Page 299

INDEX

A

Accessibility of tobacco, 19, 199-200, 201

national reduction goals, 19, 210, 284

and price-sensitivity of adolescents, 17, 19, 108, 187-191, 266

surveillance systems, 19, 227, 285

through adults, 206, 246

Acetylcholine, 34, 35

Addiction. See Nicotine addiction/dependence

Adult tobacco use, 5-6, 7, 8, 11, 23, 63

perceived prevalence of, 14, 18, 21, 77, 78, 79

Advertising and promotions, 11, 105-114

African Americans, 112, 114

appeal to children and youths, 18, 106, 116-122, 130-131, 245

expenditures, 11, 105, 107-108, 109, 278

impacts on child and youth tobacco use, 18, 55, 124, 131

market segmentation, 115-116

non-media promotional items, 80, 108, 110, 245-246

Old Joe Camel campaign, 116-117, 120, 129

promotional allowances, 110-111

recall studies, 123-124

research needs, 18, 133-134, 282

value-added promotions, 108, 110

women as targets, 116

Advertising restrictions, 18, 131, 132, 133

constitutional challenges to, 133

effects on smoking prevalence, 124-128

federal, 21-22, 133, 282

health warnings, 245

industry voluntary code, 128-130

insignia, logos, trademarks, 133, 245-246, 282

interstate, 18, 133, 282

on misleading terms, 249

preemption law, 17, 132, 282

public support for, 12

smokeless tobacco promotions, 245

by states, 12, 17, 18, 21, 131-132, 133, 259, 283

total ban, 128, 133

transportation systems, 132, 282

See also Tombstone advertising formats

Advocacy Institute, 269, 274

Advocacy organizations for tobacco control, 93-97, 268-269, 274-275

health professions, 94-95

local coalitions, 12, 17, 21, 93, 94

youth involvement, 96-97

Affective education model, 145

Affordability of tobacco products

relation to consumption, 192

and tax policy, 17, 180-182, 192, 193, 283



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Page 299 INDEX A Accessibility of tobacco, 19, 199-200, 201 national reduction goals, 19, 210, 284 and price-sensitivity of adolescents, 17, 19, 108, 187-191, 266 surveillance systems, 19, 227, 285 through adults, 206, 246 Acetylcholine, 34, 35 Addiction. See Nicotine addiction/dependence Adult tobacco use, 5-6, 7, 8, 11, 23, 63 perceived prevalence of, 14, 18, 21, 77, 78, 79 Advertising and promotions, 11, 105-114 African Americans, 112, 114 appeal to children and youths, 18, 106, 116-122, 130-131, 245 expenditures, 11, 105, 107-108, 109, 278 impacts on child and youth tobacco use, 18, 55, 124, 131 market segmentation, 115-116 non-media promotional items, 80, 108, 110, 245-246 Old Joe Camel campaign, 116-117, 120, 129 promotional allowances, 110-111 recall studies, 123-124 research needs, 18, 133-134, 282 value-added promotions, 108, 110 women as targets, 116 Advertising restrictions, 18, 131, 132, 133 constitutional challenges to, 133 effects on smoking prevalence, 124-128 federal, 21-22, 133, 282 health warnings, 245 industry voluntary code, 128-130 insignia, logos, trademarks, 133, 245-246, 282 interstate, 18, 133, 282 on misleading terms, 249 preemption law, 17, 132, 282 public support for, 12 smokeless tobacco promotions, 245 by states, 12, 17, 18, 21, 131-132, 133, 259, 283 total ban, 128, 133 transportation systems, 132, 282 See also Tombstone advertising formats Advocacy Institute, 269, 274 Advocacy organizations for tobacco control, 93-97, 268-269, 274-275 health professions, 94-95 local coalitions, 12, 17, 21, 93, 94 youth involvement, 96-97 Affective education model, 145 Affordability of tobacco products relation to consumption, 192 and tax policy, 17, 180-182, 192, 193, 283

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Page 300 African Americans age of onset, 106 as marketing segment, 112, 114 prevalence of smoking, 8-9, 22, 56-57, 63, 75, 98, 262, 282 Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR), 262 Age of onset, 30, 43, 106 daily tobacco use, 5-6, 13, 29, 30, 43, 105 nicotine addiction, 14-15, 29 and risk perception, 14-15 Agonist drug replacement, 42-43 American Cancer Society (ACS), 94, 269, 274 American Medical Association, 94, 95 SmokeLess States program, 21, 95 American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST), 17, 20, 21, 94, 203, 259-260, 286 Anti-tobacco advertising campaigns. 17, 114, 18, 83, 97, 128, 281 youth involvement, 18, 98, 282 Artistic events, 82, 112 sponsorship restrictions, 133, 282 ASSIST. See American Stop Smoking Intervention Study Australia, warnings and packaging policies, 243, 244 B Behavioral risk factors, 55 smoking methods, 38-39, 248, 249, 286 Billboards and outdoor advertising, 80, 112, 114, 123 regulation of, 17, 132, 282 Boys prevalence of use, 8, 10, 75, 78 sales to, 202 smokeless tobacco use, 59, 63, 106 Brand names. See Logos; Trademarks C California anti-tobacco media programs, 17 policy research, 23, 266 Proposition 99, 94, 96, 178, 267-268 targeted control programs, 17, 150, 267 Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program, 261, 268 Canada advertising restrictions. 125,  128 policy research, 23 pricing and taxation policies, 185, 186-187, 189-190, 192 and smuggling of tobacco products, 193, 283 tobacco-free pharmacy program, 225 warnings and packaging policies, 244 Cancer, 3, 248 Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), 266-267, 274 Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 266-267 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) community-based program support, 220, 285 IMPACT program, 21, 260 school-based prevention guidelines, 19, 144, 151, 167, 168, 283 tobacco control grants. 210, 284 Cessation of tobacco use, 22, 105, 118 and addiction, 18, 50-52,  63 desire for, 15, 50-51, 73-74, 163, 167 ethnic differences, 57 interventions, 63, 159-163 perceived ease of, 14 and relapse, 38-39, 41 research needs, 19, 22, 167, 283 smokeless tobacco, 163-167 withdrawal symptoms after, 31, 33, 42, 50 Cholinergic receptors, 34 Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act, 237 Clinic-based interventions, 161-162, 165-166 Clothing, 80, 110 Coalition for America's Children, 92 Coalition on Smoking OR Health, 94, 269 Cocaine, 42, 167 Colorado, tobacco-free school districts, 87 Community intervention programs, 151-154 cessation, 161-162 restrictions, 87-93 and school-based programs, 15, 19, 154-155, 167, 168 smokeless tobacco use, 158 Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act, 239 Comprehensive Smoking Education Act, 236-237, 238 Consumer Product Safety Act, 233, 246 Controlled Substances Act, 246 Cooperative agreements, 21 Counter-advertising. See Anti-tobacco advertising campaigns Coupons. 108, 110

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Page 301 Cultural events and facilities, 82, 120 tobacco-free policies, 97, 281 D Daily tobacco use age of onset, 5-6, 13, 29, 30, 43, 105 persistence of, 14, 15 prevalence, 8-9, 46, 47, 56 smokeless tobacco, 8 Deaths from tobacco use, 3, 4, 5, 15, 105 Decision-making skills, of adolescents, 13-15 Department of Defense, 76, 89, 98, 267, 282 Department of Education, 267 Department of Health and Human Services health warning research and regulation, 245, 286 proposed tobacco-control agency, 247 Developmental factors, 13, 106, 118-119 E Econometric studies, 124 Educational programs hazards of tobacco use and smoke, 97, 281 and tobacco ads and promotion, 17 tobacco industry campaigns, 129 youth access laws, 167, 202-203, 219, 285 See also School-based prevention programs Entertainment, 112-113, 123 and commercial restrictions, 133, 282 Environmental risk factors, 54-55, 63 Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 22, 76-77, 267 educational programs and messages on, 97, 281 and workplace restrictions, 88-89 Epidemiologic studies, 22, 261-262, 264 Ethnic groups advertising and promotional responsiveness, 18, 106, 114, 133, 282 age of onset, 106 cessation among, 57 nicotine addiction, 56-58, 63, 64 norms of tobacco use, 20, 262-263, 286 prevalence of smoking, 8-9, 18, 74-75, 262 research, 262-263, 264-265 smokeless tobacco use, 8-9, 18, 58, 59 Ethnographic studies, 134 Experimentation with nicotine social factors, 11, 18 transition to addiction, 43, 64, 281 F Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire, 40 Fairness Doctrine, 83, 128, 238 Fast-food restaurants, 22, 90-91, 97, 281 Federal Cigarette Contraband Act, 179 Federal Communications Commission (FCC), Fairness Doctrine, 83, 128, 238 Federal Hazardous Substances Act, 233 Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 237,  238, 259 Filters and filtration, 62, 121, 248 Finland, advertising restrictions, 125 Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (FDCA), 234-235, 246 Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 234-235, 246, 247, 250-251, 259 Foreign government policies advertising restrictions. 124-128 tar reduction, 250 taxes. 17, 19, 184, 192, 193, 283 warnings and packaging, 244 Free sample distribution, 19, 61, 113, 216-217, 226, 285 G Gender differences advertising and promotional responsiveness, 18, 133, 282 age of onset, 106 ease of purchase, 202 smoking prevalence, 10, 75 Genetic factors, 55, 64 Girls nicotine dependence, 50 prevalence of use, 10, 59, 75, 78, 116 sales to, 202 Government buildings, tobacco-free policies, 12, 98, 281-282 Grant programs, 21, 266-267 Grassroots political action, 12, 269 H Health policies and programs and excise taxes, 12, 190-191, 192, 283 national child health policy, 19, 168, 283 and prevention policies, 11, 23, 251 and product regulation, 21, 236-237, 246-247, 249, 251, 285-286 to reduce number of initiates, 15

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Page 302 tax revenues earmarked for, 17 and tobacco constituent reduction, 250 Health risks, 22, 248 Healthy People 2000, 8, 15, 86-87, 89, 144, 258-259, 276, 287 High School Seniors Survey, 159 Hispanics cultural event sponsorships, 82 prevalence of tobacco use, 56, 57, 58, 75 I Image advertising, 119-122, 123 common themes, 21, 55, 58, 120, 131 counter-advertisements, 18, 83, 97, 128, 281 safety and healthfulness, 121-122, 129 and social norms, 21, 55, 80-83, 117-118, 120-121 Indian Health Service, 267 Information-deficit model, 144-145 Informed-choice model, 13 Initiation of tobacco use, 5-6 individual susceptibility, 55-56, 63 price barrier to, 17 reduction goals, 15 research needs, 20, 265, 286, 287 smokeless tobacco products, 15, 58 and tar and nicotine reduction, 250 See also Age of onset Insignia, restrictions on use, 133, 245-246, 282 Interagency Committee on Smoking and Health, 275-276, 287 International Union Against Cancer, tar reduction policy, 250 Interstate regulation of ads and promotions, 18, 133, 282 L Labeling. See Warning labels Latent censorship, 114 Lautenberg amendment, 87 Legislation and statutes, 16 federal preemption of state ad regulation, 12, 17, 18, 131-132, 282 interstate regulation of ads and promotions, 18, 133, 282 mail order distribution, 226, 285 school tobacco ban, 87 tax increase proposals, 17, 19, 193, 283 tobacco products regulation, 20, 246-247, 259, 285-286 on warning labels, 20, 245-246, 286 See also State governments: Youth access laws "Less hazardous" cigarettes, 247-248 Licensing of tobacco retailers, 19, 210-212, 223, 284, 285 fees earmarked for enforcement, 19, 211-212, 284 Life expectancy, losses, 3 Light and occasional smokers, 37 "Light" cigarettes, 121-122, 248, 249 Local governments, 20 advertising and promotion regulation, 12, 17, 18, 132, 282 outlet control, 224, 225, 285 tobacco-control programs, 12, 17, 21 See also Youth access laws Logos, 81, 110, 119-120 accompanying warning labels, 245-246, 286 restrictions on use, 133, 245-246, 282 Longitudinal studies, 84, 134, 261-262 Low-yield cigarettes, 37-38, 61-62, 63-64, 121-122, 248 M Magazine advertisements, 80-81, 111, 122 interstate restrictions, 133, 282 and latent censorship, 114 Mail order distribution, 19, 113-114, 217, 225- 226, 285 Marijuana, 167 Maryland, anti-tobacco media programs, 17 Massachusetts anti-tobacco media programs, 17 targeted control programs, 17, 267 Mass media, restrictions on brand identification, 133, 282. See also Advertising and promotions Men lifetime medical costs, 5 prevalence of use, 7, 8, 78 Michigan targeted control programs, 17 tobacco-free pharmacy program, 225 Military personnel impact of pricing policies on smoking, 193, 283-284 smoking prevalence, 73, 75-76 and tobacco-free policies, 89, 98, 282

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Page 303 Military stores, 76, 179, 193, 283-284 Model law, 203-204, 213, 220, 224 Model programs, 16, 17 school-based prevention, 144-148, 168, 283 youth access law, 203-204, 213, 220, 224 Monitoring the Future Study, 8, 14, 50, 75 Mortality. See Deaths from tobacco use Music videos, commercial restrictions, 133, 282 N National Cancer Institute (NCI), 265, 266 ASSIST program, 17, 20, 21, 94, 203, 259-260, 286 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse, 105-106 National Institutes of Health, 193, 265 Native Americans, 57, 75, 267 Newspaper advertisements, 111 commercial restrictions, 133, 282 New Zealand advertising restrictions, 125, 128 pricing policies, 192 Nicotine addiction/dependence, 5-6, 18, 22, 29-31, 63 and age of onset, 14-15, 29 and cessation of tobacco use, 18, 50-52, 63 and characteristics of tobacco products, 18, 58, 60-63, 64, 281 compared to drug addiction, 40-43 definitions and criteria, 30-31, 32 early stages, 18, 29, 43-45, 64, 281 individual susceptibility, 18, 55, 63, 64, 281 neurochemistry, 30, 34-36 and nicotine content reduction, 249-250 perceptions of, 14-15, 63, 122 pharmacologic aspects, 30, 31-37, 45, 49-50, 55 and rationality of personal choice, 13, 41 research needs, 18, 22, 64, 281 and smokeless tobacco use, 39-40, 63 and smoking behavior, 37-38, 38-39, 62, 248 tolerance, 30, 31, 35, 40, 42, 45 and treatment strategies, 63 withdrawal, 30, 31, 33, 35, 37, 50 Nicotine content and delivery consumer information, 249, 286 control by manufacturers, 60, 62, 63-64, 249 low-yield cigarettes, 37-38, 63-64, 248, 249-250 measurement of yields, 20, 248-249, 286 minimum addiction levels, 64, 250 regulation, 20, 21, 64, 246-251, 286 of smokeless tobacco, 39-40 "Nicotine delivery systems" in regulatory vocabulary, 251 substitution of, 250 Nicotine replacement therapy, 42-43, 165 Non-media promotional items, 80, 108, 110, 245-246 warning labels, 245-246, 286 Norms, 71-73 community enforcement, 87-88 and prevalence of use among African-Americans, 9, 98, 282 research needs, 20 smoking as acceptable, 22, 71 tobacco-free, 18, 22, 23, 73-77, 131 Norway, advertising restrictions, 125 O Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 89, 259 Office of Smoking and Health (OSH) coordination role, 20, 275-277, 287 Interagency Committee on Smoking and Health, 275-276, 287 Old Joe Camel campaign, 116-117, 120, 129 Oral cancer, 3 Organizations. See Advocacy organizations for tobacco control; Youth organizations Outdoor advertising. See Billboards and outdoor advertising P Packaging, 20, 21, 245 nicotine content statement, 249 See also Warning labels Parental involvement in community programs, 167 reactions to tobacco use, 18, 84, 98, 282 Parental smoking, 12, 54-55, 84 duty to quit, 98, 282 Peer tobacco use, 13, 54, 85-86 perceived prevalence of, 14, 18, 21, 77, 78, 79-80 Perceptions about tobacco use addiction potential, 14-15, 63, 122 benefits of, 13-14, 81-83, 123 effects of packaging regulations, 249

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Page 304 health risks, 13, 14, 15, 63 overestimates of prevalence, 14, 18, 21, 63, 77-80 as socially unacceptable, 76-77 tobacco-related norms, 14 Pharmacies, tobacco sale ban, 224, 225, 285 Point of sale promotions, 108, 111 regulation of, 17, 132, 282 Policy research, 19, 20, 22-23, 95, 193, 226-227, 262, 266, 269, 287 Prevalence of tobacco use, 73 among adults, 7, 8, 11, 63 among youths, 7-9, 11, 45, 46, 47, 63, 73, 105-106, 278 daily, 8-9, 46, 47, 56 effects of advertising restrictions, 124-128 smokeless tobacco products, 8, 58, 59, 106 Prevention policies and programs advertising restrictions' role in, 133 as health policy tool, II, 23, 251 research needs, 20, 22-23, 168, 264-266. 283, 286, 287 Prices, 11 price-sensitivity of adolescents, 17, 19, 108, 187-191, 266 research needs, 19, 193, 266 See also Taxes on tobacco products Print media, 111, 123 interstate advertising restrictions, 133, 282 Productivity losses, 5 Promotions. See Advertising and promotions; Advertising restrictions Public facilities, tobacco-free policies, 12, 18, 97-98, 281-282 Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act, 238 Pulmonary disease, 3 Q Quitting. See Cessation of tobacco use R Regional differences norms of tobacco use, 20, 59, 262-263, 286 smokeless tobacco use, 58 Regulation of tobacco products, 16, 20, 21, 233-236, 246 constituents, 20, 21, 246-251, 286 as health policy tool, 21, 236-237, 246-247, 249, 251, 285-286 packaging, 20, 21, 245, 249, 286 proposed agency, 21, 236, 246-250, 285-286 research needs, 20, 248-250, 286 See also Advertising restrictions; Warning labels; Youth access laws Religious organizations, 93-94 Research programs and methods advertising recall studies, 123-124 advertising responsivity, 133-134 biochemical markers of exposure, 37, 63, 248 federal support, 20, 261-266, 286-287 interventions, 262-265 multicultural, 262-263, 264-265 policy oriented, 19, 20, 22-23, 95, 193, 226-227, 262, 266, 269, 287 school-based programs, 148-151 smokeless tobacco addiction levels, 39-40 tobacco constituents measurement, 248-249, 286 youth-centered, 263-265 See also Model programs; Surveys Restaurants, tobacco-free policies, 12, 22, 97, 281 Risk-factor analyses, 22 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Join Together Project, 93 policy research, 23, 95, 266, 269 SmokeLess States program, 21, 95 Rural areas, smokeless tobacco use, 39, 58 S Sales to minors, 19, 201-202. See also Vending machines; Youth access laws SCARCNet, 95, 269 School-based prevention programs, 15-16, 81, 143-151 adequacy of resources, 19, 143-144, 168 CDC guidelines, 19, 144, 151, 167, 168, 283 cessation programs, 160-161 and drug abuse prevention, 167, 168, 283 model programs, 144-148, 168, 283 refusal skills training, 19, 148, 167 smokeless tobacco, 156-157 tobacco-free policies, 19, 22, 86-87, 97, 224-225, 285, 281 Self-help programs, 164-165 Self-service displays, 110-111, 214 Shopping malls, tobacco-free policies, 91, 97, 281 Single cigarette sales, 215-216, 284

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Page 305 Smoke, chemistry and byproducts of, 60, 61, 247. See also Environmental tobacco smoke Smokefree Educational Services (SES), 96, 269 Smokeless tobacco (SLT) products, 60-61 addiction, 39-40, 63 cessation interventions, 163-167 and cigarette smoking, 40, 58, 166 prevalence of use, 8, 58, 59 prevention interventions, 155-159 reduction of toxins in, 249 tax increases, 17, 193, 283 warning labels, 239-241, 245 Smoking Control Advocacy Resource Center (SCARC), 95, 269. See also SCARCNet Smoking machine tests. 61, 62, 63, 248 Smuggling between Canada and the United States, 193, 283 from military bases, 193, 284 Social cognitive theory, 118-119 Social costs of tobacco use, 4 Social influences, 16, 18 and advertising appeal, 117-119 resistance model, 146-147 See also Norms Socioeconomic factors advertising and promotional responsiveness, 18, 106, 133, 282 nicotine addition, 56, 63 Sports and athletics, 21, 58, 80, 81, 82, 112-113, 123, 129, 132 sponsorship restrictions, 133, 245, 282 tobacco-free policies, 91-92, 97, 281 State governments, 20 advertising restrictions, 12, 17, 18, 21, 131-132, 133, 283 industry lobbying efforts, 12, 267-268 outlet control, 224, 225, 285 self-service display bans, 19, 214-215, 284 vending machine restrictions, 19, 212-214, 284 Stop Teenage Addiction to Tobacco (STAT), 95-96, 214, 269 Stop Tobacco Access for Minors Project (STAMP), 96, 269 Stores licensing programs, 19, 210-212, 223, 284, 285 promotional allowances, 110-111 tobacco-free policies, 12, 91, 97, 281 youth access law enforcement and compliance, 167, 210, 284 Student Coalition Against Tobacco (SCAT), 96-97 Surveys High School Seniors Survey, 159 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse, 105-106 smoking restrictions, 76-77 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey (TAPS), 14, 15, 58, 74, 159 Teen Lifestyle Study, 74, 78, 82, 85 tobacco control policies. 12 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), 13, 43-44, 159 Synar Amendment, 199, 204-205, 207-208, 213, 221, 224, 246 T Taco Bell, 91 Tar content, 61 consumer information, 249, 286 international reduction policies. 250 low yield cigarettes, 37, 61-62, 63, 248, 249, 250 measurement of yields, 20, 248-249, 286 regulation, 20, 21, 246-250, 286 Taxes on tobacco products and alternative products use, 19, 193, 283 consumption impacts, 17, 19, 181-183, 185-190, 192, 193, 283 earmarking of revenues, 17, 19, 178, 269, 273 economic impacts, 191-192 federal, 17, 19, 177-178, 183, 192, 193, 283 as health policy tool, 12, 190-191, 192, 283 increases, 11, 17, 19, 193, 283 and inflation, 19, 182-183, 193, 283 research needs, 193 and smuggling, 19, 178, 193, 283 state and local, 19, 178-180, 192, 283 Technical assistance, 21, 259-261, 266-267 community-based programs, 220, 285 Teen Lifestyle Study, 74, 78, 82, 85 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey (TAPS), 14, 15, 58, 74, 159 Television advertising, 83, 128, 133, 282 Theory of reasoned action, 117-118 Tobacco control policies and programs, 15-16, 23, 87-93 coordination of, 20, 273-277

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Page 306 ethical foundation, 12-15 federal support, 17, 21, 210, 284 outlet reduction, 224, 225, 285 political influences, 12, 23 public support, 12, 76-77, 88 state and local programs, 12, 17, 21, 91, 92, 210, 284 tax revenues earmarked for, 12, 17, 19, 269, 273, 287 Tobacco Policy Coordinating Committee, 275 Tombstone advertising formats, 132, 133 interstate restrictions, 133, 282 state and local restrictions, 18, 132 Toxic Substances Control Act, 233 Trademarks, 119-120, 133, 245-246, 282, 286 Transportation systems advertising restrictions, 132, 282 tobacco-free policies, 97, 281 U Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 94 United Kingdom pricing policies, 192 V Value-added promotions, 108 Vending machines, 201, 202, 212 bans, 12, 19, 212-214, 284 partial restrictions, 213-214 Video arcade games, 133, 282 Videotapes and videodiscs, 133, 282 Visual media, regulation of, 17, 133, 282 W Warning labels, 20, 236-239, 245-246, 286 effectiveness of, 20, 240-244, 245, 286 on non-media promotional items, 245-246, 286 and smokeless tobacco, 239-241, 245 Washington State, workplace tobacco ban, 89 Whites age of onset, 106 daily smoking prevalence, 8, 56 prevalence of tobacco use, 56-57, 75, 262 Withdrawal symptoms, 30, 35, 37, 45 after cessation of use, 33, 31, 42, 50 Women as advertising targets, 116 lifetime medical costs, 5 prevalence of use, 78 smokeless tobacco use, 3, 8 Workplaces, tobacco-free policies, 22, 88-90, 98, 282 World Health Organization, tar reduction policy, 250 Y Years of potential life lost, 3 Youth access laws, 200-205, 207, 220-222, 285 age limits, 223-224, 285 circumvention of, 19 community involvement, 167, 219-220, 285 education programs, 167, 202-203, 219, 285 enforcement and compliance, 17, 19, 167, 201-202, 210, 222, 227, 284, 285 model law, 203-204, 213, 220, 224 penalties under, 220, 222-223, 285 proposed federal information agency, 210, 284 research needs, 19, 226-227, 285 self-service display bans, 19, 214-215, 284 single cigarette sale bans, 216, 284-285 Synar Amendment, 199, 204-205, 207-208, 213, 221, 224, 246 vending machine restrictions, 19, 212-214, 284 Youth organizations, tobacco-free policies, 92-93, 98, 282 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 13, 43-44, 159