References

Abrams, M.D., and M. E. Kubiske. 1990. Photosynthesis and water relations during drought in Acer rubrum L. genotypes from contrasting sites in central Pennsylvania. Functional Ecology 4:727-733.

Adam, K. M., G. L. Bloomsburg, and A. T. Corey. 1969. Diffusion of trapped gas from porous media. Water Resources Research 5:840:849.

Adamus, P. R., 1987. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET): Volume II-Methodology. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station.

Adamus, P. R., and L. T. Stockwell. 1983. A Method for Wetland Functional Assessment, Volume II. Washington, DC: Office of Research and Development, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation.

Adamus, P. R., L. T. Stockwell, F. J. Clarain, Jr., M. E. Morrow, L. E. Rozas, and R. D. Smith. 1991. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET), Volume I: Literature Review and Evaluation Rationale. Wetlands Research Program Technical Report WRP-DE-2. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station.

Alexander, V., and M. M. Billington. 1986. Nitrogen fixation in the Alaskan taiga. Pp. 112-120 in Forest Ecosystems in the Alaskan Taiga, K. Van Cleve, F. S. Chapin, III, P. W. Flanagan, L. A. Viereck, and C. T. Dyrness, eds. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Allen, S. D., F. C. Golet, A. F. Davis, and T. E. Sokoloski. 1989. Soil-vegetation Correlations in Transition Zones of Rhode Island Red Maple Swamps. Biol. Rep. 89(8). Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Amman, A. P., and A. L. Stone. 1991. Method for the Comparative Evaluation of Nontidal Wetlands in New Hampshire. Concord: Report NHDES-WRD-1991-3, New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services.

Amman, A. P., R. W. Franzen, and J. L. Johnson. 1986. Method for the Evaluation Of Inland Wetlands in Connecticut. Hartford: Connecticut Department of Environmental Proration.

Anderson, K. L., M. W. Lefor, and W. C. Kennard. 1980. Forested wetlands in eastern Connecticut: Their transition zones and delineation. Water Resources Bulletin 16:248-255.

Anderson, R. R., and R. J. Wobber. 1973. Wetlands mapping in New Jersey. Photogrammetric Engineering 39:353-358.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries References Abrams, M.D., and M. E. Kubiske. 1990. Photosynthesis and water relations during drought in Acer rubrum L. genotypes from contrasting sites in central Pennsylvania. Functional Ecology 4:727-733. Adam, K. M., G. L. Bloomsburg, and A. T. Corey. 1969. Diffusion of trapped gas from porous media. Water Resources Research 5:840:849. Adamus, P. R., 1987. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET): Volume II-Methodology. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. Adamus, P. R., and L. T. Stockwell. 1983. A Method for Wetland Functional Assessment, Volume II. Washington, DC: Office of Research and Development, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Adamus, P. R., L. T. Stockwell, F. J. Clarain, Jr., M. E. Morrow, L. E. Rozas, and R. D. Smith. 1991. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET), Volume I: Literature Review and Evaluation Rationale. Wetlands Research Program Technical Report WRP-DE-2. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. Alexander, V., and M. M. Billington. 1986. Nitrogen fixation in the Alaskan taiga. Pp. 112-120 in Forest Ecosystems in the Alaskan Taiga, K. Van Cleve, F. S. Chapin, III, P. W. Flanagan, L. A. Viereck, and C. T. Dyrness, eds. New York: Springer-Verlag. Allen, S. D., F. C. Golet, A. F. Davis, and T. E. Sokoloski. 1989. Soil-vegetation Correlations in Transition Zones of Rhode Island Red Maple Swamps. Biol. Rep. 89(8). Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Amman, A. P., and A. L. Stone. 1991. Method for the Comparative Evaluation of Nontidal Wetlands in New Hampshire. Concord: Report NHDES-WRD-1991-3, New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. Amman, A. P., R. W. Franzen, and J. L. Johnson. 1986. Method for the Evaluation Of Inland Wetlands in Connecticut. Hartford: Connecticut Department of Environmental Proration. Anderson, K. L., M. W. Lefor, and W. C. Kennard. 1980. Forested wetlands in eastern Connecticut: Their transition zones and delineation. Water Resources Bulletin 16:248-255. Anderson, R. R., and R. J. Wobber. 1973. Wetlands mapping in New Jersey. Photogrammetric Engineering 39:353-358.

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries Armstrong, W. 1971. Radial oxygen losses from intact rice roots as affected by distance from the apex, respiration and waterlogging. Physiol. Plant. 25:192-197. Aspinall, R. J., D. R. Miller, and A. Richman. 1993. Data quality and error analysis in GIS: measurement and use of metadata describing uncertainty in spatial data. Pp. 279-290 in Proceedings ARC/INFO Users Conference, Vol.2. Redlands, CA: ESRI. Austin, W. 1993. Duration of Saturation and Redox Potentials in Selected Willamette Valley soils. M.S. thesis. Oregon State University. Baad, M.F. 1988. Soil-vegetation correlations within the riparian zone of Butte Sink in the Sacramento Valley of northern California. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Biol. Rep. 88(25). Bailey, R. G. 1976. Ecoregions of the United States (map). Ogden, UT : U.S. Forest Service. Balco, J. J. 1981. Assessing Wetlands Values—Evaluation Dilemmas. Pp. 421-429 in Selected Proceedings of the Midwest Conference on Wetland Values and Management, B. Richardson ed. Navarre, MN: Freshwater Society. Banner, A., J. Pojar, and R. Trowbridge. 1986. Representative Wetland Types of the Northern Part of the Pacific Oceanic Wetland Region. British Columbia Minist. For. Res. Rep., Smithers, B.C. 45 pp. Bartoldus, C. C., E. W. Garbisch, and M. L. Kraus. 1994. Evaluation for Planned Wetlands (EPW). St. Michaels, MD.: Environmental Concern. Bates, R. L., and J. A. Jackson eds. 1987. Glossary of Geology. Alexandria, VA: American Geological Institute. Beals. 1969. Vegetational change along altitudinal gradients. Science 165:981-985. Bean, M.J. 1977. The Evolution of National Wildlife Law: Report to the Council on Environmental Quality. Washington, DC: Environmental Law Institute. Bedford, B. L., N. R. Rapport, and J. M. Bernard. 1988. A life history of Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh . Ramets. Aquat. Bot. 30:63-80. Bedford, B. L., M. B. Brinson, R. Sharitz, A. van der Valk, and J. Zedler. 1992. Evaluation of proposed revisions to the 1989 ''Federal Manual for Identifying and Delineating Jurisdictional Wetlands.'' Report of the Ecological Society of America's Ad Hoc Committee on Wetlands Delineation. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 73(1):14-23. Bedient, P. B., and W. C. Huber. 1988. Hydrology of Floodplain Analysis. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley. Bedinger, M. S. 1978. Wetland functions and values: The state of our understanding. Pp. 427-434 in Proceedings of the National Symposium on Wetlands, P. E. Greeson, J. R. Clark, and J. E. Clark eds. Lake Buena Vista, FL: American Water Resources Association. Bedinger, M. S. 1978. Wetland functions and values: The state of our understanding. Pp. 427-434 in Proceedings of the National Symposium on Wetlands, P. E. Greeson, J. R. Clark, and J. E. Clark, eds. Lake Buena Vista, FL: American Water Resources Association. Bergman, R. D., R. L. Howard, K. F. Abraham, and M. W. Weller. 1977. Water birds and their wetland resources in relation to oil development at Storkersen Point, Alaska. U.S. Fish Wildlife Service Resour. Publ. 129. Bertness, M.D. 1991. Interspecific interactions among high marsh perennials in a New England salt marsh. Ecology 72:125-137. Best, G. R., D. S. Segal, and C. Wolfe. 1990. Soil-vegetation Correlations in Selected Wetlands and Uplands of Northcentral Florida. Biol. Rep. 90(9). Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Billings, W. D., and K. M. Peterson. 1980. Vegetational change and ice-wedge polygons through the thaw-lake cycle in arctic Alaska. Arct. and Alpine Res. 12(4):413-432. Billings, W. D., and L. C. Bliss. 1959. An alpine snowbank environment and its effect on vegetable plant development, and productivity. Ecology 40(3):388-397.

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries Blem, C. R., and L. B. Blem. 1975. Density, biomass, and energetics of the bird and mammal populations of an Illinois deciduous forest. Illinois Acad. Sci. Trans. 68:156-184. Bliss, L. C. 1971. Artic and alpine plant life cycles. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 2:405-438. Bloomfield, C. 1950. Some observations on gleying. J. Soil Sci. 1:205-211. Bloomfield, C. 1951. Experiments on the mechanism of gley formation. J. Soil Sci. 2:196-211. Blume, H. P., and E. Schlicting. 1985. Morphology of wetland soils. Pp. 161-176 in Wetland Soils: Characterization, classification, and utilization. Proceedings of a workshop held March 26 to April 5, 1984, anonymous ed. Los Baños, Philippines: Int. Rice Res. Inst. Boersma, L., G. H. Simonson, and D. G. Watts. 1972. Soil morphology and water table relations, I. Annual water table fluctuations. Soil Sci. Am. Proc. 36:644-649. Bostwick, P. 1992. Potential resource losses associated with nationwide regulatory wetland classification. Pp. 19-22 in Proceedings of a National Workshop: State Perspectives on Wetland Classification (Categorization) for Regulating Purposes, J. Kusler, ed. Berne, NY: Association of State Wetland Managers. Boulé, M. 1994. An early history of wetland ecology. Pp. 57-74 in Global Wetlands-Old World and New, W. J. Mitsch, ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Bouma, J., C. A. Fox, and R. Miedema. 1990. Micromorphology of hydromorphic soils: Applications for soil genesis and land evaluation. Pp. 257-278 in Soil Micromophology, L. A. Douglas, ed. New York: Elsevier Scientific. Bouwer, H. 1978. Goundwater Hydrology. New York: McGraw-Hill. Bowling, S. A. 1984. The variability of the present climate of interior Alaska. Pp. 67-75 in Proceedings of The Potential Effects of Carbon Dioxide-induced Climate Changes in Alaska, Conference, J. H. McBeath, ed. Univ. Alaska-Fairbanks, School of Agriculture and Land Resources. Manage. Misc. Publ. 83-1. Briggs, J. C, and J. F. Ficke. 1977. Quality of the Rivers of the United States, 1975 Water Year—based on the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN). Open-File Report 78-200. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey. Brinkman, R. 1970. Ferrolysis, a hydromorphic soil forming process. Geoderma 3:199-206. Brinson, M. M. 1988. Strategies for assessing the cumulative effects of wetland alteration on water quality. Environ. Mgmt. 12:655-662. Brinson, M. M. 1993a. A hydrogeomorphic classification for wetlands. Wetlands Research Program Technical Report WRP-DE-4. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterway Experiment Station. Vicksburg, MS: Bridgham and Richardson . Brinson, M. M. 1993b. Changes in the functioning of wetlands along environmental gradients. Wetlands 13:65-74. Brinson, M. M., B. L. Swift, R. C. Plantico, and J. S. Barclay. 1981. Riparian ecosystems: Their ecology and status. FWS/OBS-81/17. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services. Brown, R. J. E. 1963. Influence of vegetation on permafrost. Pp. 20-25 in Proceedings Int. Conference on Permafrost, Lafayette, Ind., 1963. Natl. Acad. Sci.-Natl, Res. Counc. Publ. No. 1287. Washington, D.C. Brown, J., K. R. Everett, P. J. Webber, S. F. MacLean, Jr., and D. F. Murray. 1980., The coastal tundra at Barrow. Pp. 1-29 in An Arctic Ecosystem: The coastal tundra at Barrow, Alaska, J. Brown, P. C. Miller, L. L. Tieszen, and F. L. Bunnell, eds. US/IBP synthesis series: 12. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross. Brunt, J. W., and W. Conley 1990. Behavior of a multivariate algorithm for ecological edge detection. Ecol. Mod. 49:179-203. Bunnell, F. L., O. K. Miller, P. W. Flanagan, and R. E. Benoit. 1980. The microflora: composition, biomass, and environmental relations. Pp. 255-290 in An Arctic Ecosystem: The coastal tundra at Barrow, Alaska, J. Brown, P. C. Miller, L. L. Tieszen, and F. L. Bunnell, eds. US/IBP synthesis series: 12. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross.

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries Buol, S. W., F. D. Hole, and R. J. McCracken. 1980. Soil Genesis and Classification. Ames: Iowa State University Press. Callaway, R. M., S. Jones, W. R. Ferren, Jr., and A. Parikh. 1990. Ecology of a mediterranean climate estuarine wetland at Carpinteria, California: plant distributions and sod salinity in the upper marsh. Can. J. Bot. 68:1139-1146. Carter, C. 1977. Drainage parameters for sugarcane in Louisiana. Pp. 135-143 in Proceedings of Third National Drainage Symposium, ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. Carter, L. D., J. A. Heginbottom, and M. Woo. 1987. Arctic Lowlands. Pp. 583-628 in Geomorphic Systems of North America, W. L. Graf, ed. Geol. Soc. Am., Centennial Spec. Vol. 2, Boulder, CO. Carter, V., M. K. Garrett, and P. T. Gammon. 1988. Wetland boundary determination in the Great Dismal Swamp using weighted averages. Water Resources Bulletin 297-306. Carter, V., P. T. Gammon, and M. K. Garrett. 1994. Ecotone dynamics and boundary determination in the Great Dismal Swamp. Ecological Applications 4:189-203. Chapin, D. M., L. C. Bliss, and L. J. Bledsoe. 1991. Environmental regulation of nitrogen fixation in a high arctic lowland ecosystem. Can. J. Bet. 69:2744-2755. Chapin, F. S. 1986. Controls over growth and nutrient use by taiga forest trees. Pp. 96-111 in Forest Ecosystems in the Alaskan Taiga, K. Van Cleve, F. S. Chapin, III, P. W. Flanagan, L. A. Viereck, and C. T. Dyrness, eds. New York: Springer-Verlag. Chapin, F. S., L. L. Tieszen, M. C. Lewis, P. C. Miller, and B. H. McCown. 1980. Control of tundra plant allocation patterns and growth. Pp. 140-185 in An Arctic Ecosystem: The coastal tundra at Barrow, Alaska, J. Brown, P. C. Miller, L. L. Tieszen, and F. L. Bunnell, eds. US/IBP synthesis series: 12. Stroudsburg, PA: Dewden, Hutchinson & Ross. Chapin, F. S., III, and G. R. Shaver. 1985. Arctic. Pp. 16-40 in Physiological ecology of North American plant communities. B. F. Chabot and H. A. Mooned, eds. New York: Chapman and Hall. Christensen, N. L., R. B. Wilbur, and J. S. McLean. 1988. Soil-vegetation correlations in the pocosins of Croatan National Forest, North Carolina. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Biol. Rep. 88(28). Clark, E. H. II. 1993. Three little words: Understanding and implementing a "no-net-loss" goal. Prepared for the First National Wildlife Habitat Workshop, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Clark, J. R., and J. Benforado, eds. 1981. Wetlands of bottomland hardwood forests, Proceedings of a workshop on bottomland hardwood forest wetlands of the southeastern United States. New York: Elsevier Scientific. Clark, S. E., H. J. Courts, and C. Christianson. 1970. Biological waste treatment in the Far North. Fed. Water Quality Adm. Alaska Water Lab, Fairbanks. Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. §§1251-1387; 33 U.S.C. § 1319. Clements, F. E. 1920. Plant indicators. Publ. 290. Washington, DC: Carnegie Inst. Clymo, R. S. 1983. Peat, in Mires: Swamp, Bog, Fen, and Moor, Ecosystems of the World 4A, A. J. P. Gore, ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 159-224. Cohen, R. M., and J. Miller, III. 1983. Use of analytical models for evaluating corrective actions at hazardous waste sites. Pp. 85-97 in Proceedings of the Third National Symposium on Aquifer Restoration and Ground-water Monitoring, D. M. Nielson, ed. Worthington, OH: National Ground Water Association. Conservation Foundation, The. 1988. Protecting America's Wetlands: An Action Agenda. The Final Report of the National Wetlands Policy Forum. Washington, DC: The Conservation Foundation. Cooper, J. R., and J. W. Gilliam. 1987. Phosphorus redistribution from cultivated field into riparian areas. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51:1600-1604. Cooper, J. R., J. W. Gilliam, and T. C. Jacobs. 1986. Riparian areas as a control of nonpoint

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries pollutants. Pp. 166-192 in Watershed Research Perspectives, D. L. Correll, ed. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. Cooper, J. R., J. W. Gilliarn, R. B. Daniels, and W. P. Robarge. 1987. Riparian areas as filters for agricultural sediment. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51:416-420. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. 1987. United States Army Corps of Engineers and U.S. Department of Defense. U.S. Tech. Rep. Y-87-1. Corps Regulatory Guidance Letter 90-06, Expiration dates for wetlands jurisdictional delineations, reprinted in 57 Fed. Reg. 6591 (1992). Costanza, R., S. C. Farber, and J. Maxwell. 1989. Valuation and Management of Wetland Ecosystems. Ecol. Eton. 1:335-361. Costello, D. F. 1936. Tussock meadows in southeastern Wisconsin. Botanical Gazette 97:610-648. Coventry, R. J., and J. Williams. 1984. Quantitative relationships between morphology and current soil hydrology in some Alfisols in semiarid tropical Australia. Geoderma 33:191-218. Cowardin, L. M., and V. I. Myers. 1974. Remote sensing for identification and classification of wetland vegetation. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 38:308-314. Cowardin, L. M. and V. Carter. 1975. Tentative classification for wetlands of the United States. Unpublished mimeographed report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services. Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E. T. LaRoe. 1976. Interim classification of wetlands and aquatic habitats of the United States. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E. T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Cox, C. B., and P. D. Moore. 1993. Biogeography: An ecological and evolutionary approach. 5th edition. London: Blackwell Scientific. Crawford, R. M. M. 1983. Root survival in flooded soils. Pp. 257-283 in Ecosystems of the World 4A, A. J. P. Gore. ed. New York: Elsevier Scientific. Crawford, R. M. M. ed. 1987. Plant Life in Aquatic and Amphibious Habitats. British Ecological Society Special Publication No.5. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific. Crawford, R. M. M. 1989. Studies in Plant Survival. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific. Crawford, N. H., and R. K. Linsley. 1966. Digital simulation in hydrology: Stanford Watershed Model IV, Tech, Rept. 39, Stanford University, CA. Crum, H. 1988. A Focus on Peatlands and Peat Mosses. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. Curtis, J. T. 1959. The Vegetation of Wisconsin: An Ordination of Plant Communities. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Dahl, T. E. 1990. Wetlands losses in the United States 1780s to 1980s. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Dahl, T. E., and C. E. Johnson. 1991. Wetland status and trends in the conterminous United States. Mid-1970s to mid-1980s. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Damman, A. W. H. 1979. Geographic patterns in peatland development in eastern North America. Pp. 42-57 in Classification of Peat and Peatlands, Proceedings, Symposium International Peat Society, E. Kivinen, L. Heikurainen, and P. Pakarinen. eds. Damman, A. W. H., and T. W. French. 1987. The ecology of peat bogs of the glaciated Northeastern United States: A community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 85(7.16):1-100. Daniels, R. B., and S. W. Buol. 1992. Water table dynamics and significance to soil genesis. Pp. 66-74 in Proc. 8th Inter. Soil Correl. Mtg (VIII ISCOM): Characterization, Classification, and Utilization of Wet Soils, J. M. Kimble ed. USDA, Soil Conservation Service National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE. Daniels, R. B., E. E. Gamble, and S. W. Buol. 1973. Oxygen content in the ground water of some

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries North Carolina Aquults and Udults. Pp. 153-166 in Field Soil Water Regime, R. Bruce ed. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Spec. Pub. 5. Daniels, R. B., E. E. Gamble, and L. A. Nelson. 1971. Relations between soil morphology and watertable levels on a dissected North Carolina coastal plain surface. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 35:781-784. Daubenmire, R. 1968. Plant communities: A textbook of plant synecology. New York: Harper & Rowe. Davis, S. M., and J. C. Ogden, eds. 1994. Everglades: The Ecosystem and its Restoration. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press. Davy, A. J., S. M. Noble, and R. P. Oliver. 1990. Genetic variation and adaptation to flooding in plants. Aq. Bot. 38:91-108. Day, J. W., Jr., T. J. Butler, and W. H. Conner. 1977. Productivity and nutrient export studies in a cypress swamp and lake system in Louisiana. In Estuarine Processes, M. Wiley ed. New York: Academic Press. de Laat, P. J. M., R. H. C. M. Atwater, and P. J. T. van Bakel. 1981. GERGAM-A model for regional water management. In Water Resources Management on a Regional Scale, Proceedings of Technical Meeting 37, Vergl. Meded. Comm. Hydrol. Onderz. TNO 27:23-53, The Hague, The Netherlands. Dennison, M. S., and J. F. Berry. 1993. Wetlands: Guide to Science, Law, and Technology. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes. Dick-Peddie, W. A., J. V. Hardesty, E. Muldavin, and B. Sallach. 1987. Soil-vegetation correlations in the Gila and San Francisco Rivers in New Mexico. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Biol. Rep. 87(9). Dingman, S. L. 1971. Hydrology of the Glenn Creek watershed, Tanana River Basin, central Alaska. U.S. Army Cold Reg. Res. Eng. Lab. Res. Rep. 297. Dingman, S. L. 1975. Hydrologic effects of frozen ground: Literature review and synthesis. U.S. Army Cold. Reg. Res. Eng. Lab. Spec. Rep. 218. 55 pp. Dingman, S. L., and F. R. Koutz. 1974. Relations among vegetation, permafrost, and potential insolation in central Alaska . Arct. Alpine Res. 6(1):37-42. Disc, N. B. 1992. Winter fluxes of methane from Minnesota peatlands. Biogeochem. 17:71-83. Dix, R. L., and F. E. Smeins. 1967. The prairie, meadow, and marsh vegetation of Nelson County, North Dakota. Can. J. Bot. 45:21-58. Djokic, D. In press. Towards general purpose spatial decision support system using existing technologies. Proc. 2nd Int. Conference/Workshop on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling. Sept. 26-30, 1993, Breckenridge, CO. Drew, M. C. 1988. Nutrient uptake and acclimation to soil waterlogging and oxygen shortage in nonwetland plants. In The Ecology and Management of Wetlands, D. D. Hook. ed. Kent: Mackays of Chatham. Duever, M. J. 1990. Hydrology. Pp. 61-69 in Wetlands and Shallow Continental Water Bodies, Vol. 1, B. C. Patten, ed. The Hague, The Netherlands: Academic Publishing. Eckenfelder, W. W., Jr., and A. J. Englande. 1970. Temperature effects on biological waste treatment processes. Pp. 180-190 in R. S. Murphy and D. Nyquist, eds. International symposium on Water Pollution Control in Cold Climates, Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks, 1970. U.S. Government Printing Office. Egerton, J. J. G., and S. C. Wilson. 1993. Plant competition overwinter in alpine shrubland and grassland, Snowy Mountains, Australia. Arct. Alpine Res. 25(2):124-129. Ehrenfeld, J. G., and J. P. Schneider. 1993. Responses of forested wetland vegetation to perturbations of water chemistry and hydrology. Wetlands 13:122-129. Eicher, A. L. 1988. Soil-vegetation correlations in wetlands and adjacent uplands of the San Francisco Bay Estuary, California. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Biol. Rep. 88(21).

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries Elder, J. 1985. Nitrogen and phosphorus speciation and flux in a large Florida river wetland system. Water Res. Res. 21:724-732. Energy and Water Development Appropriation Act of 1993, Pub. L. No. 102-377, 106 Stat. 1315 (1992). Environmental Laboratory. 1987. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers wetlands delineation manual. U.S. Army Eng. Waterway Exp. Stn. Tech. Rep. Y-87-1. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1988a. EPA Wetland Identification and Delineation Manual (two volumes). W. S. Sipple, ed. Washington DC: EPA, Office of Wetlands Protection. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1988b. Use of advance identification authorities under section 404 of the Clean Water Act: Guidance to EPA regional offices . IM-89-2, March, 1988. Washington, DC: EPA, Office of Wetlands Protection. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992. Summary of advanced identification projects under section 230.80 of the 404(b)(1) guidelines. December 21, 1992. 79 pp. Washington, DC: Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watershed Protection, Wetlands Division. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1993. North American Landscape Characterization (NALC), research brief. EPA/600/S-93/0005. Las Vegas, NV: U.S. EPA, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and USACE (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers). 1993. Memorandum to the field: Appropriate level of analysis required for evaluating compliance with the section 404(b)(1) guidelines alternatives requirements. Washington, DC. Erickson, N. E., and D. M. Leslie, Jr. 1987. Soil-vegetation correlations in the sandhills and rainwater basin wetlands of Nebraska. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Biol. Rep. 87(11). Erickson, N. E., and D. M. Leslie, Jr. 1988. Soil-vegetation correlations in coastal Mississippi wetlands. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Biol. Rep. 89(3). Ernst, L. F. 1956. Calculation of steady groundwater in vertical cross-section. Netherlands J. of Agric. Sci. 4:125-131. Ernst, W. H. O. 1990. Ecophysiology of plants in waterlogged and flooded environments. Aquat. Bot. 38:73-90. Errington, P. L. 1963. Muskrat Populations. Ames: Iowa State University Press. Euliss, N. H., D. M. Mushet, and D. H. Johnson. 1993. Use of macroinvertebrates to identify and delineate temporary and seasonal wetlands in the prairie pothole region. Wetland Symposium, Prairie Ecosystems: Wetland Ecology, Management and Restoration. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Evans, C. V., and D. P. Franzmeier. 1986. Saturation, aeration and color patterns in a toposequence of soils in northcentral Indiana. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50:975-980. Evans, R. O., R. W. Skaggs, and R. E. Shoed. 1990. Normalized crop susceptibility factors for corn and soybean to excess water stress. Trans. ASAE 33(6):1153-1161. Evans, R. O., R. W. Skaggs, and R. E. Sneed. 1991. Stress day index models to predict corn and soybean relative yield under high water table conditions. Trans. ASAE 34(5):1997-2005. Evans, R. O., and R. W. Skaggs. Stress day index models to predict corn and soybean yield response to water table management. Transactions, Workshop on Drainage Simulation Models, 15th Congress ICID, The Hague:219-234 . Ewel, K. C. 1990. Swamps. Pp. 281-323 in Ecosystems of Florida, R. L. Meyers and J. J. Ewel, eds. Orlando: University of Central Florida. Ewel, K. C., and W. J. Mitsch. 1978. The effects of fire on species composition in cypress dome ecosystems. Florida Sci. 41:25-31. Farber, S., and R. Costanza. 1987. The economic value of wetland systems. J. Environ. Mgmt. 24:41-51.

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries Farooqi, M. A. R., and C. J. deMooy. 1983. Effect of soil saturation on redox potential and microbial activity. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 14:185-197. Faulkner, S. P., and C. J. Richardson. 1989. Physical and chemical characteristics of freshwater wetland soil. Pp. 41-72 in Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment, D. A. Hammer, ed. Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers. Faulkner, S. P., and W. H. Patrick, Jr. 1992. Redox processes and diagnostic wetland soil indicators in bottomland hardwood forests. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 56:856-865. FGDC (Federal Geographic Data Committee). 1992. Application of satellite data for mapping and monitoring wetlands. Technical Report 1, Wetlands Subcommittee, Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington, DC. Feddes, R. A., P. J. Kowalik, and H. Zaraday. 1978. Simulation of water use and crop yield. PUDOC, Center for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 189 pp. Federal Interagency Committee for Wetlands Delineation. 1989. Federal Manual for Identifying and Delineating Jurisdictional Wetlands. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and U.S.D.A. Sod Conservation Service, Washington, DC. Cooperative technical publication. 76 pp. plus appendixes. Ferren, W. R., P. L. Fiedler, and R. A. Leidy. 1994. Wetlands of the Central and Southern California coast and coastal watersheds: A methodology for their classification and description, draft report. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region IX. Finger, T. R., and E. M. Stewart. 1987. Response of fishes to flooding regime in lowland hardwood wetlands. P. 86-92 in W. J. Matthews and D.C. Heins, eds. Fink, R. J. 1994. The National Wildlife Refuges: Theory, practice, and prospect. Harvard Environ. Law Rev. 18:1. Fischer, D. H. 1989. Albion's Seed. New York: Oxford University Press. Flanagan, P. W., and F. L. Bunnell. 1980. Microflora activities and decomposition. Pp. 291-334 in An Arctic Ecosystem: The coastal tundra at Barrow, Alaska, J. Brown, P. C. Miller, L. L. Tieszen, and F. L. Bunnell, eds. US/IBP synthesis series: 12. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden. Hutchinson & Ross. Flessa, H., and W. R. Fischer. 1992. Plant-induced changes in the redox potentials of rice rhizospheres. Plant and Soil 143:55-60. Fletcher, S. W. 1983. Evaluation of methods for sampling vegetation and delineating wetlands transition zones in southern Louisiana, January 1979-May 1981. Technical Report Y-83-1. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. Foote, M. J. 1983. Classification, description. and dynamics of plant communities after fire in the taiga of interior Alaska. U.S. Forest Service Northwest Research Station. Res. Pap. PNW-307. Fox, J. F., and K. Van Cleve. 1983. Relationship between cellulose decomposition, Jenny's k, forest-floor nitrogen. and soil temperature in Alaskan taiga forests. Can. J. For. Res., 13(5):789-794. Frayer, W. E., T. J. Monahan, D. C. Bowden, and F. A. Graybill, 1983. Status and Trends of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitat in the Conterminous United States, 1950s to 1970s. Department of Forest and Wood Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. Fredrickson, L. H., and F. A. Reid. 1990. Impacts of hydrologic alteration on management of freshwater wetlands. Pp. 71-90 in Management of Dynamic Ecosystems, J. M. Sweeney, ed. North Central Section, The Wildlife Society, West Lafayette, Indiana. Freeze, R. A., and J. A. Cherry. 1979. Groundwater. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Friedman, J. M. 1993. Vegetation establishment and channel narrowing along a Great-Plains stream following a catastrophic flood. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. FWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service), Division of Ecological Services. 1980. Habitat as a Basis for Environmental Assessment. ESM 102, Release Number 4-80. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior.

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries Gallant, A. L., T. R. Whittier, D. P. Larsen, J. M. Omernik, and R. M. Hughes. 1989. Regionalization as a tool for managing environmental resources. EPA Research and Development Report EPA/ 600/3-89/060. Corvallis, OR: U.S. EPA Environmental Research Laboratory. Garnbrell, R. P., and W. H. Patrick, Jr. 1978. Chemical and microbiological properties of anaerobic soils and sediments. Pp. 375-423 in Plant Life in Anaerobic Environments, D. D. Hook and R. M. M. Crawford, eds. Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science. Gammon, P. T., and V. Carter. 1979. Vegetation mapping with seasonal color infrared photographs. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 45:87-97. Gorono, R. J., and J. G. Kooser. 1994. Ordination of wetland insect populations: Evaluation of a potential mitigation monitoring tool. Pp. 509-516 in Global Wetlands: Old world and new, W. J. Mitsch, ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Gates, P. W. 1968. History of Public Land Law Development. For the Public Land Law Review Commission. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Gauch, H. G., Jr. 1982. Multivariate analysis in community ecology. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. Gelbar, L. W., and Wilson, J. L. 1974. Ground-water quality modeling. Ground Water 12:399-408. Gilliam, J. W., and R. P. Gambrell. 1978. Temperature and pH as limiting factors in loss of nitrate from saturated Atlantic Coastal Plain soils. J. Environ. Qual. 7:526-532. Glaser, P. H., G. A. Wheeler, E. Gorham, and H. E. Wright, Jr. 1981. The patterned mires of the Red Lake Peatland, northern Minnesota: Vegetation, water chemistry, and land forms. J. Ecol. 69:575-599. Golet, F. C., and J. S. Larson. 1974. Classification of freshwater wetlands in the glaciated North-east. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Resour. Publ. 116. Golet, F. C., A. J. K. Calhoun, W. R. DeRagon, D. J. Lowry, and A. J. Gold. 1993. Ecology of red maple swamps in the Glaciated Northeast: A community profile. Biological Report 12. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Gorham, E. 1991. Northern peatlands: role in the carbon cycle and probable responses to climatic warming. Ecol. Applications 1:182-195. Gosselink, J. G., and L. C. Lee. 1989. Cumulative impact assessment in bottomland hardwood forests. Wetlands Vol. 9: Special Issue. Gosselink, J. G., and E. Maltby. 1990. Wetland losses and gains. Pp. 231-322 in Wetlands: A Threatened Landscape, M. Williams, ed. Oxford: Blackwell Ltd. Gosselink, J. G., L. C. Lee, and T. A. Muir, eds. 1990. Ecological processes and cumulative impacts: Illustrated by bottomland hardwood wetland ecosystems. Chelsea, MI.: Lewis Publisbers. Greenwalt, L. A. 1978. The National Wildlife Refuge System, in Wildlife and America, H. P. Brokaw, ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Gren, I. M. 1995. Costs and benefits of restoring wetlands: two Swedish case studies. Ecological Engineering 4 (in press). Greig-Smith, P. 1983. Quantitative Plant Ecology. Berkeley: University of California. Grishkan, I. B., and D. I. Berman. 1993. Microflora of acid organogenic soils in the mountainous subarctic region of north-eastern Asia. Pp. 272-276 in Joint Russian-American Seminar on Cryopedology and Global Change, D. A. Gilichinsky, ed. Pushchino, Russia, 1992. Pushchino: Russian Academy of Science. Guertin, P. D., P. K. Batten, and K. N. Brooks. 1987. The peatland hydrologic impact model: Development and testing. Nordic Hydrology 18:79-100. Guertin, P. D. and K. N. Brooks, 1986. Modeling streamflow response of Minnesota peatlands. Pp. 123-131 in Watershed Management in the Eighties, E. B. Jones and T. J. Ward, ed. ASCE Symposium, Denver, CO. Gunterspergen, G. R. and F. Stearns. 1985. Ecological perspectives on wetland ecosystems. Pp. 69-

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries 95 in Ecological considerations in wetlands treatment of municipal wastewater, P. J. Godfrey, E. R. Kaynor, S. Pelczarski, J. Benforado, eds. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Hackman, F. H. 1993. Statement of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce on Reauthorization of the Clean Water Act of 1987. Testimony presented to the Subcommittee on Water Resources, House Public Works and Transportation Committee, May 12, 1993. Hahn, R. W. 1993. Improving Water Resource Management in the United States: Suggestions for Reauthorizing the Clean Water Act (testimony before the Subcommittee on Public Works and the Environment, U.S. House of Representatives). American Enterprise Institute, Washington, DC. Hall, J. V., W. E. Frayer, and B. O. Wilen. 1994. Status of Alaska wetlands. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Reg., Anchorage. 32 pp. Hall, T. F., and W. T. Penfound. 1939. A phytosociological study of a Nyssa biflora consocies in southeastern Louisiana. Am. Midland Nat. 22:369-375. Hansen, A. J., F. di Castri, and R. J. Naiman. 1988. Ecotones: What and why? Bio. Intl. Spec. Iss. 17:9-45. Hardy, E. E., and C. A. Johnston. 1975. New York State Wetlands Inventory: Technical report. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University. Harris, L. D. 1988. The nature of cumulative impacts on biotic diversity of wetland vertebrates. Environ. Mgmt. 12:675-693. Harris, S. W., and W. M. Marshall. 1963. Ecology of water-level manipulation on a northern marsh. Ecology 44:331-343. Heinselman, M. L. 1970. Landscape evolution and peatland types, and the Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural Area, Minnesota. Ecol. Mono. 40:235-261. Henry, J. G. 1974. Psychrophiles in waste treatment. Pp. 305-331 in International symposium on wastewater treatment in cold climates, E. Davis, ed. Saskatoon, Sask., 1973. Inst. North. Stud. Environ. Can. Rep. No. EPS 3-WP-74-3. Hess, A. D., and T. F. Hall. 1945. The relation of plants to malaria control on impounded waters with a suggested classification. J. National Malaria Soc. 4:20-46. Hibbard, B. H. 1965. A History of the Public Land Policies. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. Hickman, S. 1994. Improvement of habitat quality for nesting and migrating birds at the Des Plaines River Wetlands Demonstration Project. Ecol. Eng. 3:485-494. Hobbie, J. E. 1984. The ecology of tundra ponds of the Arctic Coastal Plain: A community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service FWS/OBS-83/25. Hollands, G. G. 1987. Hydrogeologic classification of wetlands in glaciated regions. Pp. 26-30 in Wetland Hydrology, J. Kusler, ed. Berne, NY: Association of State Wetland Managers. Hollands, G. G., and D. W. Magee. 1986. A method for assessing the functions of wetlands. In Proceedings of the National Wetland Assessment Symposium. Chester, VT: Association of State Wetland Managers. Holway, J. G., and R. T. Ward. 1965. Phenology of alpine plants in northern Colorado. Ecology 46(1-2):73-83. Howell, T. A., E. A. Hiler, O. Zolezzi, and C. J. Ravelo. 1976. Grain sorghum response to inundation at three growth stages. Trans. ASAE 19(5):876-880. Hubbard, D. E., J. B. Millar, D. D. Malo, and K. F. Higgins. 1988. Soil-vegetation correlations in prairie potholes of Beadle and Deuel Counties, South Dakota. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Biol. Rep. 88(22). Hudson, W. E., ed. 1991. Landscape Linkages and Biodiversity. Washington, DC: Island Press. Huenneke, L. F. 1982. Wetland forests of Tompkins County, New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 109(1):51-63. Huffman, R. T. 1981. Multiple-parameter approach to the field identification and delineation of

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries aquatic and wetland ecosystems. Technical Report EL-: Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. Huffman, R. T., and G. E. Tucker. 1984. Preliminary guide to the onsite identification and delineation of the wetlands of Alaska. Technical Report Y-78-9. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. Huffman, R. T., G. E. Tucker, J. W. Wooten, C. V. Klimas, M. W. Freel, S. W. Forsythe, and J. S. Wilson. 1982b. Preliminary guide to the onsite identification and delineation of the wetlands of the South Atlantic United States. Technical Report Y-78-7. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. Hunt, C. 1988. Down by the river. Washington, DC: Island Press. Hurt, G. W., and W. E. Puckett. 1992. Proposed hydric soil criteria and their field identification. Pp. 148-151 in Proc. 8th Inter. Soil Correl. Mtg (VIII ISCOM): Characterization, Classification, and Utilization of Wet Soils, J. M. Kimble, ed. Lincoln, Neb.: USDA, Soil Conservation Service National Soil Survey Center. Jacobs, T. C., and J. W. Gilliam. 1985. Riparian losses of nitrate from agricultural drainage waters. J. Environ. Qual. 14:472-478. Jackson, M. B. 1990. Hormones and developmental change in plants subjected to submergence or soil waterlogging. Aquat. Bot. 38:49-72. Jackson, M. B., and M. C. Drew. 1984. Effects of flooding on growth and metabolism of herbaceous plants. Pp. 47-128 in Flooding and Plant Growth, T. T. Kozlowski, ed. Orlando, Fl: Academic Press. Jefferies, R. L., A. Jensen, and K. F. Abraham. 1979. Vegetational development and the effect of geese on vegetation at La Perouse Bay, Manitoba. Can. J. Bot. 57:1439-1450. Jeglum, J. K., A. N. Boissonneau, and V. F. Haavisto. 1974. Toward a wetland classification for Ontario. Information Report 0-X-215. Marie, Ontario: Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. Jenny, H. 1941. Factors of Soil Formation. New York: McGraw-Hill. Johnson, R. R., and J. F. McCormick. 1979. Strategies for protection and management of floodplain wetlands and other riparian ecosystems. USDA Forest Service GTR-WO-12. Washington, DC. Johnson, W. C., R. A. Mayes, and T. L. Sharik. 1982a. Use of vegetation in delineating wetland borders in upper Missouri River Basin: North-Central United States. Technical Report Y-82-1. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. Johnson, W. C., P. W. Reily, L. S. Andrews, J. F. McLellan, and J. A. Brophy. 1982b. Altered hydrology of the Missouri River and its effects on floodplain forest ecosystems. Blacksburg: Virginia Water Resources Center, Virginia Polytechnic and State University , Bulletin 139. 83 pp. Johnston, C. A. 1982. Wetlands in the Wisconsin landscape. Wisconsin Academy Review 29:8-11. Johnston, C. A. 1984. Mapping Wisconsin's wetlands. Wisconsin Natural Resources 8:4-6. Johnston, C. A. 1991. Sediment and nutrient retention by freshwater wetlands: Effects of surface water quality, Critical Reviews in Environmental Control 21:491-565. Johnston, C. A. 1994a. Ecological engineering of wetlands by beavers. Pp. 379-384 in Global Wetlands: Old and New, W. J. Mitsch ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Johnston, C. A. 1994b. Cumulative impacts to wetlands. Wetlands 14:47-55. Johnston, C. A., and J. P. Bonde. 1989. Quantitative analysis of ecotones using a geographic information system. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 55:1643-1647. Johnston, C. A., B. Marlett, and M. Riggle. 1988a. Application of a computer-automated wetlands inventory to regulatory and management problems. Wetlands 8:43-52. Johnston, C. A., N. E. Detenbeck, J. P. Bonde, and G.J. Niemi. 1988b. Geographic information systems for cumulative impact assessment. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 54:1609-1615. Johnston, C. A., N. E. Detenbeck, and G. J. Niemi. 1990. The cumulative effect of wetlands on stream water quality and quantity: A landscape approach. Biogeochemistry 10:105-141.

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries Naiman, R. J., G. Pinay, C. A. Johnston, and J. Pastor. 1994. Beaver influences on the long term biogeochemical characteristics of boreal forest drainage networks. Ecology 75:905-921. NRC (National Research Council). 1990. Groundwater Models, Scientific and Regulatory Applications. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science Technology and Public Policy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NWI (National Wetlands Inventory). 1990. Photointerpretation conventions for the National Wetlands Inventory. St. Petersburg, FL: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. National Wetlands Working Group. 1988. Wetlands of Canada. Ecol. Land Classification Set., No. 24. Sustainable Dev. Branch, Environ. Canada. Montreal: Ottawa and Polyscience Publ. Nellis, M. D., J. M. Briggs. 1989. The effect of spatial scale on Konza landscape classification using textural analysis. Landscape Ecol. 2:93-100. NFSAM (National Food Security Act Manual). 1988. Title 180. 180-V-NFSAM, Second Ed. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC: Soil Conservation Service. NFSAM (National Food Security Act Manual). 1991. Amend. 6, Pan 510.70, Subpan G. Soil Conservation Service August 1991. NFSAM (National Food Security Act Manual). 1991. Amend. 7, 180-V-NFSAM. Second ed. Soil Conservation Service. NFSAM (National Food Security Act Manual). 1994. Pan 519, 180-V-NFSAM. Third ed. March 1994. Soil Conservation Service. Niering, W. A. 1953. The past and present vegetation of High Point State Park, New Jersey. Ecol. Mono. 23:127-147. Niering, W. A. 1985. Wetlands. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 638 pp. Nixon, S. W. 1982. The ecology of southern California coastal salt marshes: A community profile. FWS/OBS-81/55. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services. Novitzki, R. P. 1979. Hydrologic characteristics of Wisconsin's wetlands and their influence on floods, streamflow, and sediment. Pp. 377-388 in Wetland Functions and Values: The state of our understanding, P. E. Greeson, J. R. Clark, and J. E. Clark, eds. Minneapolis: American Water Resources Association. Obenhuber, D. C., and R. Lowrance. 1991. Reduction of nitrate in aquifer microcosms by carbon additions. J. Environ. Qual. 20:255-258. Oechel, E. C., and W. T. Lawrence. 1985. Taiga. Pp. 64-94 in Physiological Ecology of North American Plant Communities, B. F. Chabot and H. A. Mooney , eds. New York: Chapman and Hall. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). 1984. Wetlands: Their use and regulation. OTA-O-206. Washington, DC: U.S. Congress. Ohmart, R. D., and B. W. Anderson. 1986. Riparian habitat. In Inventory and Monitoring of Wildlife Habitat. A. Y. Cooperrider, R. J. Boyd, and H. R. Stuart, eds. Denver. BLM. Olson, D. P. 1964. The use of aerial photographs in studies of marsh vegetation. Maine Agricultural Experimental Station Tech. Serv. Bull. 13. Omernik, J. M. 1987. Ecoregions of the conterminous United States. Annals Assoc. Am. Geog. 771:118-125. Oreskes, N., K. Shrader-Frechette, and K. Belitz. 1994. Vertification, validation, and confirmation of numerical models in the Earth Sciences. Science 263:641-646. Paratley, R. D., and T. J. Fahey. 1986. Vegetation-environment relations in a conifer swamp in central New York. Bull. Tort. Bot. Club 113:357-371. Parsons, J. E., C. W. Coty, and R. W. Skaggs. 1991a. Development and testing of a water model (WATRCOM): Development. Trans. ASAE 34(4):120-128. Parsons, J. E., Coty, C.W. and Skaggs, R.W. 1991b. Development and testing of a water model (WATRCOM): Field testing. Trans. ASAE 34(4):1674-1682.

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries Pastor, J., and C. A. Johnston. 1992. Using simulation models and geographic information systems to integrate ecosystem and landscape ecology. Pp. 324-346 in New Perspectives in Watershed Management, R. J. Naiman ed. New York: Springer-Verlag. Penfound, W. T. 1952. Southern swamps and marshes. Bot. Rev. 18:413-436. Pennings, S. C., and R. M. Callaway. 1992. Salt marsh plant zonation: The relative importance of competition and physical factors. Ecology 73:681-690. Peterjohn, W. T, and D. L. Correll. 1984. Nutrient dynamics in an agricultural watershed: Observations on the role of a riparian forest. Ecology 65:1466-1475. Peters, R. H. 1983. The Ecological Implications of Body Size. Cambridge, NY . 329 pp. Péwé, T. L. 1975. Quaternary geology of Alaska. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 835. Péwé, T. L. 1982. Geologic hazards of the Fairbanks area, Alaska. Alaska Div. Geol. Geophys. Surv. Spec. Rep. 15. Pick, A. R., G. E. Bums, D. W. Van Es, and R. M. Girling. 1970. Evaluation of aerated lagoons as a sewage treatment facility in the Canadian Prairie Provinces. Pp. 191-212 in Int. Symposium on Water Pollution Control in Cold Climates, R. S. Murphy and D. Nyquist, eds. Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks: U.S. Government Printing Office. Pickering, E. W., and P. L. M. Veneman. 1984. Moisture regimes and morphological characteristics in a hydrosequence in central Massachusetts. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48:113-118. Ping, C. L. 1987. Soil temperatures profiles of two Alaskan soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51(4):1010-1018. Ping, C. L., J. P. Moore, and M. H. Clark. 1992. Wetland properties of permafrost soils in Alaska. Pp. 198-205 in Characterization, Classification, and Utilization of Wet Soils, J.M. Kimble, ed. Proc. Eighth Int. Soil Correlation Meeting (VII ISCOM) U.S. Soil Conservation Service, Natl. Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE. Ponnamperuma, F. N. 1972. The chemistry of submerged soils. Adv. Agron. 24:29-96. Preston, E., and B. L. Bedford. 1988. Evaluating cumulative effects on wetland functions: a conceptual overview and generic framework. Environ. Mgmt. 12:565-583. Price, G. 1974. Wisconsin wetlands, 19th century (map). Water Resources Planning Section, Wis. Dept. of Nat. Resources, Madison, WI. Ransom, M. D., and N. E. Smeck. 1986. Water table characteristics and water chemistry of seasonally wet soils of southwestern Ohio. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50:1281-1289. Reddy, K. R., P. S. C. Rao, and R. E. Jessup. 1982. The effect of carbon mineralization on denitrification kinetics in mineral and organic soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46:62-68. Reed, P. B. 1988. National List of Plant Species that Occur in Wetlands: National Summary. Biol. Report 88(24). Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Reed, R. T. 1986. Alternate Methodologies: The Wisconsin experience in modification of FHWA (Adamus) methodology. In Proceedings of the National Wetland Assessment Symposium. Chester, VT: Association of State Wetland Managers . Reppert, R. T. 1981. Wetland Values, Concepts and Methods for Wetlands Evaluation. Pp. 385-393 in Selected Proceedings of the Midwest Conference on Wetland Values and Management, B. Richardson ed. Navarre, MN: Freshwater Society. Reybold, W. U., and G. W. TeSelle. 1989. Soil geographic data bases. J. Soil Water Conserv. January-February:28-29. Rodgers, J. H., and A. Dunn. 1992. Developing design guidelines for constructed wetlands to remove pesticides from agricultural runoff. Ecol. Eng. 1:83-95. Roman, C. T., R. A. Zampella, and A. Z. Jaworski. 1985. Wetland boundaries in the New Jersey pinelands: Ecological relationships and delineation. Water Res. Bull. 21:1005-1012. Salisbury, F. B. 1984. Light conditions and plant growth under snow. Pp. 39-50 in The Winter Ecology of Small Mammals, J. F. Merritt, ed. Pittsburgh: Spec. Publ. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 10.

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries Sather, J. H. ed. 1975. National Wetland Classification and Inventory Workshop Proceedings, University of Maryland. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Savile, D. B. O. 1972. Arctic adaptations in plants. Can. Dep. Agric. Res. Branch Monogr. No. 6. Schalles, J. F., and D. J. Shure. 1989. Hydrology, community structure, and productivity patterns of a dystrophic Carolina bay wetland. Ecol. Mono. 59(4):365-385. Schell, D. M. 1983. Carbon-13 and carbon-14 abundances in Alaskan aquatic organisms: Delayed production from peat in arctic food webs. Science 219:1068-1071. Schempf, J. H. 1992. Wetland classification, inventory, and assessment methods: An Alaskan guide to their fish and wildlife application. Habitat Division Technical Report 93-2. Juneau: Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Sculthorpe, C. D. 1967. The Biology of Aquatic Vascular Plants. London: Edward Arnold. Scott, M. L., W. L. Slauson, C. A. Segelquist, and G. T. Auble. 1989. Correspondence between vegetation and soils in wetlands and nearby uplands. Wetlands 9(1):41-60. Segelquist, C. A., W. L. Slauson, M. L. Scott, and G. T. Auble. 1990. Synthesis of soil-plant correspondence data from twelve wetland studies throughout the United States. Biological Report 90(19). Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Seher, J. S., and P. T. Tueller. 1973. Color aerial photos for marshland. Photogrammetric Engineering 39:489-499. Sharitz, R. R., and J. W. Gibbons. 1982. The ecology of southeastern shrub bogs (pocosins) and Carolina Bays: A community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service FWS/OBS-82/04: 1-93. Sharratt, B. S. 1992. Growing season trends in the Alaskan climate record. Arctic 45(2):124-127. Shaw, S. P., and C. G. Fredine. 1956. Wetlands of the United States: Their Extent, and Their Values for Waterfowl and Other Wildlife. Circular 39. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Siegel, D. I. 1983. Ground water evolution of patterned mires, glacial Lake Agissiz peatlands, northern Minnesota. J. Ecol. 71:913-921. Siegel, D. I. 1988. Evaluating cumulative effects of disturbance on the hydrologic function of bogs, fens and mires. Environ. Mgmt. 12:621-626. Siegel, D. I., and P. H. Glaser. 1987. Groundwater flow in the bog/fen complex, Lost River Peatland, northern Minnesota, J. Ecol. 75:743-734. Silverberg, S. M., and M. S. Dennison. 1993. Wetlands and Coastal Zone Regulation Compliance. New York: Wiley Law. Simonson, G. H., and L. Boersma. 1972. Soil morphology and water table relations: II. Correlation between annual water table fluctuations and profile features. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 36:649-653. Simovich, M. 1993. Eubranchiopod community composition in California vernal pools. Am. Zool. 33:55a. Sjors, H. 1991. Phyto-and necromass above and below ground in a fen. Holarctic Ecol. 14:208-218. Skaggs, R. W. 1978. A water management model for shallow water table soils. Technical Report No. 134. Raleigh, NC: Water Resources Research Institute. Skaggs, R. W. 1991. Drainage. Pp. 205-243 in Modeling Plant and Soil Systems, Agronomy Monograph No 31, ASA-CSSA-SSSA, J. Hanks and J. T. Richie, eds. Madison, WI. Skaggs, R. W., J. W. Gilliam, and R. O. Evans. 1991. A computer simulation study of pocosin hydrology. Wetlands 11:399-416. Skaggs, R. W., D. Amatya, R. O. Evans, and J. E. Parsons. 1994. Characterization and evaluation of proposed hydrologic criteria for Wetlands. J. Soil Water Conserv. 49(5):501-510. Slaughter, C. W., and L. A. Viereck. 1986. Climatic characteristics of the taiga in interior Alaska. Pp. 9-21 in Forest Ecosystems in the Alaskan Taiga, K. Van Cleeve, F. S. Chapin, III, P. W. Flanagan, L. A. Viereck, and C. T. Dryners, eds. New York: Springer-Verlag. Smith, R. L., M. L. Ceazan, and M. H. Brooks. 1994. Autotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing, denitrifying

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries bacteria in groundwater, potential agents for bioremediation of nitrate contamination. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:1949-1955. SCS (Soil Conservation Service). 1994. National Bulletin No. 450-4-1, TCH - Interagency Testing of the ''Field Indicators of Hydric Soils of the United States.'' Feb. 15, 1994. Soil Survey Staff. 1951. Soil Survey Manual. USDA Handbook 18. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO. Soil Survey Staff. 1975. Soil Taxonomy. USDA Soil Conservation Service Agric. Handb. No. 436. Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO. Soil Survey Staff. 1992. Keys to Soil Taxonomy, fifth edition. SMSS Monogr. No. 19. Blacksburg, VA: Pocahontas Press. Soil Survey Staff. 1993. Soil Survey Manual. USDA Handbook 18. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO. Soil Survey Staff. 1994. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 6th ed. USDA-SCS. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO. Sommerfeld, R. A., A. R. Mosier, and R. C. Musselman. 1993. CO2, CH4, and N2O flux through a Wyoming snowpack and implications for global budgets. Nature 361:140-142. Sparrow, E. B., C. V. Davenport, and R. C. Gordon. 1978. Response of microorganisms to hot crude oil spills on a subarctic taiga soil. Arctic 31(3):324-338. Stewart, R. E., and H. A. Kantrud. 1971. Classification of natural ponds and lakes in the glaciated prairie region. Resource Publication 92. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Stewart, R. E., and H. A. Kantrud. 1972. Vegetation of prairie potholes, North Dakota, in relation to quality of water and other environmental factors. U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey. Washington, DC. Strand, M. N. 1993a. Federal Wetlands Law. Environ. Law Rep. 23:10185-10215, 10354-10378. Street, W. H. 1993. Field reconnaissance of National Wetland Inventory maps in the Carolina slate belt region of Durham County, North Carolina. M.S. thesis, Duke University, Durham, NC. Stromberg, J. C. 1993. Riparian mesquite forests: A review of their ecology, threats, and recovery potential. J. Arizona-Nevada Acad. Sci. 27:111-124. Stromberg, J. C., D. T. Patten, and B. D. Richter. 1991. Flood flows and dynamics of Sonoran riparian forests. Rivers 2:221-235. Stromberg, J. C., B. D. Richter, D. T. Patten, and L. G. Wolden. 1993. Response of a Sonoran riparian forest to a 10-year return flood. Great Basin Naturalist 53(2):118-130. Svensson, B. H., and T. Rosswall. 1984. In situ methane production from an acid peat in plant communities with different moisture regimes in a subarctic mire. Oikos 43:341-350. SWS Bulletin. 1992. Certification of professional wetland scientists. March 9:1,18-22. Szaro, R. C. 1990. Southwestern riparian plant communities: Site characteristics, tree species distributions, and size-class structures. For. Ecol. Mgmt. 33/34:315-334. Tarlock, A. D. 1988. The law of water rights and resources. New York: Clark Boardman. Theriot, R. F. 1993. Flood Tolerance of Plant Species in Bottomland Forests of the Southeastern United States. Technical Report WRP-DE-6. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Thomas, J. W., R. G. Anderson, C. Maser, E. L. Bull. 1979. Snags. Chapter 5 in Wildlife Habitats in Managed Forests of the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington, J.W. Thomas, tech. ed. Agr. Handbook 553. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 512 pp. Thompson, C. A., E. A. Bettis, III, and R. G. Baker. 1992. Geology of Iowa fens. J. Iowa Acad. Sci. 99(2-3):53-59. Tieszen, L. L., P. C. Miller, and W. C. Oechel. 1980. Photosynthesis. Pp. 102-139 in An Arctic Ecosystem: The coastal tundra at Barrow, Alaska, J. Brown, P. C. Miller, L. L. Tieszen, and F. L. Bunnell, eds. US/IBP synthesis series: 12. Stroudshurg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross. Tiner, R. W. 1984. Wetlands of the United States: Current Status and Recent Trends. National Wetlands Inventory, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 19 p.

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries Tiner, R. W., Jr. 1990. Use of high-altitude aerial photography for inventorying forested wetlands in the United States. For. Ecol. Mgmt. 33/34:593-604. Tiner, R. W. 1991a. The concept of hydrophyte for wetland identification. BioScience 41:236-247. Tiner, R. W. 1991b. Wetland delineation 1991. Pp. 1-16 (plus tables) in Proceedings 1991 Stormwater Management/Wetlands/Floodplain Symposium, G. Aron and E. L. White, eds. University Park: Pennsylvania State Univ., Dept. Civil Eng. Tiner, R. W. 1993. The primary indicators methods—a practical approach to wetland recognition and delineation in the United States. Wetlands 13(1): 50-64. Tiner, R. W., Jr., and H. R. Pywell. 1983. Creating a national georeferenced wetland data base for managing wetlands in the United States. Pp. 103-115 in National Conference on Resource Management Applications: Energy and Environment, Vol. III - Issues in Forest, Habitat, and Wetland Management Using Remotely Sensed/Georeferenced Data. Toth, J. 1963. A theoretical analysis of groundwater flow in small drainage basins. J. Geophys. Res. 68:4795-4812. Tryon, P. R., and F. S. Chapin, III. 1983. Temperature control over root growth and root biomass in taiga forest trees. Can. J. For. Res. 13:827-833. Turner, F. T., and W. H. Patrick, Jr. 1968. Chemical changes in waterlogged soils as a result of oxygen depletion. Trans. 9th Intern. Congress Soil Sci. 4:53-63. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). 1978a. Preliminary guide to wetlands of peninsular Florida. Technical Report Y-78-2. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). 1978b. Preliminary guide to wetlands of Puerto Rico. Technical Report Y-78-3. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). 1978c. Preliminary guide to wetlands of the West Coast states. Technical Report Y-78-4. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). 1978d. Preliminary guide to wetlands of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Technical Report Y-78-5. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). 1978e. Preliminary guide to wetlands of the interior United States. Technical Report Y-78-6. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). 1986. Regulatory Guidance Letter No. 86-10. Subject: Special Area Management Plans (SAMPs). Washington DC: Office of the Chief of Engineers. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1989. Memorandum of Agreement between the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of the Army Concerning the Determination of Mitigation Under the Clean Water Act Section 404(b)(1) Guidelines. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1990. Section 404(b)(1) Guidelines Mitigation MOA "Questions and Answers." U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). 1979. Wetlands Values: Concepts and Methods for Wetlands Identification. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). 1987. USACE Wetlands Delineation Manual. Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Eng. Waterway Exp. Stn. Tech. Rep. Y-87-1. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. I. List of plant names. Vol. II. Synonymy. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC: Soil Conservation Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1985. Hydric Soils of the United States. Washington, DC: Soil Conservation Service.

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1987. Hydric Soils of the United States, Second Edition. Washington, DC: Soil Conservation Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1991. Hydric Soils of the United States, Third Edition. Miscellaneous Publication Number 1491. Washington, DC: Soil Conservation Service. Updegraff, K., J. Pastor, S. D. Bridgham, and C. A. Johnston. 1995. Environmental and substrate quality controls over carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a beaver meadow and a bog. Ecol. Appli. 5:151-163. Van Cleve, K., and L. A. Viereck. 1983. A comparison of successional sequences following fire on permafrost-dominated and permafrost-free sites in interior Alaska. Pp. 1286-1291 in Proc. Int. Conference on Permafrost (Fourth), Fairbanks, AK, 1983. Washington DC: National Academy Press. Van Cleve, K., L. Oliver, R. Schlentner, L. A. Viereck, and C.T. Dyrness. 1983. Productivity and nutrient cycling in taiga forest ecosystems. Can. J. For. Res. 13:747-766. Van Cleve, K., F. S. Chapin, III, C. T. Dyrness, and L. A. Viereck. 1991. Element cycling in taiga forests: State-factor control. BioScience 41(2):78-88. van der Valk, A. G. 1981. Succession in wetlands: A Gleasonian approach. Ecology 62(3):688-696. van der Valk, A. G., and C. B. Davis. 1976. Changes in composition, structure, and production of plant communities along a perturbed wetland coenocline. Vegetation 32:87-96. van der Valk, A. G., and C. B. Davis. 1978. The role of seed banks in the vegetation dynamics of prairie glacial marshes. Ecology 59:322-335. van der Valk, A. G., and L. C. Bliss. 1971. Hydrarch succession and net primary production of oxbow lakes in central Alberta. Can. J. Bot. 49:1177-1199. van der Valk, A. G., and R.W. Jolly. 1992. Recommendations for research to develop guidelines for the use of wetlands to control rural nonpoint source pollution. Ecological Engineering 1:115-134. van Schilfgaarde, J. 1974. Nonsteady flow to drains. Pp. 245-270 in Drainage to Agriculture, J. van Schilfgaarde, ed. Madison: American Society of Agronomy. Veneman, P. L. M., and R. W. Tiner. 1990. Soil-vegetation correlations in the Connecticut River floodplain of western Massachusetts. Biol. Rep. 90(6). Washington D.C.: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Veneman, P. L. M., M. J. Vepraskas, and J. Bouma. 1976. The physical significance of soil mottling in a Wisconsin toposequence. Geoderma 15:103-118. Vennes, J. W., and O. O. Olsson. 1970. Microbiologic indicators of the efficiency of an aerated, continuous-discharge sewage lagoon in northern climates. Pp. 286-311 in Int. Symposium on Water Pollution Control in Cold Climates, R. S. Murphy and D. Nyquist, eds. Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks: U.S. Government Printing Office. Vepraskas, M. J., and W. R. Guertal. 1992. Morphological indicators of soil wetness. Pp. 307-312 in Proc. 8th Inter. Soil Correl. Mtg (VIII ISCOM): Characterization, Classification, and Utilization of Wet Soils, J. M. Kimble, ed. Lincoln, Nebr.: USDA, Soil Conserv. Service National Soil Survey Center. Vepraskas, M. J., and L. P. Wilding. 1983. Aquic moisture regimes in soils with and without low chroma colors. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47:280-285. Vézina, P. E., and M. M. Grandtner. 1965. Phenological observations of spring geophytes in Quebec. Ecology 46(6):869-872. Viereck, L. A. 1970. Forest succession and soil development adjacent to the Chena River in interior Alaska. Arct. Alpine Res. 2(1):1-26. Walker, D. A., K. R. Everett, P. J. Webber, and J. Brown. 1980. Geobotanical atlas of the Prudhoe Bay Region, Alaska. U.S. Army Cold Reg. Res. Eng. Lab. Rep. 80-14. Walker, M., D. Walker, and K. Everette. 1989. Wetlands and soil vegetation, Arctic Foothills, Alaska. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Biol. Rep. 89(7).

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries Want, W. L. 1989. Law of Wetland Regulation. New York: Clark Boardman. Watts, F. C., and G. W. Hurt. 1991. Determining depths to the seasonal high water table and hydric soils in Florida. Soil Survey Hor. 32:117-121. Weaver, J. E., and F. E. Clements. 1938. Plant Ecology. New York: McGraw-Hill. Webber, P. J., P. C. Miller, F. S. Chapin, III, and B. H. McCown. 1980. The vegetation: pattern and succession. Pp. 186-218 in An Arctic Ecosystem: The coastal tundra at Barrow, Alaska, J. Brown, P. C. Miller, L. L. Tieszen, and F. L. Bunnell, eds. US/IBP synthesis series: 12. Stroudsburg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross. Webster, R. 1973. Automatic soil-boundary location from transect data. Mathematical Geology 5:27-37. Webster, R., and I. F. T. Wong. 1969. A numerical procedure for testing soil boundaries interpreted from air photographs. Pbotogrammetria 24:59-72. Weller, J. D. 1995. Restoration of a south Florida forested wetland. Ecological Engineering 4(in press). Weller, M. W. 1981. Freshwater Marshes, Ecology and Wildlife Management. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minn. Press. Weller, M. W. 1988. Issues and approaches in assessing cumulative impacts on waterbird habitat in wetlands. Environ. Mgmt. 12:695-701. Weller, M. W., and C. E. Spatcher. 1965. Role of habitat in the distribution and abundance of marsh birds . Special Report No. 43. Ames: Iowa State University. Wennberg, J. 1993. Statement of the Honorable Jeffrey Wennberg, Mayor of Rutland, Vermont, Vice Chair, the National League of Cities, Energy, Environment, and Natural Resources Committee before the Public Works and Transportation Committee, Subcommittee on Water Resources, U.S. House of Representatives. 11 pp. Wentworth, T. R., and G. P. Johnson. 1986. Use of vegetation for the designation of wetlands. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 107. Wentworth, T. R., G. P. Johnson, and R. L. Kologiski. 1988. Designation of wetlands by weighted averages of vegetation data: A preliminary evaluation. Water Resources Bulletin 24(2):389-396. Whalen, S. C., and W. S. Reeburgh. 1992. Interannual variations in tundra methane emission: A 4-year time series at fixed sites. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6(2):139-159. Wharton, C. H., W. M. Kitchens, E. C. Pendelton, and T. W. Sipe. 1982. The ecology of bottomland hardwood swamps of the Southeast: A community profile. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. FWS/OBS-81/37. Whigham, D. F., and R. L. Simpson. 1978. The relationship between aboveground biomass of freshwater tidal wetland macrophytes. Aquatic Botany 5:355-364. Whigham, D. F., C. Chitterling, and B. Palmer. 1988. Impacts of freshwater wetlands on water quality: A landscape perspective. Environ. Mgmt. 12:663-671. Whittaker, R. H. 1967. Gradient analysis of vegetation. Biological Review 42:207-264. Whittaker, R. H. 1975. Communities and Ecosystems, Second edition. New York: Macmillan Publishing. Whittaker, R. H. 1978. Direct Gradient Analysis. Pp. 9-50 in Ordination of Plant Communities, R. H. Whittaker ed. The Hague, The Netherlands: W. Junk. Wierengu, P. J., J. M. H. Hendrick, M. H. Nash, J. A. Ludwig, and L. A. Daugherty. 1987. Variation of soil and vegetation with distance along a transect in the Chihuahuan Desert. J. Arid Environments 13:53-63. Wiken, E. 1986. Terrestrial ecozones of Canada. Ecological Land Classification Series No. 19. Ottawa: Environment Canada. Winter, T. C. 1988. A conceptual framework for assessing cumulative impacts on hydrology of nontidal wetlands. Environ. Mgmt. 12:605-620.

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries Winter, T. C. 1989. Hydrologic studies of wetlands in the northern prairie. Pp. 16-54 in Northern Prairie Wetlands, A. Van der Valk ed. Ames: Iowa State University Press. Winter, T. C. 1992. A physiographic and climatic framework for hydrologic studies of wetlands. Pp. 127-148 in Aquatic Ecosystems in Semi-Arid Regions: Implications for Resource Management, R. D. Roberts and M. L. Bothwell, eds. N.H.R.I. Symposium Series 7. Saskatoon: Environment Canada. Wright, J. O. 1907. Swamp and overflowed lands in the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Circular 76. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Zedler, J. B. 1982. The Ecology of Southern California Coasal Salt Marshes: A community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Services Program, Washington, DC. FWS//OSB-81/54. Zedler, P. H. 1987. The ecology of southern California vernal pools: A community profile. Biol. Report 85 (7.11). Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Zedler, J. B., C. S. Nordgy, and B. E. Kus. 1992. The ecology of Tijuana Estuary, California: A National Estuarine Research Reserve . Washington, DC: NOAA Office of Coastal Resource Management, Sanctuaries and Reserves Division. Zimov, S. A., I. P. Semiletov, S. P. Daviodov, Yu. V. Voropaev, S. F. Prosyannikov, C. S. Wong, and Y.-H. Chart. 1993. Wintertime CO2 emission from soils of northeastern Siberia. Arctic 46(3):197-204. Zinn, J. A., and C. Copeland. 1982. Wetland Management, Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Zolotareva, B., and T. Demkina. 1993. Soil biological activity and transformation of organic matter during winter. Pp. 321-325 in Joint Russian-American seminar on cryopedology and global change, D. A. Gilichinsky, ed. Pushchino, Russia, 1992. Pushchino: Russian Academy of Science.

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries APPENDIXES

OCR for page 227
Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries This page in the original is blank.