Collision avoidance/warning systems, 6, 36, 43

applications to date, 125, 127

development prospects, 127-128, 131-132, 143

ground-based sensors for, 126-127

shoot-back schemes, 128

in Space Shuttle operations, 127

spacecraft-based sensors for, 125-126

spacecraft maneuverability for, 126

Collision effects

accuracy of models, 160

analytical/numerical modeling, 5, 102, 109-110, 114-115

angle of impact and, 88, 90-91

breakups as, 4, 12, 91-92, 98, 138

collisional growth of debris population, 6-7, 102, 143, 158, 160-167, 172

damage scaling laws, 46

experiences to date, 12, 13

hazards to crewed missions, 95

impact conditions in determination of, 4, 88-91

impact damage scaling laws, 46

limitations in damage assessment capabilities, 46, 79, 111-114

performance deterioriation models, 97, 109

range of, 4-5, 11-12

recommendations for research, 5-6, 179

research strategies, 5, 101

structural and component damage, 4-5, 93-95, 97, 98-99, 121-122

tether damage, 97, 99

velocity and, 4, 67

vulnerability of spacecraft surface, 95-98, 99

Coolant leakage, 74, 95

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), 25

Crewed missions

impact hazards to, 95

release of mission-related debris, 136, 137

D

Debris flux, definition of, 197

Debris swarms, 46, 47, 75-76

Delta rocket bodies, 140

Depletion burns, 141

Deterioration products, 25-27

Disposal orbits, 22

concerns about, 8, 152-153

location of, 148-149, 152, 153

recommendations, 9, 181-182

to reduce debris hazards, 8, 147-148, 152-153, 154

reorbiting costs, 150

Drag augmentation, 145-147

Duration of orbit.

See Orbital decay

E

Electromagnetic rail gun, 104, 106

European Retrievable Carrier, 13, 45, 46, 74

European Space Agency, 13, 52, 121, 176, 188

EVOLVE, 53, 81-82, 158

Explorer spacecraft, 47

Explosive bolts, 24, 136

F

Fragmentation debris, 198

in breakup modeling, 92, 98

current population estimates, 25

degradation products, 25-27, 75

distribution, 25, 64, 138

hypervelocity tests, 102-103

medium-sized, 70

small-sized, 75

sources of, 25

strategies for reducing, 138-142

G

GEO.

See Geosynchronous Earth orbit

Geostationary Earth orbit, 18, 199-200

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, 23

Geostationary transfer orbits

definition, 199

ground-based optical sampling of, 39

risk of debris collision in, 87

solar-lunar perturbational forces in, 28

Geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO), 1

collision effects in, 93

collision velocities in, 90

collisional growth of debris population in, 167

definition, 18, 200

disposal orbits for, 8, 9, 148-149, 152, 154, 182



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