Page 104 4 TOBACCO ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION CONTENTS Introduction: Maintaining the Market 105 Shifting Trends in Tobacco Marketing 107 Promoting Tobacco Use to Consumers 108 Inhibiting Opposition to Tobacco Use 114 The Tobacco Market and Market Segmentation 115 Tobacco: A Mature and a Growth Market 115 Market Segmentation to Reach Youths 115 The Appeal of Tobacco Ads to Children and Youths 116 Psychosocial Mechanisms Through Which Advertising Influences the Behavior of Children and Youths 117 Themes and Images 119 Critical Assessment of Studies on Advertising Recall, Advertising Expenditures, and Tobacco Consumption 123 Studies of Advertising Recall 123 Econometric Studies of the Relationship Between Advertising and Consumption 124 Studies of the Effects of Advertising Bans 124 Rationale for Restrictions 128 Recommendations 131 Policy Recommendations 131 Research Recommendations 133 References 134