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versity of Iowa in 1952. Dr. Bandura has expertise in social psychology, including the psychological determinants of smoking behavior, the psychological mechanisms through which change is achieved, and the effects of programs to prevent smoking among children. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and serves on IOM's Board on Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders. Dr. Bandura is the author of 8 books on social behavior, is currently on the editorial board of 16 journals or serial volumes, and has received 7 honorary degrees in addition to his many scientific awards. He is a past president of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Western Psychological Association (WPA), and past chair of the boards of directors of the APA and the WPA; he has served on various other boards, councils, and committees of the APA.

Neal Benowitz, M.D., is professor and chief, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Departments of Medicine, Pharmacy, and Psychiatry at the School of Medicine of the University of California at San Francisco. He received his M.D. with distinction at the University of Rochester School of Medicine in 1969 and was an intern and resident at the Bronx Municipal Hospital Center in the Bronx, New York, from 1969 to 1971. Dr. Benowitz is a recognized authority on clinical pharmacology and experimental therapeutics and counts among his publications over 140 original articles and 40 book chapters in such areas as pharmacology, toxicology, substance abuse, and, specifically, nicotine use and addiction. Among his many professional activities, Dr. Benowitz was scientific editor for the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on the Health Consequences of Smoking: Nicotine Addiction, 1988; member, Clove Cigarette Scientific Advisory Board to the Department of Health for the State of California, 1986-1987; technical consultant and chapter author for the U.S. Surgeon General's Advisory Committee Report on the Health Consequences of Smokeless Tobacco; and contributing author for the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Health Consequences of Cigarette Smoking: Health Effects of Involuntary Smoking, 1986. He is on the editorial boards of The Journal of Smoking-Related Disorders; Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy; Archives of Environmental Health; Drug Safety; and Drug Therapy.

Richard J. Bonnie, LL.B., is the John S. Battle Professor of Law at the University of Virginia School of Law and director of the Institute of Law, Psychiatry and Public Policy at the University of Virginia. He received his LL.B. in 1969 from the University of Virginia. Mr. Bonnie is a member of the Institute of Medicine, a member of the Institute's Board of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders, a charter fellow of the College on the Problems of Drug Dependence, and was secretary of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse from 1975 to 1980. His expertise is in the broad area of substance abuse and legal approaches to discouraging substance abuse, with a specific focus of the efficacy

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