dren and Families at Teachers College and the Adolescent Study Program at Teachers College and the St. Luke-Roosevelt Hospital Center of Columbia University. A developmental psychologist, she received an Ed.M. degree from Harvard University and a Ph.D. degree from the University of Pennsylvania. Her specialty is policy-oriented research focusing on familial influences on children's development—achievement, psychological well-being, school and behavioral problems—and intervention efforts aimed at ameliorating the developmental delays seen in poor and at-risk children.

CONSTANCE F. CITRO (Study Director) is a member of the staff of the Committee on National Statistics. She is a former vice president and deputy director of Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., and was an American Statistical Association/National Science Foundation (NSF) research fellow at the Bureau of the Census. For the Committee on National Statistics, she has served or is currently serving as study director for the Panel on Retirement Income Modeling, the Panel to Evaluate the Survey of Income and Program Participation, the Panel to Evaluate Microsimulation Models for Social Welfare Programs, the Panel to Study the NSF Scientific and Technical Personnel Data System, and the Panel on Decennial Census Methodology. Her research has focused on the usefulness and accessibility of large, complex microdata files, as well as analysis related to income measurement and demographic change. She is a fellow of the American Statistical Association. She received a B.A. degree from the University of Rochester and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in political science from Yale University.

JOHN F. COGAN is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution and teaches in the Public Policy Program at Stanford University. Previously, he was an associate economist at the Rand Corporation. He has spent considerable time in pubic service beginning in 1981: as assistant secretary for policy in the U.S. Department of Labor and, subsequently, as associate director for economics and government, associate director for human resources, and deputy director at the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. He also served as a member of the U.S. Bipartisan Commission on Comprehensive Health Care (Pepper Commission) and the Social Security "Notch" Commission. He is now pursuing research in the areas of the U.S. budget and fiscal policy, income distribution, and the role of the congressional budget process and its impact on fiscal policy. He received A.B. and Ph.D. degrees in economics from the University of California at Los Angeles.

SHELDON H. DANZIGER is professor of social work and public policy, faculty associate in population studies, and director of the Research and Training Program on Poverty, the Underclass, and Public Policy at the University of Michigan. He received a B.A. degree from Columbia University and a Ph.D. degree in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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