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2 THE NATURE OF
NICOTINE ADDICTION*

CONTENTS

General Aspects of Nicotine Addiction

30

The Daily Nicotine Addiction Cycle

30

What Is Addiction?

30

Pharmacologic Aspects of Nicotine

31

Actions of Nicotine on the Brain

34

Tolerance and Withdrawal

35

Absorption of Nicotine from Tobacco

35

Distribution and Elimination of Nicotine from the Body

36

Intake and Accumulation of Nicotine During Cigarette Smoking

37

Addiction and the Light or Occasional Smoker

37

Nicotine Compensation

37

The "Low-Yield" Cigarette

37

Smoking Fewer Cigarettes

38

Behavioral Aspects of Addiction

38

Addiction to Smokeless Tobacco

39

Comparison of Nicotine Addiction with Other Drug Addictions

40

Nicotine Dependency in Youths

43

Epidemiology and Natural History of Cigarette Smoking

43

Evidence for Nicotine Dependence in Youths

45

Risk Factors for Smoking Initiation

52

Ethnic Differences in Nicotine Dependency

56

Use of Smokeless Tobacco by Children and Youths

58

Nature of Tobacco Products

58

Production of Tobacco Products

60

Modifying Cigarette Yields

61

Conclusions and Research Recommendations

63

References

64



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