Index

A

Abdominal simulators and models, 397, 398, 400, 401

Acoustetron, 148

Acoustic trackers, 51, 199-200, 203

Actuators, 6, 63, 80, 81, 310-313

Adaptation and readaptation, 43-44, 71, 102, 103, 104, 112, 143-144, 147-148, 159, 207, 219

Additive synthesis, 154-155

Adoptive Control of Thought (ACT) theory, 106

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 235, 363, 385, 390

Advanced Technology Program, 84

Advanced Unmanned Search System (AUSS), 323

Aerospace applications, 389, 392-395, 435

Airline Travel Information Service (ATIS), 235-236

American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 366

American Textile Partnership (AMTEX), 390

Anatomical modeling, 38, 69-70, 395, 396-397, 398-399, 400-401, 404-405

Anchored instruction, 424n, 429, 431

Apparel CIM Center, 391

Applications, 3-4, 15, 35-37, 68-71, 381-385.

See also Defense applications;

Design, manufacturing, and marketing;

Education applications;

Entertainment and games;

Hazardous operations;

Information visualization;

Medical and health care applications;

Scientific visualization;

Telecommunications;

Teletravel;

Training applications

Architectural visualization, 57, 251, 271, 388, 389

aerospace applications, 394-395

for disabled persons, 403-404

Argonne National Laboratory, 176, 406

Argo submersible vehicle, 412

Arm movements, 188-189, 209-210



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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges Index A Abdominal simulators and models, 397, 398, 400, 401 Acoustetron, 148 Acoustic trackers, 51, 199-200, 203 Actuators, 6, 63, 80, 81, 310-313 Adaptation and readaptation, 43-44, 71, 102, 103, 104, 112, 143-144, 147-148, 159, 207, 219 Additive synthesis, 154-155 Adoptive Control of Thought (ACT) theory, 106 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 235, 363, 385, 390 Advanced Technology Program, 84 Advanced Unmanned Search System (AUSS), 323 Aerospace applications, 389, 392-395, 435 Airline Travel Information Service (ATIS), 235-236 American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 366 American Textile Partnership (AMTEX), 390 Anatomical modeling, 38, 69-70, 395, 396-397, 398-399, 400-401, 404-405 Anchored instruction, 424n, 429, 431 Apparel CIM Center, 391 Applications, 3-4, 15, 35-37, 68-71, 381-385. See also Defense applications; Design, manufacturing, and marketing; Education applications; Entertainment and games; Hazardous operations; Information visualization; Medical and health care applications; Scientific visualization; Telecommunications; Teletravel; Training applications Architectural visualization, 57, 251, 271, 388, 389 aerospace applications, 394-395 for disabled persons, 403-404 Argonne National Laboratory, 176, 406 Argo submersible vehicle, 412 Arm movements, 188-189, 209-210

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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges Artistic expression, 382, 383-384 Ascension Bird sensor, 193, 194 Astrophysics, 436 Asynchronous mode technology (ATM), 364, 367 Atomic force microscopes (AFMs), 313 AT&T, 175, 364, 365, 439 Attitudes, 45, 108, 109 Auditory channel, 23, 46, 48-50, 79, 80, 82, 134-144, 248, 249 in anatomical modeling, 70 in augmented-reality systems, 145, 153 display and hardware, 23, 47, 48-49, 134, 136-137, 141, 144-153, 159 information transfer rates, 96, 135-136 movement and directional cues, 214, 225-226, 229, 442 resolution, 94, 135 scene analysis, 50, 141-143 and sensory substitution, 50, 95, 100, 143-144, 159 synthetic display, 49, 50, 153-159, 160 in training applications, 415 Augmented-reality systems, 2, 19-21, 95, 145, 153, 432 image registration and alignment, 5, 15, 48, 74, 75, 79, 404 medical applications, 38, 397, 398-399, 400-401, 404, 436 in production line, 37, 393-394 software, 5, 60, 79, 275-276, 295-296 AutoCAD, 273 AutoDesk Cyberspace project, 426-427 Automobile industry, 389-390, 394 Autonomic nervous system, 240-243 Autonomous agents, 5, 22, 60, 77, 79-80, 281-286, 413 in teleoperations, 306, 354, 361 AUTOSEVOCOM network, 439 Autostereoscopic displays, 121, 124-128, 132 B Behavioral therapy, 404 Binocular vision, 118 Biocybernetic controllers, 402 Boeing, 392, 393-394 BOOM viewers, 130, 132, 192 Boston Computer Museum, 426 Brain activity, 243-245 Bulk transport, 411-412 Bulletin board systems, 427 C CAD, see Computer-aided design CAE Electronics, 128 CAM, see Computer-aided manufacturing Canada, 355, 383, 408, 417 Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), 324 Cathode ray tubes (CRTs), 122, 123, 124, 132 CAVE display system, 152-153, 428, 442 Celesco Transducer Products, 200 Charged-couple device (CCD) arrays, 194, 197, 204 Children's Hospital, Boston, 403 Chrysler Corp., 389 CIM, see Computer-integrated manufacturing Circuit design, 436, 440 Circular vection, 213 Clean-room operations, 408 Coding systems, 96-97 Cognitive function, 99, 243 Cognitive models, 4, 44-45, 71, 72, 93, 99, 105-107, 110 training applications, 45, 71, 106, 110, 418-419 Collaboration, 97 in design and manufacturing, 387, 388, 389, 392, 393, 437 distributed, 42, 437-441 interdisciplinary, 13-14, 65, 85-86, 375 learning, 425

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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges Collision, 156-157, 185, 326-328, 394, 407 Color Sim Eye, 129 Comfort, see Ergonomics and comfort issues Communications, see Networks and distributed systems; Telecommunications Competition and market forces, 8-9, 86, 88 Compression algorithms, 256-257 Computer-aided design (CAD), 59, 273, 295, 384, 387 aerospace, 392-394 Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), 37, 387 Computer-assisted tomography (CT), 397, 400 Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM), 387, 391 Computers, see Hardware technologies; Software Concurrent model, 259 Consortia, 64, 389-390 Constructionism, 424-425 Continuous motion illusion, 94-95 Contrast sensitivity function (CSF), 117-118 Convolvotron, 148, 149 Coriolis forces, 208, 209, 210, 221 Cost-effectiveness, 36, 37, 65, 67, 374, 375 educational applications, 41, 429-430 and human performance characteristics, 43, 94, 110 medical applications, 405 teleoperator systems, 39, 412-413 training applications, 40, 70, 415, 416, 422 Crossover model, 98 Cruise missiles, 411 CURV remote vehicle, 412 CyberFace, 128, 129, 130 D DataGlove, 177, 242, 314, 403-404, 463 DataSuit, 177, 403 Decision-making, 432 modeling, 45, 98-99 Defense applications, 36, 73, 87, 128-129, 382, 384-385 networks, 36, 63-64, 83, 363, 369-370, 385, 439 teleoperator systems, 36, 305, 320-321, 384, 411, 438 Defense Simulation Internet, 363, 370 Definitions, see Terminology and definitions Deleterious effects, see Motion sickness; Psychological issues, side effects; Sopite syndrome Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA), 390 Department of Defense (DOD), 87, 320, 363, 384-385 Department of Energy (DOE), 86, 87, 390, 406 Depth perception, 118, 119-120 Design, manufacturing, and marketing, 3, 37-38, 68, 384, 387-395 collaboration and data sharing, 387, 388, 389, 392, 393, 437 shopping vignette, 26-28 see also Aerospace applications; Production lines; Prototypes; Textile industry Dextrous Arm, 309, 312 Dextrous Hand, 177, 242, 313, 314, 315 Dextrous Teleoperation System Master, 176 Disability and rehabilitation, 38-39, 100, 402-404 education applications, 107, 431n physiological interfaces, 239, 242, 245, 402-403 psychological, 39, 404 tactile communication aids, 169, 177

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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges Discomfort, see Ergonomics and comfort issues Displays, see Auditory channel; Force-feedback display systems; Graphical displays and imaging; Haptic channel; Head-mounted display systems; Off-head displays; See-through displays; Spatial display and resolution; Tactile information and feedback; Visual channel Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS), 64, 385 Distributed systems, see Networks and distributed systems Dynamic time warping (DTW), 232-233 E Earphones, 23, 47, 49, 138-139, 145-149 Education applications, 3-4, 40-41, 68-69, 423-432 cognitive modeling, 45, 71, 110 in entertainment domain, 41, 69, 107, 423, 427, 430, 431 medical, 69-70, 395, 396-397 networks, 40, 69, 107, 425-426, 438 research agenda, 430-432 vignette, 28-32 see also Training applications Electrochromic polymers, 124 Electrodermal activity (EDA), 242-243 Electromagnetic sensors, 317 Electromyography (EMG), 242 Electronic Visualization Laboratory, 152, 436 Electrostatic actuators, 312 Electrotactile displays, 177 Emotional response, 240-241 Emu Morpheus Synthesizer, 158 Endoscopy, 398, 399 Engineering applications, 387, 394, 434-435 Enhancing distortions, 44, 48, 71, 93, 103, 119-120, 409 Entertainment and games, 3, 4, 15, 35-36, 46, 67, 381, 382-383 education applications, 41, 69, 107, 423, 427, 430, 431 networks, 63, 88, 363, 365, 372, 383 role-playing, 45, 109, 427, 431 violence in, 45, 109, 383 Ergonomics and comfort issues, 3, 47, 67, 94, 110, 239-240 haptic interfaces, 175-176, 186 head-mounted displays, 47, 73, 104-105, 121, 131, 437 Ethernet, 64, 366 Europe, 16, 383 Evaluation and testing, 7, 65-66, 83-84, 373-378 cost-effectiveness, 37, 65, 374, 375 interfaces, 75, 375, 376-378 position-tracking devices, 204 standardization, 7, 83, 84, 378 teleoperations, 337-338, 345-346 training applications, 70, 374, 375, 415, 416, 420, 421-422 Evans & Sutherland, 299, 302 Event-driven model, 258-259 Event-related potentials (ERPs), 243 EXOS, 177, 242, 314 Exoskeleton, 52, 172, 173-174, 176-177, 178, 180 Explosive ordnance disposal, 411 EYEGEN3, 129 EyePhone, 128, 129, 417 Eyes, see Visual channel F Facilities design, see Production lines Fake Space labs, 128, 130, 192 Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET), 387-388 Federal research and development, 8, 16, 76-77, 79, 86-87, 381-382 Fiber Channel, 367 Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), 64-65, 366 Fidelity, 45, 376, 419, 421

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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges Field of view, 73, 117, 121, 132 Firefighting and fire rescue, 246, 410-411, 413, 420-421 Fixation point, 112, 113 Flicker, 117 Flight simulators, 210, 220-222, 251, 271-272, 414, 416, 420 Force-feedback display systems, 16, 23-24, 52-53, 172, 173-176, 178, 184, 394, 436 sensory substitution in, 100 in teleoperator systems, 332, 333-334, 355-356, 409 tracking in, 189, 193 Ford Motor Co., 389 Fovea, 48, 112, 114, 115 Frame rates, 57, 117, 249-250, 287-288 Freedom graphics hardware, 299, 302 Frequency modulation (FM), 155, 157 Functional fidelity, 419 G Galvanic skin reflex (GSR), 242 Games, see Entertainment and games GAMS tracker, 199-200 General Electric, 128 General Motors, 389 General relativity, 435-436 Geometric modeling, 273-275, 294-295 Georgia Institute of Technology, 404 Germany, 16, 408, 409 Glasses, see Head-mounted display systems Gloves, 52, 177, 180, 191-193, 199, 417, 421 DataGlove, 177, 242, 314, 403-404, 463 Goniometers, 51, 191-192, 202 Government policy and infrastructure, 8-9, 84-88 GP8-3D tracker, 199, 200 Graphical displays and imaging, 42, 56, 77, 111, 249-250 hardware, 57-58, 251-261, 296-303, 394, 430 medical applications, 38, 395, 398, 404 in teleoperation systems, 81-82, 344-345, 407, 409 see also Augmented-reality systems; Information visualization Graphics, Visualization, and Usability Center, 404 Graphic user interface (GUI), 264, 265, 266 Greenleaf Medical Systems, 403 Green Telepresence system, 401-402 GROPE project, 176, 436 Ground-based linkage devices, 51, 52, 173-174, 175-176, 192-193, 203 in robotics, 309 Gustatory channel, 23, 55, 245 GyroChip, 200 GyroEngine, 200 H Hand tracking, 188-189, 192, 193, 266-267 Haptic channel, 5, 16, 23, 46, 52-53, 72, 74, 161-174, 248-249 hand and arm tracking, 188-189, 192, 193, 266-267 hardware development, 53, 174-177, 180-182, 184-185, 186, 394 illusions, 95, 166, 209 information transfer rates, 96-97 in medical applications, 70, 398, 399, 404 sensorimotor resolution, 94, 177 and sensory substitution, 100, 186 software development, 53, 79, 80, 178-180, 185 in telecommunications, 42 teleoperator systems, 52, 62, 81, 176, 177, 179-180, 189, 304, 305, 315-317, 345 see also Augmented-reality systems; Information visualization Hardware technologies, 3, 5, 57-58, 67, 75-76, 251-261, 289-290

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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges auditory channel, 23, 47, 48-49, 134, 136-137, 141, 144-153, 159 computation and data management capability, 254-260, 290 graphics, 57-58, 251-261, 296-303, 394, 430 haptic, 53, 174-177, 180-182, 184-185, 186, 394 networks, 367, 370-371 telerobotics, 6, 62-63, 80-81, 349-353, 359-360 training applications, 415, 421 Hazardous operations, 39, 100, 405-412 research agenda, 3, 68, 412-413 telerobotics, 4, 39, 46, 102, 304, 305, 381, 405-413, 438, 441 see also Firefighting and fire rescue; Security applications; Space applications; Underwater applications Hazardous waste disposal, 406-407 Head-mounted display (HMD) systems, 23, 47-48, 73, 104, 120-121, 123, 128-130, 131, 426 auditory, 23, 47, 49, 138-139, 145-149 in augmented-reality systems, 47, 73, 121, 393, 394, 397 comfort issues, 47, 73, 104-105, 121, 131, 437 in entertainment, 35-36, 47, 73 ergonomics issues, 47, 73, 104-105, 121, 131, 437 and motion sickness, 208-209, 215 in scientific visualization, 436, 437 see-through glasses, 47, 73, 119, 440, 441, 442 Head movement and tracking, 47, 59, 121, 131, 151, 189-190, 193, 201, 207-209, 912 Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), 147-148, 159 Health care, see Medical and health care applications; Telemedicine Heat, 55, 245, 246 Heavy machinery, 305, 409 HELIOS, 353 Hidden Markov modeling (HMM), 232-233, 234, 235, 236-237 High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program, 15, 64, 84, 364-365 High-performance parallel interface (HPPI), 366-367 Holographic displays, 124, 125, 127-128 Hubbell telescope, 420 Human Interface Technology (HIT) Laboratory, 124, 426 Human-machine interface, 1, 4-5, 21, 46-47, 72-75 in production lines, 389 in rehabilitation systems, 38-39, 402-403 in teleoperator systems, 17-18, 21-22, 305-307, 329-330 in virtual environment systems, 2, 18, 21-22 see also Auditory channel; Gloves; Haptic channel; Head-mounted display systems; Locomotion interfaces; Multimodal interfaces; Off-head displays; Visual channel Human operator models, 43, 97-100 Human performance characteristics, 3, 15, 43, 65, 67, 375, 376-378, 392, 393 information transfer rates, 43, 95-97 manual control, 43, 93, 97-99 research needs, 4, 71, 110, 422 sensorimotor resolution, 43, 94-95, 99-100, 104 see also Illusions; Sensorimotor loop alterations Humidity, 55, 245 Hydraulic actuators, 312 Hypermedia integration, 61, 286-287 I IC Sensors, 200 Identical elements, 418

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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges Illusions, 43, 94-95, 264 haptic channel, 95, 166, 209 whole-body motion, 95, 206-207, 213-215 Imaging, see Augmented-reality systems; Graphical displays and imaging; Information visualization Incarceration, 43, 441 Inertial tracking, 51, 74, 200-201, 203-204 Information transfer rates, 43, 95-97 auditory channel, 96, 135-136 visual channel, 96, 112 Information visualization, 3, 4, 41-42, 68, 69, 251, 254, 256, 384, 432-433 cognitive modeling, 45, 71, 110 scientific, 42, 45, 433-437 Infrared light emitting diodes (IREDS), 194, 195 Integrated Services Local Area Network Interface, 65 Intel Corporation, 426 Intelligent tutors, 106, 282 Interdisciplinary cooperation, 13-14, 65, 85-86, 375 and communication difficulties, 2, 14, 17, 86 Interface, see Force-feedback display systems; Human-machine interface; Locomotion interfaces Interior design, 388, 389 International competition, 15-17, 390 Internet, 64, 364, 365, 368, 427 J Japan, 16-17, 128, 176, 383, 408 Jason remote vehicle, 412, 425-426 Joints, 165-167, 171, 191-192, 202 robotic, 6, 81, 308-310, 314-316, 360 Joysticks, 23, 52, 172, 173, 175-176, 180 K Kaiser Electronics, 128, 129 KEMAR mannequin, 148 Kinematics, 308-310 Kinesthetics and proprioception, 100, 163-164, 165-167, 170, 171, 226-227 Knowledge, see Cognitive models Kopin, Inc., 123-124 L Laparoscopic surgery, 38, 398, 400 Laser interferometers, 198-199, 203 Laser radar (LADAR), 194, 197-198, 203, 327 Laser scanning, 60, 124, 194, 196-199, 203, 274, 295 Learning, see Cognitive models; Education applications; Training applications LEEP Optics Systems, 128, 130 Lenticular displays, 124-125 Libraries and data bases, 85, 261-262, 362, 399 Limb position and motion, 99, 165-167, 171, 202 Linear operator models, 98 Linear vection, 213-214 Link Trainer, 414 Liquid crystal displays (LCDs), 122, 123, 124 Loading equipment, 409, 411-412 Local-area networks (LANs), 64-65, 366-367 Locomotion interfaces, 5, 54-55, 72, 74, 205, 206, 211-212, 223-224, 228-229 Loma Linda University Medical Center, 402, 403 Loudspeakers, 49, 145, 151-153 Lunakhod lunar rover, 407-408 Lunar operations, 407-408 M Magnetic bearings and levitation, 311-312 Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), 245

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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 243, 244-245, 397, 400 Magnetic tracking, 51, 193-194, 203 Magnification, 44, 103, 116-117, 144 Manipulation, 52, 162-163, 172, 207 Manipulators, robotic, 20, 307-317, 347-348, 406, 407, 408, 409-410, 413, 436 Manual control and tracking, 43, 93, 97-101 Manufacturing, see Design, manufacturing, and marketing Marker systems, 194-195 Marketing, see Design, manufacturing, and marketing Massachusetts General Hospital, 245 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 123, 127, 128, 175, 176, 178, 201 Measurement Systems Inc., 175 Mechatronics, 334 Medical and health care applications, 38-39, 395-405 accreditation, 399-400 computational models, 85 imaging, 38, 395, 397, 398, 398-399, 400-401, 404, 436 planning, 400 research agenda, 3, 68, 69-70, 404-405 training, 38, 69-70, 395, 396-400, 414, 416 see also Disability and rehabilitation; Telemedicine Medical College of Georgia, 401 Merged display effects, 73, 95 Meta-modeling, 78 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), 6, 63, 180, 185, 312-313 Microrobotics, 63, 80, 81, 176, 312-313, 402 MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) technology, 157, 158 Military uses, see Defense applications Millimeter wave (MMW) radar, 326-327 Mining applications, 409, 413 Mobile Detection Assessment and Response System (MDARS), 322-323 Mobile robots, 317-330, 406 Mock-ups, see Prototypes; Simulator systems Modeling software, 5, 59-60, 77, 78, 85, 272-281, 294-296, 369 Molecular modeling, 436 MOOs (MUD, object-oriented), 427 Motion blur, 113 Motion sickness, 94, 103, 104, 110, 121, 206, 207-209, 215-220, 229-230 Motivation, 107-108, 424, 429 MUDs (multi-user dungeons), 109, 427 Muller-Lyer illusion, 95 Multiaxis high-resolution tactile sensors, 6, 80, 80-81, 359 Multimedia, see Hypermedia integration Multimodal interfaces, 3, 37, 53, 67, 71, 72, 76, 77, 78, 82, 133, 247-249, 287-289 merged display effects, 73, 95 modeling of, 179-181, 185 in telerobotics, 61 MUSE (multi-user simulation environment), 427 Music, 135-136, 154, 157-158 N Nanomanipulator, 436 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 64, 87, 128, 140, 222, 362, 401, 420, 427 National Board of Medical Examiners, 400 National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 428, 436 National Council for Teachers of Mathematics, 431 National defense, see Defense applications National information infrastructure, 8, 84-85

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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges National Institute of Standards and Technology, 84 National Institutes of Health, 244, 396 National Research and Education Network (NREN), 64, 364-365, 366-367 National Science and Technology Council, 84 National standards and regulations, 8, 87-88 National Television Standard Code (NTSC), 129 Naval Ocean Systems Center, 128, 176 Navigation, 5, 59, 77, 79, 267-272, 293-294, 324-326 Navlab, 324 Negative transfer, 418, 420 Networks and distributed systems, 15, 63-65, 362-363 collaborative, 42, 384, 437-441, 439, 440-441 defense applications, 36, 63-64, 83, 363, 369-370, 385, 439 education applications, 40, 69, 107, 425, 425-426, 438 entertainment, 63, 88, 363, 365, 372, 383 hardware, 367, 370-371 research agenda, 6-7, 82-83, 370-372 software, 64, 369-370, 371-372 standards, 7, 64, 65, 82, 82-83, 364, 366, 368, 372 telerobotics, 6, 62, 63, 64, 80, 81-82 vignette, 32-33 see also Telemedicine Neural stimulation, 56, 239 Noise, see Signal variation and noise Nonanthropomorphic robots, 44, 71, 93, 103 Northern Digital, 195 NPSNET system, 274, 284-286, 370, 371 Nuclear power facilities, 406, 416, 441 Nuclear waste disposal, 406 O Ocean, see Underwater applications Odetics 3D Laser Imaging System, 198 Off-ground environments, 409-410 Off-head displays (OHDs), 47-48, 49, 73, 104, 120, 121-122, 130, 131, 132, 151-153 Off-shore oil operations, 412 Olfactory channel, 23, 55, 245, 246 Open-system environment, 79 Operating systems, 61, 77, 78-79, 291-292 telerobotics, 353-354 Optical technologies, 51, 60, 74, 75, 124, 194-199, 203, 274, 295, 317. See also Visual channel Optic nerve model, 396-397 Optimal control model, 98 Optotrak, 195-196 Orientation (body), 212-213 P Pacific Science Center, 426 Packet switching, 363, 365, 371 Parallax barrier displays, 124-126 Parallel computing, 58, 257-258, 260, 290 in teleoperations, 81-82, 351-353, 358 Paramount Communication, 383 Passive stereo vision systems, 194 Patient counseling, 38, 69, 70 PER-Force hand controller, 176 Personal computers (PCs), 260-261, 350-351 PHANTOM interface device, 176, 178 Photodiodes, 194, 195 Physical fidelity, 419 Physiological responses and interfaces, 56, 75, 99, 239-245 PixelFlow, 299, 302-303 Pixel Planes, 299, 302 Play facilities, 41, 404, 427 Pneumatic actuators, 312 Polhemus Fastrak, 193, 246

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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges Police operations, 411 Polygon flow minimization, 269-272 Polygon processing, 58 Position mapping, 50, 190, 262-264, 392 Position-sensing detectors (PSDs), 194, 195 Position-tracking systems, 5, 50-51, 59, 74-75, 188-204, 262-263 acoustic, 51, 199-200, 203 in augmented-reality production line, 394 eye movements, 48, 51-52, 112-113, 115, 117, 132, 189, 201, 204 head movements, 47, 121, 131, 151, 189-190, 193, 201, 912 inertial, 51, 74, 200-201, 203-204 magnetic, 51, 193-194, 203 mechanical, 51, 74, 190-193, 202-203 optical sensing, 51, 74, 75, 194-199, 203 in teleoperation systems, 62, 411-412 Positron emission tomography (PET), 243, 244-245 Power line maintenance, 409-410 Predictive displays, 6, 19, 80, 355-356, 371, 408-409 Production lines, 388, 389-390 augmented-reality systems, 37, 393-394 textile industry, 391 Proprioception, see Kinesthetics and proprioception Prostheses, 242 Prototypes, 37-38, 388-389 aerospace, 392-395 Psychological issues, 4, 40, 43-46, 71-72, 93-110 side effects, 4, 33-35, 45-46, 66, 71, 72, 108-109, 110, 377-378 see also Cognitive models; Human performance characteristics; Motivation; Sensorimotor loop alterations Public opinion and support, 84-85 educational applications, 41, 430 hazardous operations applications, 39 medical applications, 405 Pupil dilation, 241, 243 Pursuit tracking, 98, 99 R Rasterization, 253-254 Reality Built for Two (RB2) system, 274, 402 RealityEngine (RE2), 58, 254, 298-301 Real-time interaction, 2, 18, 77, 250, 254-260, 408, 434-435 haptic interfaces, 78, 185 in teleoperations, 6, 62-63, 80, 346-354, 357-358 Registration and alignment, 5, 15, 48, 74, 75, 79, 275-276, 295-296, 404 Rehabilitation, see Disability and rehabilitation Remote Manipulator System (RMS), 308, 332, 408, 409 Remote operations, see Teleoperator systems and telerobotics Representation, simulation, and rendering (RSR) techniques, 272-273 Research agenda, 2-3, 66-68 applications, 3-4, 68-71 computer generation, 5-6, 75-80, 289-296 evaluation, 83-84 human-machine interfaces, 4-5, 72-75 networks, 6-7, 82-83, 370-372 psychological issues, 4, 71-72, 110 telerobotics, 6, 80-82, 354-361 Response bias, 95, 104 Risk tolerance, 108-109 Robotics, see Teleoperator systems and telerobotics Rockwell International, 392 Rocky III, 322 Role-playing games, 45, 109, 427, 431 ROTEX, 311, 315, 317, 355, 408, 409 Run-time software architecture, 258-260

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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges S Sand play, 404 Sarcos, Inc., 176, 309, 312 Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), 313, 436 SCARA robot, 308 Scientific visualization, 42, 45, 433-437 Security applications, 63, 322-323, 411, 441 See-through displays, 20, 47, 73, 117, 119, 404, 440, 441, 442 Self-image, 108-109, 378 Selspot, 195 Sense8, 262, 426 Sensorimotor loop alterations, 43-44, 103-104 adaptation and readaptation, 43-44, 71, 102, 103, 104, 147-148, 159 enhancing distortions, 44, 71, 93, 103 multimodal interfaces, 71, 72 research needs, 4, 71, 72, 110 subjective telepresence, 22, 44, 45, 71, 101-103, 181 technology deficiency and distortions, 44, 71, 94, 103-104, 230 see also Illusions; Sopite syndrome Sensors (telerobotic), 6, 17-18, 62-63, 80-81, 313-317, 407, 409, 413 force, 6, 80, 81, 315-316, 317, 360 joint motion and torque, 314-315 navigational, 324-326 proximity, 6, 80, 359 Sensory modeling, 99-100 Sensory substitution, 44, 50, 71, 100-101, 159 auditory, 50, 95, 100, 143-144, 159 haptic channel, 100, 186 Sentry robots, 411 Shape memory alloys (SMAs), 180, 185, 313 Shared workspaces, 440-441 Sherlock computer system, 106 SIGGRAPH conference, 199, 383-384 Signal variation and noise, 43, 44, 48, 77, 95-96, 103-104, 230 haptic channel, 172, 178 Silicon Graphics, 58, 254, 261, 298, 299, 300 SIMNET battle simulation, 63-64, 274, 282, 363, 369-370, 372, 385 Simulation frameworks, 5, 78, 294 Simulation loops, 258 Simulator systems, 2, 14, 22-23 educational applications, 427-428 training applications, 40, 356, 413-414, 415, 416, 420, 421-422 Situated cognition, 424n Slice-stacking displays, 125, 126-127 Social and ethical issues, 9, 43, 88, 378 Social interaction and influence, 108, 109, 440 Software, 3, 5-6, 67, 76-80, 261, 291-296 augmented-reality systems, 5, 60, 79, 275-276, 295-296 autonomous agents, 5, 22, 60, 77, 79-80, 281-286, 413 communications, 64, 369-370, 371-372 hypermedia integration, 61, 286-287 interaction, 58-59, 261-267, 292-293 modeling, 5, 59-60, 77, 78, 85, 272-281, 294-296, 369 navigation, 5, 59, 77, 79, 267-272, 293-294 operating system, 61, 77, 78-79, 291-292 training applications, 415, 421 Sonet standard, 364 Sonification, 136, 158 Sopite syndrome, 44, 47, 48, 71, 116, 220, 377 Sound, see Auditory channel Space applications, 87, 308, 332, 354, 362, 407-409 Space Automation/Robotics Consortium, 64 Spatial display and resolution, 37, 44, 94, 116, 265, 426-427

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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges auditory, 49-50, 137-140, 144, 146-151, 159 tactile, 169-170, 171, 172, 184-185 Spatiotemporal blur, 113 Speech, 75, 96, 135-136, 142 recognition, 55-56, 231, 232-237 synthesis, 20, 55, 56, 154, 231-232, 237-238, 403 SRI International, 401 Standards, 8, 87-88 networks, 7, 64, 65, 82-83, 364, 366, 368, 372 Star Trek game, 383 Statistical variation, see Signal variation and noise Stereo displays, 48, 117, 119-120, 121, 133, 194, 196, 203, 275, 442 Stereographics Corp., 128, 130 Structured light systems, 196-197 Subtractive synthesis, 155, 156 Supervisory control, 6, 80, 81, 306, 307, 338-346, 354, 413 Surgery and anatomical modeling, 69-70, 396, 397, 398-399, 400-401, 404 planning, 38, 400-401 training, 25-26, 38, 395, 398-399, 405 Surveyor lunar rover, 407-408 Switched multimegabit data service (SMDS), 364 Sympathetic nervous response, 240 Synthetic environment (SE) systems, definition, 1n, 2, 13, 21 Systron Donner, 200 T Tactile information and feedback, 99-100, 163-164, 165, 167-171, 177, 179, 180, 184-185, 392 communication aids, 169, 177 robotic sensors, 316-317, 359 see also Force-feedback display systems; Haptic channel Technology Academy Program, 426 Technology Innovation Group, 128, 129 Technology Reinvestment Program (TRP), 292 Telecommunications, 3, 4, 42, 43, 68, 69, 437-443 research agenda, 442-443 see also Networks and distributed systems Telecommuting, 438, 439 Teleconferences, 42, 439, 440, 442 Telemedicine, 38, 395 communication networks, 38, 64, 395, 401, 405, 437-438 surgical applications, 38, 80, 305, 308, 381, 395, 401-402, 405, 437 TeleOperated Vehicle (TOV), 320-321 Teleoperator systems and telerobotics, 6, 14, 21-22, 42-43, 61-63, 304-307, 441-442 autonomous agents, 306, 354, 361 cost-effectiveness, 39, 412-413 defense applications, 36, 305, 320-321, 384, 411, 438 definition, 1-2, 13, 17-19 distributed and networked, 6, 62, 63, 64, 80, 81-82 haptic interfaces, 52, 62, 81, 176, 177, 179-180, 189, 304, 305, 315-317, 345 hardware development, 6, 62-63, 80-81, 349-353, 359-360 in hazardous operations, 4, 39, 46, 102, 304, 305, 381, 405-413, 438, 441 low-level control, 330-338, 347-348 microrobotics, 63, 80, 81, 176, 312-313, 402 nonanthropomorphic models, 44, 71, 93, 103 remote vehicles, 317-330, 406 research agenda, 6, 80-82, 354-361 tracking, 62, 411-412 see also Sensors (telerobotic); Telemedicine Telepresence, 22, 44, 45, 71, 101-103, 181, 377

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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges Teletravel, 3, 4, 42-43, 68, 69, 437-443 and distributed collaboration, 439, 440-441 educational applications, 40, 107, 425-426, 438 Terminology and definitions, 13, 17-24 difficulties with, 2, 14, 17 Testing, see Evaluation and testing Texas Instruments, 126 Textile industry, 389, 390-392 shopping vignette, 26-28 Time delays, 44, 57, 58, 77-78, 103-104, 250, 288 in auditory channel systems, 140 intermodal, 288 position tracking, 205-206 in scientific visualization, 436-437 in telerobotics, 6, 62, 80, 335-336, 344, 355-356, 408 in visual channel systems, 48, 117-118 Tonic vibration reflex, 214 Tool-handle interfaces, 52, 74, 173, 180-181 Touch, see Force-feedback display systems; Haptic channel; Tactile information and feedback Toxic materials and environments, 406-407 Training applications, 39-40, 87, 384-385, 392, 413-418 cognitive modeling, 45, 71, 106, 110, 418-419 evaluation, 70, 374, 375, 415, 416, 420, 421-422 hazardous operations, 39, 415 medical, 38, 395, 398-400, 414, 416 research agenda, 3, 4, 68, 69, 70-71, 422-423 transfer, 40, 45, 69, 70-71, 385, 417-422 see also Education applications; Flight simulators Transport delays, see Time delays Treadmills, 55, 211, 223-224, 228-229 U Ultrasonic technology, 199-200, 317, 397, 436 Underground storage facilities, 406-407 Underwater applications, 304, 319, 321, 323, 327-328, 355, 362, 409 educational, 425-426 military, 411 United Technologies, 390 University of Illinois, 152, 428, 436 University of Michigan, 390 University of Minnesota, 417 University of North Carolina (UNC), 128, 176, 290, 299, 302, 389, 397, 436 University of Washington, 128, 426 UNIX, 61, 78, 291, 293, 353, 354, 368, 371 Unmanned Ground Vehicle Program, 320 Update rates, 117, 140, 287-288 User interface, see Ergonomics and comfort issues; Human-machine interface V Variable gravity displays, 222-223 Velocity storage, 218 Vertigo, 212-213 Very large scale integrated (VLSI) technologies, 123, 236 Vestibular displays, 226 Vibration, 169, 170-171, 177, 184 Viking deep-space probe, 408 Violence, 45, 109, 383 Virtex CyberGlove, 177 Virtual actor, 60, 282 see also Autonomous agents Virtual environment (VE) systems, definition, 1-2, 13, 18-19, 22-23 Virtual reality (VR) systems, definition, 1n, 13 Virtual Research, 128, 129 Virtual Spacetime, 435-436

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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges Visible Human, 396 Visual channel, 5, 23, 46, 47-48, 57, 70, 72, 73-74, 91, 95, 111-120, 415 ambient system, 115-116 in augmented-reality systems, 48, 95, 117, 118-119 color, 113-114, 392 display resolution and distortion, 47, 48, 57, 73, 94, 113-114, 116-118, 119-120, 132 display technologies, 122-131, 276-281 eye movement and tracking, 48, 51-52, 112-113, 115, 117, 132, 189, 201, 204 in head-mounted displays, 23, 47-48, 73, 120-121 illusions, 94-95, 264 information transfer rates, 96, 112 line of sight, 264 and movement, 213-214, 215, 224-225, 229 and sensory substitution, 50, 100 see also Information visualization VPL Research, Inc., 128, 129, 158, 177, 274, 314, 396, 402, 403, 417 VxWorks, 353 W Whole-body motion, 53-54, 55, 205-206 illusions, 95, 206-207, 213-215 inertial displays, 54, 220-222, 228 motion sickness, 215-220 noninertial displays, 54, 224-227 stability, 95, 206-207 see also Locomotion interfaces Wide-area networks (WAN), 7, 64, 65, 363-365, 405 Windows NT, 61, 78 Wind tunnels, 255-256, 435 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 412 World ToolKit, 262 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 128, 148, 222 X Xerox PARC, 440