Index

A

Altitude

collision velocities and, 88, 89

debris population growth trends, 157

distribution of debris populations by, 64-68, 76

duration of orbital lifetime and, 1, 28, 30

likelihood of collision with debris and, 4, 81-82, 85-86, 98

medium-sized debris distribution, 71-74, 76

meteoroid flux and, 84

object velocity variation, 93

small debris distribution, 74, 76

tracking ability and, 34-35

See also Orbital regions

Aluminum oxide particles, 11, 24, 75, 76, 111

Analytic/numerical impact modeling, 5, 102, 109-110, 112, 114-115, 121-122

Angle of impact, 88, 90-91, 121

Arecibo Observatory, 40, 41

Ariane launch vehicle, 137, 141, 142

Astronomical observation, 13

Atmospheric drag, 1, 20, 27-28, 36, 55-56, 70, 71, 75, 145-146

B

Ballistic limit, 109, 111, 197

Batteries, 139

Breakup(s)

collision with debris as cause of, 4, 12, 91-92, 98, 138

debris population growth and, 168-172

defined, 197

explosion model, 138-139

in GEO, distribution of debris, 149

hypervelocity test simulations, 102, 112-114

modeling, 4, 54-55, 70, 91-92, 98, 160, 168-172

numbers of, 25

radioactive materials in, 91

recommendations for prevention of, 8, 181

reducing debris from, 139-142

rocket body, 140-141, 154

as source of fragmentation debris, 25, 70, 75

test collisions, 91-92

Brem-Sat spacecraft, 47

BUMPER probability analysis code, 121

C

Cassini spacecraft, 47

Cataloging.

See Tracking and cataloging

CHAIN modeling program, 53, 163

Charge-coupled devices, 2, 37

Clementine 1 interstage adaptor, 48

Clouds of debris, 25, 55, 75-76

COBE.

See Cosmic Background Explorer



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Index A Altitude collision velocities and, 88, 89 debris population growth trends, 157 distribution of debris populations by, 64-68, 76 duration of orbital lifetime and, 1, 28, 30 likelihood of collision with debris and, 4, 81-82, 85-86, 98 medium-sized debris distribution, 71-74, 76 meteoroid flux and, 84 object velocity variation, 93 small debris distribution, 74, 76 tracking ability and, 34-35 See also Orbital regions Aluminum oxide particles, 11, 24, 75, 76, 111 Analytic/numerical impact modeling, 5, 102, 109-110, 112, 114-115, 121-122 Angle of impact, 88, 90-91, 121 Arecibo Observatory, 40, 41 Ariane launch vehicle, 137, 141, 142 Astronomical observation, 13 Atmospheric drag, 1, 20, 27-28, 36, 55-56, 70, 71, 75, 145-146 B Ballistic limit, 109, 111, 197 Batteries, 139 Breakup(s) collision with debris as cause of, 4, 12, 91-92, 98, 138 debris population growth and, 168-172 defined, 197 explosion model, 138-139 in GEO, distribution of debris, 149 hypervelocity test simulations, 102, 112-114 modeling, 4, 54-55, 70, 91-92, 98, 160, 168-172 numbers of, 25 radioactive materials in, 91 recommendations for prevention of, 8, 181 reducing debris from, 139-142 rocket body, 140-141, 154 as source of fragmentation debris, 25, 70, 75 test collisions, 91-92 Brem-Sat spacecraft, 47 BUMPER probability analysis code, 121 C Cassini spacecraft, 47 Cataloging. See Tracking and cataloging CHAIN modeling program, 53, 163 Charge-coupled devices, 2, 37 Clementine 1 interstage adaptor, 48 Clouds of debris, 25, 55, 75-76 COBE. See Cosmic Background Explorer

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Collision avoidance/warning systems, 6, 36, 43 applications to date, 125, 127 development prospects, 127-128, 131-132, 143 ground-based sensors for, 126-127 shoot-back schemes, 128 in Space Shuttle operations, 127 spacecraft-based sensors for, 125-126 spacecraft maneuverability for, 126 Collision effects accuracy of models, 160 analytical/numerical modeling, 5, 102, 109-110, 114-115 angle of impact and, 88, 90-91 breakups as, 4, 12, 91-92, 98, 138 collisional growth of debris population, 6-7, 102, 143, 158, 160-167, 172 damage scaling laws, 46 experiences to date, 12, 13 hazards to crewed missions, 95 impact conditions in determination of, 4, 88-91 impact damage scaling laws, 46 limitations in damage assessment capabilities, 46, 79, 111-114 performance deterioriation models, 97, 109 range of, 4-5, 11-12 recommendations for research, 5-6, 179 research strategies, 5, 101 structural and component damage, 4-5, 93-95, 97, 98-99, 121-122 tether damage, 97, 99 velocity and, 4, 67 vulnerability of spacecraft surface, 95-98, 99 Coolant leakage, 74, 95 Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), 25 Crewed missions impact hazards to, 95 release of mission-related debris, 136, 137 D Debris flux, definition of, 197 Debris swarms, 46, 47, 75-76 Delta rocket bodies, 140 Depletion burns, 141 Deterioration products, 25-27 Disposal orbits, 22 concerns about, 8, 152-153 location of, 148-149, 152, 153 recommendations, 9, 181-182 to reduce debris hazards, 8, 147-148, 152-153, 154 reorbiting costs, 150 Drag augmentation, 145-147 Duration of orbit. See Orbital decay E Electromagnetic rail gun, 104, 106 European Retrievable Carrier, 13, 45, 46, 74 European Space Agency, 13, 52, 121, 176, 188 EVOLVE, 53, 81-82, 158 Explorer spacecraft, 47 Explosive bolts, 24, 136 F Fragmentation debris, 198 in breakup modeling, 92, 98 current population estimates, 25 degradation products, 25-27, 75 distribution, 25, 64, 138 hypervelocity tests, 102-103 medium-sized, 70 small-sized, 75 sources of, 25 strategies for reducing, 138-142 G GEO. See Geosynchronous Earth orbit Geostationary Earth orbit, 18, 199-200 Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, 23 Geostationary transfer orbits definition, 199 ground-based optical sampling of, 39 risk of debris collision in, 87 solar-lunar perturbational forces in, 28 Geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO), 1 collision effects in, 93 collision velocities in, 90 collisional growth of debris population in, 167 definition, 18, 200 disposal orbits for, 8, 9, 148-149, 152, 154, 182

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distribution of debris in, 2, 69, 84-87 ground-based optical sampling of, 39 large debris object distribution in, 63-64, 67-69 likelihood of collision with debris in, 4, 85-87, 98 modeling of breakup debris in, 149 orbital inclination of debris in, 68-69, 86 recommendations for characterization studies, 177 space-based sampling in, 44 spacecraft design for, 23, 24, 121 spacecraft distribution in, 19 stable plane, 152 stable points, 152 uses of, 18 Global Positioning System, 19, 148 Goldstone Deepspace Communications Complex, 40, 41 Gravitational forces, 27, 28, 69, 145 H Haystack radar, 13, 40-41, 70-74, 81 Auxiliary Radar, 41-42 High Earth orbits, 18-19 definition, 199 density of debris in, 84-85 likelihood of collision with debris in, 84-87, 98 Hiten spacecraft, 47, 75 Hubble telescope, 42, 45 Hydrocode, 110, 198 Hypervelocity launcher, 104-106 Hypervelocity testing access to test data and testing facilities, 5, 6, 108, 114, 179 with analytical/numerical modeling, 5, 102, 109-110, 114-115 capabilities and techniques, 5, 103-107 design of, 102-104 dissimilar materials testing, 106-107 of fragmentation effects in breakup, 102, 112-114 hypervelocity defined, 198 limitations, 111, 114 purpose, 101-102, 114, 121 recommendations, 5-6, 179 simulated impacts, 107 spacecraft component testing, 102, 130-131 velocity capabilities, 103, 104-105, 106 velocity requirements, 103 I In situ debris sampling, 2 active measurements, 46-48 advantages, 45 basis of, 45 limitations, 45-46, 48, 57-58 opportunities for improvement, 48-49 passive measurements, 45-46 Inclination angle of impact related to, 91 collision velocities and, 88-90 definition, 198 distribution of large debris objects, 67-69 GEO stable plane, 152 likelihood of collision with debris and, 4, 82-84, 86, 98 limits of radar detection, 40 of medium-sized orbital debris, 71-74 tracking and, 35 Infrared Astronomical Satellite, 42 Infrared debris detection systems, 43 Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee, 176, 187 International Astronautical Academy, 187-188 International efforts debris reduction strategies, 8, 180 national policies and, 188 for orbital debris research, 3 for orbital debris tracking and cataloging, 3, 35, 177-178 recommendations, 3, 176, 177-178, 180 space laws, 180, 185-188 International Law Association, 187 International Space Station, 121, 125, 127 K Kosmos spacecraft, 25 L Launch vehicles, 17 Law, international, 180, 185-188 LEO. See Low Earth orbit Light gas guns, 104, 105, 107, 198 Long Duration Exposure Facility, 12, 14, 45, 46, 74, 142-143 debris impact prediction, 90-91

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debris swarms, detection by, 75-76 Interplanetary Dust Experiment, 47, 75 surface damage from debris impacts, 95, 97-98 surface degradation, 27 Low Earth orbit (LEO), 1 assessment of debris reduction proposals for, 168-169 characterizations of debris population in, 3, 34, 49-50, 57, 63, 80-81 collision effects in, 93 collision velocities in, 88-90 collisional growth of debris population in, 7, 164-167 definition, 199 determinants of orbital lifetime in, 28 disposal orbits in, 8, 181-182 ground-based optical sampling, 38-39 ground-based radar sampling, 39-41, 42 large debris object distribution in, 63-64, 67 likelihood of collision with debris in, 4, 81-84, 98 predictions for growth of debris in, 7, 172 propagation models, 56-57 rocket body debris in, 23 space-based sampling in, 44 spacecraft design for, 23 spacecraft distribution in, 18, 19 spread of fragmentation debris in, 138-139 tracking and cataloging of orbital debris in, 2-3, 36, 57, 177 uncataloged debris in, 81 Lunar effects on orbital lifetimes, 28, 56, 145 M Materials models, 5, 110, 111, 179 Measurement of debris environment completeness of current data set, 2, 49-50, 63 estimating atmospheric drag effects, 27-28, 36, 56 estimating methodologies, 31 modeling techniques for, 51-57 opportunities for improvement, 50-51, 177 See also Sampling; Tracking and cataloging of orbital debris Meteoroids, 1 collision risk in GEO relative to debris, 86 hazards to space operations from, 3, 11, 76, 84 Midcourse Space Experiment, 43 Mir space station, 12, 13, 24, 45, 74 Mission-related debris definition, 198-199 distribution, 64-65, 136 intentional dumping of, 24 medium-sized, 70 recommendations, 8, 181 rocket exhaust as, 24-25, 75, 136, 137 small-sized, 74-75 sources of, 24 strategies for reducing release of, 136-137 Modeling, 3 analytical/numerical impact, 5, 102, 109-110, 114-115 breakup modeling, 54-55, 70, 160 collisional cascading, 161-167 debris cloud, 55 debris impact risk, 120-122 debris reduction strategies, 167-172 debris shapes, 111, 114 ESA Reference Model for Space Debris and Meteoroids, 121 future debris population, 52-53, 58, 157-167 materials research for impact, 5, 110, 111, 179 opportunities for improvement, 58 performance deterioration, 97, 109 population characterization, 51-52, 58 propagation models, 55-57 purpose, 51 recommendations for research, 5-6, 176, 177 standard population characterization reference model, 3, 52, 177 traffic modeling, 53-54 Molniya orbits, 28, 64, 67-68, 86 definition, 199 spacecraft distribution in, 19 N NEXTEL shield, 125 Nonfunctional spacecraft, 21-22, 68

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O Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres, 41 Orbital decay altitude and, 1, 28, 30 determinants of, 1, 27-28, 30 orbital lifetime reduction strategies, 144-147, 154, 199 projections of, 28 propagation models, 55-57 Orbital Meteoroid and Debris Counter, 48 Orbital regions, 1, 199-200 collision velocities, 88-90 distribution of spacecraft in, 18-20 hazard from debris and, 79, 80 location of disposal orbits, 8, 148-149, 152, 153 perturbation forces in, 27 probability of collision with debris in, 4 See also Altitude; specific orbit P Paint chips, 11, 26-27, 75, 97-98, 142, 181 Palapa spacecraft, 45 Peer review, 3, 178 Pegasus spacecraft, 47 Perturbation forces, 27-30 effects on small debris, 75, 158 in GEO stable plane, 152 modeling of, 55-56, 159 size of debris objects and effects of, 70 use of, for lifetime reduction maneuvers, 145 Plasma drag launchers, 106 Political and economic contexts, 8, 180 Population characterization models, 51-52, 58 Progress M cargo spacecraft Propagation models, 55-57 Protection against debris hazards active systems, 122, 125-128, 131-132 benefit-cost analysis in spacecraft design, 119-120 experimental testing of systems for, 101 mission design for, 128-129 operational protection, 122, 128-129 passive strategies, 122-125 risk assessment for spacecraft design, 120-122 spacecraft design for, 6, 178-179 See also Collision warning/avoidance; Shielding Proton launch vehicle, 23 Q Quantity of debris, 3, 11 current catalog, 20, 21, 25 current estimate, 63 debris collisions as source of growth in, 6-7, 102, 143, 158, 160-167, 172 fragmentation sources, 25, 138, 140 growth trends, 157, 158, 172 from intentional spacecraft breakups, 140 large debris population, 63-67 medium-sized debris population, 3, 70-74, 76 mission-related sources, 136 models for estimating, 157-167 number vs. mass, 143, 154, 167 predictions for growth in, 6-7, 52-53, 119 rocket body fragments, 140 small-sized debris population, 74, 158, 177 spacecraft explosion as a source, 139 strategies for reducing growth in, 7-8, 135-136 variation by orbital region, 84-85 R Radar cross section, 34 Radar Ocean Reconnaissance satellites, 74 Radar observation, 3, 36 calibration techniques, 41 current activities, 36, 39-41 limits of, 34, 36 opportunities for improvement, 41-42, 57 RADARSAT spacecraft, 121, 130-131 Radioactive materials, 22, 91 Reducing debris hazards by active in-orbit removal, 7, 143, 153-154, 180 assessment of strategies for, 135-136, 167-172 cost considerations, 136 data needs for, 175 deorbiting/lifetime reduction strategies for, 7-8, 143, 144-147, 154, 169, 171, 172 international efforts, 180

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long-term strategies, 135 mass vs. number of objects as goal of, 167 from mission-related debris, 136-137, 154 recommendations for, 8-9, 180-182 by reducing creation of debris from collisions, 143, 172 reorbiting to disposal orbits for, 147-153, 154, 181-182 from spacecraft degradation, 142-143, 181 spacecraft design strategies for, 7, 8, 129-132 from spacecraft explosions, 138-142, 154 spacecraft operations for, 7-8, 128-129, 135 See also Protection from debris hazards Redundant design, 6, 128 Removal of debris, 7, 143, 153-154, 180 Research analytical/numerical impact modeling, 5, 102, 109-110 damage assessment and prediction, limitations of, 111-114 data sources, 13-14 on effects of debris impacts, opportunities for, 101 measurement of debris environment, current status of, 49-51 peer review, 3, 178 recommendations for, 3, 5-6, 176-178 shielding, 125 See also Hypervelocity testing; Modeling Risk of collision benefit-cost analysis of spacecraft design, 119-120 current estimates, 2, 9 determinants of, 79, 80, 98, 120 growth in, 11, 12-13, 119, 172 in HEO, 4, 84-87, 98 in LEO, 4, 80-84, 98 with meteoroids, 3, 11, 76, 84, 86 modeling, 120-122 with objects surviving reentry, 1, 13 orbital altitude and, 4, 81-82, 85-86, 98 orbital inclination and, 4, 82-84, 86, 98 predictions for LDEF, 90-91 radioactive materials and, 91 research needs, 2-3, 175-176 size of objects and, 3-4 spacecraft design considerations, 120-122 See also Reducing debris hazards Rocket bodies, 200 contribution to debris population, 11, 23-24, 140 debris distribution, 65 passivation of, to reduce debris growth, 140-142, 181 Rocket exhaust, 11, 24-25, 75, 136, 137 Russian Space Agency, 176 S Salyut space stations, 12, 45, 46-47, 74 Sampling completeness of current data set, 49-50 with ground-based optical sensors, 38-39 with ground-based radar, 39-42, 70-71 opportunities for improvement, 58 from orbit, 42-44 purpose of, 2, 38 in situ, 2, 45-49 strategies for, 2, 38 Semisynchronous orbit, 1, 199 collision risk in, 98 debris distribution, 84 orbital velocity, 90 spacecraft distribution in, 19 Shape of debris, 111, 114 Shielding, 5, 11, 179 analytical/numerical modeling of, 109 current research efforts, 125 current technology, 6, 103 design considerations, 102, 123, 131 hypervelocity testing of, 102 obstacles to development, 111 size of debris objects and, 122 types of, 123 Whipple type, 123-125 Size of debris objects breakup fragments, 54-55, 70, 75, 92 debris flux and, 80 distribution estimates, 63 effect of impact and, 12, 88, 93-95 large, 3, 4, 63-70 limits of ground-based optical sampling, 2, 38-39 limits of in situ sampling, 49 limits of radar detection, 35-36 limits of space-based remote sensing, 44 limits of space-based sampling, 42, 44 measurement conventions, 21 medium-sized, 3, 4, 48-49, 57-58, 70-74, 76

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perturbation forces and, 70, 71, 75 population growth trends, 161 probability of collision in LEO, 4 radar cross section, 34 rocket exhaust particles, 24 shielding considerations, 122 small, 4, 74-76, 158, 177 tracking ability, 2-3, 34, 35-36, 57 Skylab, 42, 45 Solar effects on orbital lifetimes, 27-28, 56, 145, 200 Solar Maximum Mission, 12, 45, 74 Space Shuttle, 12, 45, 74, 82 collision avoidance procedure, 127 mission design to reduce impact risk, 129 Space Station Freedom, 13, 121 Space suits, 95 Space Surveillance Network, 20, 32, 34, 35, 201 Space Surveillance System, 32, 34, 35, 36, 201 Spacecraft design, 5 analytical/numerical modeling in, 109 benefit-cost analysis, 119-120 debris removal vehicles/devices, 153-154 for deorbiting/lifetime reduction maneuvers, 144-145 drag augmentation devices, 145-147 early process, 120, 131 fuel demands for reorbiting to disposal orbit, 150 historical concerns with debris impacts, 119 hypervelocity testing, 101-103, 121-122 impact risk assessment, 120-122 oversizing, 128 passivation strategies to reduce debris population growth, 139-140, 181, 200 protection from debris impacts in, 7, 88, 90-91, 128, 130-131 recommendations, 6, 8, 178-179, 181 for reducing degradation debris, 142-143, 181 redundant components, 6, 128 rocket bodies, 23 shielding, 102, 122-125, 131 solar power systems, 98 strategies for reducing breakup debris, 138-142, 181 surface materials, 181 understanding of debris environment for, 175-176 vulnerability of components to debris impacts, 93-95, 99, 121-122 Spacecraft operations breakup modeling, 54-55 collision avoidance systems, 125, 126 definition of functional spacecraft, 20-21 deorbiting/lifetime reduction maneuvers, 7-8, 143, 144-147 experimental simulation of debris impact effects, 101 historical development, 11, 17, 20 impact risk reduction, mission design in, 128-129 intentional breakups, 8, 25, 140, 181 orbital distribution, 18-20 orbital placement, 17-18 in reducing debris hazard, 7-8, 9 reducing release of mission-related debris in, 136-137, 154 sources of debris from, 21-27 surface damage from debris impacts and, 97-98 traffic modeling, 53-54 venting of residual propellant, 139-140, 141-142 Spallation, 93, 201 SPELDA device, 137 Sun-synchronous orbit, 18, 199 T Telescopic observation, 2-3, 35 charge-coupled devices in, 2, 37 limitations of, 38 liquid-mirror, 39 with modeling techniques, 52 opportunities for improvement, 39 for sampling, 38-39 space-based, 42-43, 97 vulnerability of space-based optics to debris impacts, 97 Tethers, 97, 99 Titan rockets, 137 Toroidal cloud. See Clouds of debris Tracking and cataloging of debris objects for collision warning/avoidance systems, 125, 126-127 current capabilities, 2, 14, 31-36, 57

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current catalog, 20, 21, 57, 63, 67, 70, 84-85 definition, 197 medium-sized debris population, 70-74 need for, 175-176 opportunities for improvement, 2-3, 35-37, 57 predictive ability, 36, 55, 57 recommendations for, 3, 177-178 uncataloged debris in LEO, 81 uncataloged large debris, 69-70 Traffic modeling, 53-54 Types of orbital debris, 1, 11, 20-27 coolant leakage, 74 debris swarms, 75-76 degradation products, 25-27 intentionally dumped, 24 oldest spacecraft debris, 22 radioactive, 91 See also specific types U United Nations, 185-187 Use of space, 1, 17 growth of debris population, 2 international law and treaties, 180, 185-188 predictive modeling, 53-54 trends, 18-19 See also Spacecraft operations V Velocity, 67 altitude variation and, 93 of breakup debris, 70, 92 collision, 11-12, 88-90 energy of high velocity objects, 93 in GEO stable plane, 152 in geostationary transfer orbits, 87 shield design considerations, 123-124 W Westar spacecraft, 45 Whipple bumper shield, 111, 123-125