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Page 27 Lily Lin, Jr. High School 158, Queens
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Page 28 2 THE NATURE OF NICOTINE ADDICTION* CONTENTS General Aspects of Nicotine Addiction 30 The Daily Nicotine Addiction Cycle 30 What Is Addiction? 30 Pharmacologic Aspects of Nicotine 31 Actions of Nicotine on the Brain 34 Tolerance and Withdrawal 35 Absorption of Nicotine from Tobacco 35 Distribution and Elimination of Nicotine from the Body 36 Intake and Accumulation of Nicotine During Cigarette Smoking 37 Addiction and the Light or Occasional Smoker 37 Nicotine Compensation 37 The "Low-Yield" Cigarette 37 Smoking Fewer Cigarettes 38 Behavioral Aspects of Addiction 38 Addiction to Smokeless Tobacco 39 Comparison of Nicotine Addiction with Other Drug Addictions 40 Nicotine Dependency in Youths 43 Epidemiology and Natural History of Cigarette Smoking 43 Evidence for Nicotine Dependence in Youths 45 Risk Factors for Smoking Initiation 52 Ethnic Differences in Nicotine Dependency 56 Use of Smokeless Tobacco by Children and Youths 58 Nature of Tobacco Products 58 Production of Tobacco Products 60 Modifying Cigarette Yields 61 Conclusions and Research Recommendations 63 References 64