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COMMITTEE BIOGRAPHIES

Paul R. Torrens, M.D., M.P.H. (Chair), is professor of health services administration at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Public Health. He received his M.D. degree from Georgetown University School of Medicine in 1958 and his M.P.H. degree from the Harvard University School of Public Health in 1962. From October 1989 to October 1990, Dr. Torrens was the Founding Director of the Tobacco Disease Research Program within the Office of the President of the University of California. This $72 million program was supported by the new California state tax on tobacco products; its purpose was to sponsor research on all aspects of tobacco-related diseases in California. Dr. Torrens has 12 years of experience as a health care manager in hospitals and health maintenance organizations. He has been a consultant for 15 years for a major national accounting/management consulting firm as a consultant for 15 years and has accumulated 31 service-years of membership on governing boards or boards of directors of hospitals, health care systems, and health maintenance organizations. He has served in a wide variety of health policy advisory and consulting capacities to governmental and nongovernmental organizations in all parts of the United States and in 13 foreign countries. His range of governmental experiences in the United States includes local and state government agencies as well as various branches of the federal government. Dr. Torrens is a fellow of the American Board of Preventive Medicine, the American College of Preventive Medicine, and the American Public Health Association.

Albert Bandura, Ph.D., is David Starr Jordan Professor of Social Science in Psychology, Stanford University. He received his Ph.D. degree from the Uni-



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Page 289 B COMMITTEE BIOGRAPHIES Paul R. Torrens, M.D., M.P.H. (Chair), is professor of health services administration at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Public Health. He received his M.D. degree from Georgetown University School of Medicine in 1958 and his M.P.H. degree from the Harvard University School of Public Health in 1962. From October 1989 to October 1990, Dr. Torrens was the Founding Director of the Tobacco Disease Research Program within the Office of the President of the University of California. This $72 million program was supported by the new California state tax on tobacco products; its purpose was to sponsor research on all aspects of tobacco-related diseases in California. Dr. Torrens has 12 years of experience as a health care manager in hospitals and health maintenance organizations. He has been a consultant for 15 years for a major national accounting/management consulting firm as a consultant for 15 years and has accumulated 31 service-years of membership on governing boards or boards of directors of hospitals, health care systems, and health maintenance organizations. He has served in a wide variety of health policy advisory and consulting capacities to governmental and nongovernmental organizations in all parts of the United States and in 13 foreign countries. His range of governmental experiences in the United States includes local and state government agencies as well as various branches of the federal government. Dr. Torrens is a fellow of the American Board of Preventive Medicine, the American College of Preventive Medicine, and the American Public Health Association. Albert Bandura, Ph.D., is David Starr Jordan Professor of Social Science in Psychology, Stanford University. He received his Ph.D. degree from the Uni-

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Page 290 versity of Iowa in 1952. Dr. Bandura has expertise in social psychology, including the psychological determinants of smoking behavior, the psychological mechanisms through which change is achieved, and the effects of programs to prevent smoking among children. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and serves on IOM's Board on Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders. Dr. Bandura is the author of 8 books on social behavior, is currently on the editorial board of 16 journals or serial volumes, and has received 7 honorary degrees in addition to his many scientific awards. He is a past president of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Western Psychological Association (WPA), and past chair of the boards of directors of the APA and the WPA; he has served on various other boards, councils, and committees of the APA. Neal Benowitz, M.D., is professor and chief, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Departments of Medicine, Pharmacy, and Psychiatry at the School of Medicine of the University of California at San Francisco. He received his M.D. with distinction at the University of Rochester School of Medicine in 1969 and was an intern and resident at the Bronx Municipal Hospital Center in the Bronx, New York, from 1969 to 1971. Dr. Benowitz is a recognized authority on clinical pharmacology and experimental therapeutics and counts among his publications over 140 original articles and 40 book chapters in such areas as pharmacology, toxicology, substance abuse, and, specifically, nicotine use and addiction. Among his many professional activities, Dr. Benowitz was scientific editor for the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on the Health Consequences of Smoking: Nicotine Addiction, 1988; member, Clove Cigarette Scientific Advisory Board to the Department of Health for the State of California, 1986-1987; technical consultant and chapter author for the U.S. Surgeon General's Advisory Committee Report on the Health Consequences of Smokeless Tobacco; and contributing author for the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Health Consequences of Cigarette Smoking: Health Effects of Involuntary Smoking, 1986. He is on the editorial boards of The Journal of Smoking-Related Disorders; Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy; Archives of Environmental Health; Drug Safety; and Drug Therapy. Richard J. Bonnie, LL.B., is the John S. Battle Professor of Law at the University of Virginia School of Law and director of the Institute of Law, Psychiatry and Public Policy at the University of Virginia. He received his LL.B. in 1969 from the University of Virginia. Mr. Bonnie is a member of the Institute of Medicine, a member of the Institute's Board of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders, a charter fellow of the College on the Problems of Drug Dependence, and was secretary of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse from 1975 to 1980. His expertise is in the broad area of substance abuse and legal approaches to discouraging substance abuse, with a specific focus of the efficacy

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Page 291 of public health law. Mr. Bonnie is the author of numerous articles and book chapters, some of which are Legal Aspects of Drug Dependence; ''Discouraging the Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs: The Effects of Legal Controls and Restrictions" (book chapter); "Regulation of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs: The Agenda for Law Reform" (book chapter); "Discouraging Unhealthy Personal Choices Through Government Regulation: Some Thoughts About the Minimum Drinking Age" (book chapter); "Law and the Discouragement of Unhealthy Personal Choices" (book chapter); "The Efficacy of Law as a Paternalistic Instrument" (book chapter); and "Regulating Conditions of Alcohol Availability: Possible Effects on Highway Safety" (article). K. Michael Cummings, Ph.D., M.P.H., is director of the Smoking Control Program, and Cancer Research Scientist in the Department of Cancer Control and Epidemiology at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, New York. He also holds two positions at the State University of New York at Buffalo: associate research professor in the Department of Experimental Pathology and Epidemiology and assistant clinical professor in the Department of Social and Preventive Medicine in the School of Medicine. Dr. Cummings received his M.P.H. degree in health behavior from the University of Michigan in 1977 and his Ph.D. in health behavior from the University of Michigan in 1980. He has published over 100 articles on such topics as the behavior and withdrawal symptoms of recent ex-smokers, factors influencing health behavior and changes in health behavior, cigarette advertising strategies, race-linked differences in cigarette brand preference, awareness and implementation of laws banning the sale of tobacco to minors, and Native American health. He has also conducted a number of smoking-related studies for the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Cummings also authored "Smoking Education and Cessation Activities," a chapter in the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking. 25 Years of Progress, 1989, and "Public Opinion and Changing Patterns of Tobacco Use," a chapter in Strategies to Control Tobacco Use in the United States: A Blueprint for Public Health Action in the 1990's, 1991. He is on the editorial boards of Tobacco Control: An International Journal, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, and Health Education Quarterly. Donald Dexter, Jr., D.M.D., received his D.M.D. degree from the Oregon Health Sciences University School of Dentistry in 1987 and is a member of the Klamath Tribes. Dr. Dexter is executive director, Klamath Tribal Health and Family Services, in Klamath Falls, Oregon. The $2.8 million program is responsible for the delivery and management of health services for the Klamath Tribal members in Klamath County. Although primarily a clinician, Dr. Dexter has an active commitment to reducing rates of tobacco use among young Native Americans, whose rate of use is one of the highest in the nation. From 1986 to 1987 he was the primary investigator of "Use of Smokeless Tobacco Among NW

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Page 292 Native Youth," a research project funded by the IHS and published in the American Journal of Public Health. From 1988 to 1991 he was a member of the Oregon Tobacco Free Coalition. In 1991 Dr. Dexter was a member of the Youth Tobacco Task Force of the Alcohol and Substance Abuse Branch of the IHS and served on the Oral Cancer Subcommittee, Tobacco Advisory Group, of the IHS Oral Health Promotion/Disease Prevention Program. In 1992 he was the key source of information for Spit Tobacco and Youth, published by the Office of the Inspector General, Department of Health and Human Services. Dr. Dexter is currently working on a tobacco education video and curriculum directed at children in grades three through six. Ellen Ruth Gritz, Ph.D., is professor and chair of the Department of Behavioral Science, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston. Dr. Gritz is also a psychologist who specializes in the psychotherapeutic needs of cancer patients and their families and in smoking cessation. In addition to her expertise in psychology and clinical psychology, Dr. Gritz has broad experience in issues concerning the pharmacology, treatment, prevention, and cessation of smoking, particularly for women. She is currently studying smoking cessation among Hispanic and African-American women. From 1980 to 1986 Dr. Gritz was an expert consultant in the Office on Smoking and Health, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Department of Health and Human Services. In this role she served as behavioral editor for the U.S. Surgeon General's Annual Report on Smoking and Health. From 1982 to 1985, she was a member of the Board of Scientific Counselors to the Addiction Research Unit at the National Institute on Drug Abuse. From 1984 to 1987 Dr. Gritz served on the Interdepartmental Committee on a Smoke-Free Society in the Year 2000 of the national office of the American Cancer Society. During 1985-1986 she was on the technical advisory committee to Lester Breslow for "Setting Goals for Cancer Control in California for the Year 2000." From 1984 to 1990 Dr. Gritz was a member of the research advisory committee of the Institute for the Study of Smoking Behavior and Policy at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government. Dr. Gritz is an associate editor of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention; consulting editor of Health Psychology; and a member of the editorial advisory boards of Quality of Life Research; Tobacco Control; and the Journal of Women's Health. She is also a senior reviewer of the U.S. Surgeon General's Annual Report on Smoking and Health. Dr. Gritz has over 100 publications to her credit. Gerardo Marín, Ph.D., is professor of psychology and associate dean for academic affairs, College of Arts and Sciences, at the University of San Francisco. Dr. Marin received his Ph.D. degree in social psychology from DePaul University in 1979. He has published internationally in the fields of psychology and sociology and has particular expertise in intercultural psychosocial issues. In the

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Page 293 field of nicotine use he is conducting two studies among Hispanics: "A Smoking Cessation Intervention with Hispanics" through the decade 1985-1995 (supported by the National Cancer Institute) and "Tobacco Control Strategies for Hispanics and Network on Hispanic Tobacco Control," 1991-1994 (supported by the Tobacco Control Section of the California Department of Health Services). Dr. Marín has also conducted major studies on drug use among high school students and social factors in the acquisition of new behaviors (e.g., abuse of drugs, use of condoms). He has over 90 publications in the areas of psychology and sociology and 9 years' experience in tobacco-use issues within the Hispanic communities of California. He is associate editor of the Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences and is a member of the editorial boards of The InterAmerican Journal of Psychology; Revista de la Asociacion Latinoamericana de Psicología Social; Jornal de Psicología; Comportamiento; Revista de Psicología Social; Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology; and Revista Intercontinental de Psicología v Educación. Mark A. Nichter, Ph.D., M.P.H., is a professor in the Departments of Anthropology and of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona. He received his Ph.D. in social anthropology from the University of Edinburgh in 1977 and his M.P.H. in international health from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health in 1978. Dr. Nichter is conducting, for the National Institute on Child Health and Development, a major study of "Adolescent Smoking and Dietary Behavior." He has done extensive anthropological fieldwork, particularly in the areas of medical anthropology, culture and the individual, and South Asian ethnography. In the area of medical anthropology Dr. Nichter has focused on cross-cultural study of the body, health, and illness-related behavior; ethnomedicine; comparative medical systems; medicine, power, and the production of knowledge; and international health development and anthropology. His training in medical anthropology and international health is complemented by a two-year residency in psychiatry. He received the Margaret Mead Award in 1989 and a Fulbright Professorship in Health Education and the Anthropology of Health (in Sri Lanka) in 1983-1984. He recently was awarded Rockefeller Foundation Grants for sabbatical research (1991-1992) and for acting as coordinator of a "Small Grants Scheme for Third World Health Social Scientists" (1992). In 1990, the National Science Foundation made Dr. Nichter a Field Methods Training Camp Grantee. He is editor of Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Ethnomedicine (1992) and associate editor of the journal Medical Anthropology. Peggy O'Hara, Ph.D., is associate professor and director of Graduate Studies in the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, the University of Miami School of Medicine. She received her Ph.D. degree in education from the University of Pittsburgh in 1981. Dr. O'Hara has crosscutting expertise in study

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Page 294 design and clinical, educational, and epidemiological arenas. In addition to her doctorate in education, Dr. O'Hara has nine years of experience teaching children in the public school systems of Pittsburgh. Her research has focused on physical factors such as exercise, weight gain, and menstrual cycles in relation to cessation and relapse of smoking. From 1987 to 1990 she was principal investigator on "Influences of Menstrual Cycle Changes on Smoking Relapse," 19871990 (supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse) and from 1984 to 1990 was co-investigator on the "Lung Health Study" (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute). She has also been on the National Steering Committee of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Lung Health Study since 1986; a member of the American Cancer Society's Lung Cancer Prevention Task Force since 1991; and from 1986 to 1989 served as Director of the Smoking Program for Women at the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic of the University of Pittsburgh. Dr. O'Hara's book chapters include ''Relapse Prevention" in The Clinical Management of Nicotine Dependence (1991); "Smoking" in Behavioral Medicine for Women (1988); and "Nicotine Dependence" in Adult Behavior Therapy Casebook (in press). Her publications examine the use of nicotine gum, and age and gender differences in such use; physical activity and continued smoking cessation; whether low tar and nicotine cigarettes decrease nicotine dependence and cardiovascular risk; smoking-induced lung diseases; and interventions for high-risk smokers. As a consultant, she has developed employee smoking cessation programs for a number of businesses (Mellon Bank, PPG Industries, Gulf Oil Corporation, Mobay Chemical Corporation, Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, U.S. Steel Corporation, Society of Automotive Engineers, and DeLuxe Check Printers, Inc.). Cheryl L. Perry, Ph.D., is professor, Division of Epidemiology, and co-director of the Doctoral and Post-Doctoral Training Program on the Behavioral Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease, Division of Epidemiology, at the University of Minnesota. She received her Ph.D. degree in education from Stanford University in 1980. Dr. Perry's expertise is in the areas of child and adolescent health and development; prevention of substance abuse by children and adolescents; community models of intervention; and psychosocial aspects of health promotion and disease prevention. She has published over 80 articles and was senior scientific editor of the 1994 Surgeon General's Report on Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People. Dr. Perry has also been principal investigator or co-principal investigator of 18 grants, including "Project CLASP: Peer Leadership for Smoking Prevention," 1978-1979 (supported by the National Interagency Council on Smoking and Health); "A Developmental Approach to Drug Abuse Prevention," 1982-1985 (National Institute on Drug Abuse); "Tailoring Drug Abuse Prevention Programs to the School Environment," 1983-1986 (National Institute on Drug Abuse); and the Young Adult Lifestyles Study: A Longitudi-

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Page 295 nal Follow-up of Smoking Behavior in Young Adulthood," 1984-1989 (National Cancer Institute). Thomas C. Schelling, Ph.D., is Distinguished Professor of Economics and Public Affairs, University of Maryland, and Lucius N. Littauer Professor of Political Economy, emeritus, Harvard University. He received his Ph.D. degree in economics from Harvard University in 1951. From 1983 to 1989 Dr. Schelling headed the Institute for Smoking Behavior and Policy at Harvard University: he has expertise in addictive behavior and issues of self-control in cessation and relapse of nicotine use. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and of the National Academy of Sciences. He is also a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Dr. Schelling was elected President of the American Economic Association for 1991, was named a distinguished fellow of the association in 1987, and received the Frank E. Seidman Distinguished Award in Political Economy in 1977. He has twice served as chairman of the Research Advisory Board of the Committee for Economic Development and is a trustee of the Aerospace Corporation. Dr. Schelling served in the U.S. Bureau of the Budget from 1945 to 1946, the Economic Cooperation Administration in Europe from 1948 to 1950, and the White House and the Executive Office of the President from 1951 to 1953. He joined the Department of Economics at Yale University in 1953 and was appointed professor of Economics at Harvard in 1958. During 1958-1959 he was on the staff of the RAND Corporation. Dr. Schelling has been a consultant to the Departments of State and Defense, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the Central Intelligence Agency and has been a member of the Defense Science Board and the Scientific Advisory Board of the U.S. Air Force. He has frequently lectured at the Foreign Service Institute and the several U.S. war colleges. Dr. Schelling has published articles on tobacco and drug policy and is the author of Choice and Consequence, 1984; Micromotives and Macrobehavior, 1978; and six other books on such topics as international economics, arms control, and energy and environmental policy. Herbert H. Severson, Ph.D., is research scientist, Oregon Research Institute; associate professor of educational psychology, University of Oregon; and a clinical psychologist in private practice. He also provides consultant services, such as to the National Training Network in Colorado about systematic screening for behavior disorders for identifying at-risk students in grades one through five. He received his Ph.D. in educational psychology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1973. In addition to his research and expertise in adolescent psychology, Dr. Severson has hands-on experience as a school psychologist in public schools. He has also developed many educational and evaluative products including: Big Dipper (1985), a videotape on the risks of smokeless tobacco use

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Page 296 by teens; Up to Snuff: A Comprehensive Manual on Smokeless Tobacco (1987); Making a Difference: Counseling Patients to Quit Smoking (1990), a videotape funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute that is used in medical schools to train physicians to counsel patients to quit smoking; A Healthy Start: Smoke Free Babies (1990), a videotape funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to be shown to smoking mothers when they come to pediatric offices for well-baby care; Enough Snuff: A Guide to Quitting Smokeless Tobacco on Your Own (1992); Systematic Archival Record Search (1991), a procedure for systematically assessing at-risk students using school record information; and Preschool Screening for Behavioral Problems (1993). Dr. Severson has expertise in the prevention of substance abuse in schools, child health psychology, refusal skills training, and systematic screening for health risks or behavioral disorders. He has been the principal investigator or co-investigator on 16 studies. Sarah Moody Thomas, Ph.D., is associate director for Community Education and Applications at the Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Medical Center. She is also clinical professor in the Department of Psychology, University of New Orleans. Dr. Thomas received her Ph.D. degree in clinical psychology, with a co-major in public administration from the University of Georgia in 1978. Her areas of expertise are factors influencing adolescent behavior; the health behaviors of adolescents, particularly African-American youths; and smoking prevention. Her clinical experience includes a study of smoking prevention among 970 black urban adolescents in 14 Orleans Parish schools from 1987 to 1989. The intervention was a 7-day teacher-led program in social skills and health information for ninth graders; follow-up after one year indicated that only 7% of the students had smoked in the past month. She has also examined parental involvement in the program (1988-1990) and adolescents' concerns about their parents who smoke. In addition, Dr. Thomas has worked with the Louisiana Tobacco Task Force to develop a statewide cancer control plan. Robert Mullan Cook-Deegan, M.D., is the director of the Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders at the Institute of Medicine. He was previously an expert (consultant advisor) to the National Center for Human Genome Research at the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Cook-Deegan served as the acting executive director of the Biomedical Ethics Advisory Committee of the U.S. Congress from December 1988 to October 1989. Before that, he was a senior associate at the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) of the U.S. Congress for six years. While at OTA, he directed a project entitled Mapping Our Genes—Genome Projects: How Big? How Fast? and subsequently obtained awards from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation to write a book on the science and politics of the human genome and from the National Science Foundation to establish an archive and oral history resource on the same topic. He is a senior

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Page 297 research fellow at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics (Georgetown University), an associate in the Department of Health Policy and Management in the School of Hygiene and Public Health at the Johns Hopkins University, and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He now serves or has recently served on national advisory boards to the National Institutes of Health, UNESCO, the Health Care Financing Administration, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Alzheimer's Association. He is a member of the Board of Directors, Physicians for Human Rights, and of the national steering committee for the Health Professional Network of Amnesty International, USA. His background included two years of postdoctoral basic research on the molecular biology of oncogenes with Lasker Award scientist Raymond L. Erikson. This followed clinical training at the University of Colorado, where he completed his internship and two years of residency in pathology. He received his M.D. degree from the University of Colorado in 1979. Barbara S. Lynch, Ph.D., is study director for the study on preventing nicotine dependency in children and youths. Dr. Lynch has a broad range of interrelated professional experiences in program design, development, and implementation; training and teaching; publications development, writing, and photography; and analytic research and synthesis. Her audiences—through programs, training, and publications—have included the general public, policymakers, federal agency personnel, public school personnel, university students, and the multiple constituents of the health care and health promotion fields: biomedical researchers, physicians, nurses and allied health professionals, health management personnel, epidemiologists, and health and medical educators. She has worked with federal agencies, with contractors and grantees, with voluntary health organizations, and with committees, national commissions, and advisory boards. She has been on the faculties of Louisiana State University at New Orleans, Louisiana State Medical School, and the University of Maryland, where she taught writing and literature, science writing, and health communications. As a consultant, her activities have spanned research, applications, and technology transfer related to communications, health education, specific diseases, women's health, and smoking and health.

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