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buildings. The Department of Defense should continue its aggressive efforts to adopt tobacco-free policies in all military services.

4. All workplaces should adopt tobacco-free policies.

5. All organizations involved with youths should adopt tobacco-free policies that apply to all persons attending or participating in all events sponsored by the organizations, and should actively promote a tobacco-free norm.

6. Parents should clearly and unequivocally express disapproval of tobacco use to their children, and, if smokers themselves, should quit smoking.

7. Research should be conducted to determine the factors influencing the substantial decline in tobacco use by African-American youths, with particular attention to the role of social norms.

8. Youths should be involved in the development of research questions and approaches and in designing and evaluating health messages and programs.

Chapter 4: Tobacco Advertising and Promotion

1. Congress should repeal the federal law preempting state regulation of tobacco promotion and advertising that occurs entirely within the states' borders.

2. After state regulatory authority has been clarified and restored, states and localities should severely restrict the advertising and promotion of tobacco products on billboards and other outdoor media, on vehicles, in facilities of public transportation, in public arenas and sports facilities, and at the point of sale.

3. Congress should enact comprehensive legislation establishing a timetable for gradual implementation of a plan for restricting tobacco advertising and promotion in interstate commerce. Essential components of this plan, which should become fully effective by the year 2000, include:

(a)restricting to a tombstone format the advertising of tobacco products in print media, including magazines and newspapers, or in other visual media, including videotape, videodisc, video arcade game, or film;

(b)banning the commercial use of the registered brand name of a tobacco product, trademark, or logo, or other recognizable symbol for such a product in any movie, music video, television show, play, video arcade game, or other form of entertainment, or on any other product; and

(c)banning the use of the registered brand name of a tobacco product, a trademark or logo, or other recognizable symbol for such a product, in any public place, or in any medium of mass communication for the purpose of publicizing, revealing, or documenting sponsorship of, or contribution to, any athletic, artistic, or other public event.

4. Research should be conducted that attends to ethnic, gender, and social class differences; that is sensitive to youths' responses to advertising and promotional messages; and that assesses the success as well as the failure of advertising campaigns.

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