Index

A

Acreage, wetlands, 1, 16, 37, 158, 159-160, 195

Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS), 68, 69 , 193

Agricultural wetlands, 2, 9, 17, 73, 158-162, 167, 179, 191, 196, 206, 208, 222

Alaska, 8, 58, 85, 97-98, 100, 112, 149-150, 151, 152, 174

Alder (Alnus rubra), 173

Algae, 61, 137, 141, 157

Alpine wet meadows, 155

Altered wetlands (nonagricultural), 9, 51-52, 74, 86-88, 146, 162-165, 167, 184, 185, 201, 202

Amphibians, 38

Anaerobic conditions, 94-96, 107, 111-113, 115, 118, 121, 172

Arctic Coastal Plain, 151

Arctic tundra, 25, 98, 99-100, 151

Arizona, 37, 38, 40

Arnold, Richard W., 116-117

Arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia), 104

Assessment of wetlands.

See also Delineation of wetlands

accuracy of, 192, 196, 206

administrative differences, 208-209

aerial photography, 10, 69, 73, 77, 78, 86, 108, 144, 164, 165, 190-194, 195-196, 205, 206, 211

altered sites, 146, 164-165

boundary detection, 193-194, 204-206, 207

field methodology, 71-72, 73, 77, 82, 120, 147, 185, 192-193, 212

functional, 11, 215-226

geographic information systems, 199-201

goals, 184-185

hierarchical approach, 143-144, 145, 148

hydrology, 91-92, 93, 106-108, 147, 165, 191, 202-204, 218, 222

models and modeling, 10, 103, 146, 187, 202-204, 206, 221

modified approach, 139-141

National Food Security Act Manual, 222

need for, 91-92, 215

office methods, 88, 213

and permit applications, 223

Primacy Indicators Method, 141-143, 144, 148



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Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries Index A Acreage, wetlands, 1, 16, 37, 158, 159-160, 195 Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS), 68, 69 , 193 Agricultural wetlands, 2, 9, 17, 73, 158-162, 167, 179, 191, 196, 206, 208, 222 Alaska, 8, 58, 85, 97-98, 100, 112, 149-150, 151, 152, 174 Alder (Alnus rubra), 173 Algae, 61, 137, 141, 157 Alpine wet meadows, 155 Altered wetlands (nonagricultural), 9, 51-52, 74, 86-88, 146, 162-165, 167, 184, 185, 201, 202 Amphibians, 38 Anaerobic conditions, 94-96, 107, 111-113, 115, 118, 121, 172 Arctic Coastal Plain, 151 Arctic tundra, 25, 98, 99-100, 151 Arizona, 37, 38, 40 Arnold, Richard W., 116-117 Arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia), 104 Assessment of wetlands. See also Delineation of wetlands accuracy of, 192, 196, 206 administrative differences, 208-209 aerial photography, 10, 69, 73, 77, 78, 86, 108, 144, 164, 165, 190-194, 195-196, 205, 206, 211 altered sites, 146, 164-165 boundary detection, 193-194, 204-206, 207 field methodology, 71-72, 73, 77, 82, 120, 147, 185, 192-193, 212 functional, 11, 215-226 geographic information systems, 199-201 goals, 184-185 hierarchical approach, 143-144, 145, 148 hydrology, 91-92, 93, 106-108, 147, 165, 191, 202-204, 218, 222 models and modeling, 10, 103, 146, 187, 202-204, 206, 221 modified approach, 139-141 National Food Security Act Manual, 222 need for, 91-92, 215 office methods, 88, 213 and permit applications, 223 Primacy Indicators Method, 141-143, 144, 148

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Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries professional judgment in, 212 quality control and quality assurance, 10, 187, 195, 207-208, 210-212 recommendations, 146 recordkeeping, 10, 212, 214 reference sites, 108, 148, 187, 214, 221 regionalization of, 168-169, 181, 185, 186, 208, 220-21 responsibility for, 10-11 satellite imaging, 10, 108, 191, 193, 201, 205, 206 seed banks used for, 104-105 soil maps, 69, 73, 77, 86, 119-120, 144, 146, 164-165, 192 standards, 212 timeliness of, 212-213 topographic maps, 192 training and certification, 10, 81, 147, 148, 194, 208, 209-210, 211, 214 vegetation, 129-131 Atchafalaya Basin, 157 Atriplex watsonii, 172 B Beavers, 25 Bentsen, Lloyd, 53 Biodiversity, 37-38, 127, 153 Biological zero, 97-99, 112 Biota of wetlands. See also Hydrophytic vegetation; Vegetation dependent species, 38, 39 and definition of wetlands, 59, 61, 136-137 organisms other than vegetation, 136-137 Black cottonwood, 172 Black gum (Nyssa sylvatica var biflora), 126 Black spruce (Picea mariana), 104, 150, 151 Bogs, 40 Bureau of Land Management, 48, 114 Bureau of Reclamation, 48 Bush administration, 2, 18, 73 C California, 37, 113, 157, 172 Canada geese, 25 Canadian National Wetlands Working Group, 152 Canadian Wildlife Service, 48 Carex riparia (C. lacustris), 104 Cases (litigation) Hobbs v. United States, 69 Natural Resources Defense Council v. Callaway, 47, 53 United States v. Akers, 69 United States v. Cumberland Farms of Connecticut, Inc., 69 United States v. Grand River Dam Authority, 47 United States v. Huebner, 69 United States v. Riverside Bayview Homes, 55 Characterization of wetlands. See Hydrology; Soils; Vegetation ''Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States'' (Cowardin Report), 54-55, 58 Clean Water Act exclusions/exemptions, 11, 66, 68-69, 158 jurisdiction, 66 protection of wetlands, 18, 66-68, 153, 160 Section 404, 2, 9, 51, 52-54, 55, 66-69, 155, 158, 179, 184, 195, 211, 217, 218 Clinton administration, 18, 69, 158 Coalition to Restore Coastal Louisiana, 89 Coastal Zone Management Act amendments of 1980, 224 Colorado, 156 Conifer swamps, 85 Connecticut, 219 Conservation Foundation, 48 Conversion of wetlands, 1, 16-17, 44, 69, 100, 158-160 Cottonwood, 172 Cypress (Taxodium) swamps, 25 D Databases Annotated National Wetland Plant Species Database, 124

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Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries Soil Survey Data Base, 201 Soil Interpretations Record database, 115 STORET water quality, 201 wetland delineations, 212 Definition of wetlands. See also Terminology agricultural wetlands, 158 application of, 63-64 charge to Committee, 14 Clean Water Act and, 52-54 controversial wetlands, 8, 152, 155 Cowardin Report, 54-55, 58 ecosystem concept in, 57, 58, 59 evolution of, 47-56 Food Security Act, 2, 8, 56, 118, 152, 161 FWS, 48, 49-51, 54-55, 57-58 hydrologic criterion, 4, 8, 51, 55, 57, 58, 61, 62, 92-93, 100 importance, 2 interrelationships of criteria, 7-8, 133, 137-145, 148 NRCS, 57 recommendations, 64 reference, 3-4, 12, 59-61, 63-64, 88 regulatory, 3, 8, 12, 47-56, 58-64, 65-66 scientific principles applied to, 43 status of, 57-58 Swamp Land Act of 1850, 44 substrate criterion, 6, 55, 57-58, 61, 62-63 USACE, 2, 49, 51-52, 57, 62, 65-66, 161 vegetation criterion, 6-7, 52, 55, 57, 61, 63 Delineation of wetlands. See also Assessment of wetlands; Manuals, federal; National Wetlands Inventory agricultural lands, 161 authority for, 67 biological indicators, potential, 137, 148 Clean Water Act and, 66-68 consistency and reliability problems, 207-208 EPA, 68 exemptions and exceptions, 67, 68-69, 72-73, 88, 161 Food Security Act and, 68-70, 190, 192-195 hydrology, 71, 74, 75-78 motivation for, 66 recommendations, 64, 144-147 reference materials for, 146, 196, 198 regionalization and, 9-10, 146, 168, 180 soils, 71, 74, 85-86, 118-119, 142-143, 144-145, 146 transition zones and, 9, 14-15, 24, 41-42, 54-55, 58, 64 USACE, 2, 66 vegetation, 71, 78-85, 121-122, 126-131, 137, 142, 145 Depressional wetlands, 9, 25, 40, 151, 156, 160, 171 Disturbed areas. See Altered wetlands Duck Stamp Program, 17, 45, 48 E Ecology of wetlands. See also Functions of wetlands classes, 20-21 dry phases, 36 ecosystem nature, 21-34, 57, 59 hydrogeomorphic characteristics, 24-25 hydrology, 22-25 natural disturbances and, 25, 32, 151, 162 nutrient transformation, 25, 32-34 organic matter, 25, 110-111 permafrost, 150-151 sedimentation, 39, 40 soil formation processes, 110-111 transitional zones, 41-42, 139 vegetation, 24, 28-29 variations among wetlands, 15-16, 24-25 Ellender, Allan, 46 Emergency Wetland Reserve Program, 160 Environmental Defense Fund, 89 Environmental movement, 17 Everglades, 20, 89 Evergreen-forested swamps, 85, 126

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Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries Executive Order 11574, 46 Executive Order 11988, 154 F Fairchild Tropical Garden, 123 Fairy shrimp, 38 Federal Emergency Management Agency, 154 Federal Highway Administration, 218-219 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. See also Clean Water Act coverage, 1, 45-47 judicial interpretation, 47 Section 402, 46 Section 404, 46-47 Fens, 91, 104, 174 Flooding, indicators, 108-109, 146 Floodplain wetlands, 36, 38, 105, 119, 121, 151, 154-155, 185 Florida, 25, 117, 181, 185 Food, Agricultural, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, 56, 194 Food Security Act appeals process, 194 definition of wetlands, 2, 8, 56, 118, 152 delineation of wetlands, 68-70, 190, 192-195 exemptions and exclusions, 69, 152, 222 Hydric Soils List, 114 manual, 2, 69, 72-73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 82, 85, 86, 88, 159, 161 , 195, 211 swampbuster provisions, 18, 56, 68, 69, 70, 158, 160, 195, 211 Forested bottomlands, 41-42, 89, 91, 92, 102-103, 111, 172, 185,196 Freshwater tidal marshes, 104 Fringe wetlands, 25, 40 Functions of wetlands agricultural wetlands, 160-161 assessment, 11, 36, 215-226 biodiversity, 37-38, 153 capacity, 216 categories, 34, 35 classification of wetlands by, 49 definition of, 34 headwater wetlands, 156 indicators, 216-217 isolated wetlands, 156 landscape perspective, 36-37 measurement of, 217-220 nutrient cycling, 32-34, 38, 40 permit assessments, 217 riparian zones, 8-9 shallow/intermittently flooded wetlands, 157 thresholds, 217 unique, 35-36 value to society and, 11, 15, 17-18, 34-35, 36-37, 215-216, 221,223 watershed hydrology and, 38, 40-41, 42 G Geographic information systems, 199-201, 206 Growing season, 78, 94-103, 107, 146, 172, 181, 183-184 Great Dismal Swamp, 20, 89, 104 H Hassayampa River, 38, 40 Headwater wetlands, 9, 154, 155-156 Hemlock swamps and bogs, 85, 126, 131 H.R. 11896, 46 Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire, 187 Hydric soils absence of, 6, 136, 147 atypical, 88 criteria for, 114-116 definition, 56, 85, 96, 110, 114-116, 254 delineation of wetlands with, 118-119, 133, 139 fidelity indicators, 117-118, 146, 189 hydrology and, 76 hydrophytic vegetation and, 118, 130, 134-135 importance, 4, 6, 57-58, 61, 144-145 indicators, 6, 62-63, 85-86, 116, 120, 133, 141, 147, 211 microbial activity, 99

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Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries regional technical committees, 146 redoximorphic features, 61, 94 saturation frequency threshold, 103-104 water table data and, 115, 118-119 Hydric Soils List, 6, 10, 55, 97, 113-118, 146, 148, 181, 186, 188 Hydrology altered, 147, 163-164 assessment, 4, 5, 91-92, 93, 104-105, 106-108, 138, 139, 140, 146, 185, 191, 202-204, 218, 222 capillary action, 75-76, 93 biota and, 24, 38, 39 boundary delineation with, 91, 108 classification schemes, 174, 180 critical depth (water table), 5, 75, 76, 93, 102, 103, 104-107, 108, 111, 115, 118-119, 146, 203-204 definition of wetlands and, 4, 8, 51, 55, 57, 59, 61, 62 degree-day concept, 95 duration of saturation/innundation, 38, 91, 94-103, 105, 146, 181, 183-184, 189 growing season concept, 5, 78, 94-103, 107, 146, 181, 183-184 hydroperiods, 23-24, 26-27, 32, 91, 109 importance of, 90-91, 138, 139 indicators, 76-77, 92, 108-109, 143, 146, 147-148, 185 interannual variation, 104-106, 138 manuals compared, 75-78, 93, 96, 97, 100-101, 103, 107 models/modeling, 100-102, 103, 105-107, 109, 165, 191, 201-204 moisture gradients, 24, 128 natural disturbances and, 25 nature of, 91 and nutrient transformation, 25, 32-34 and organic matter, 25 recommendations, 144-146, 189 regional variation, 170-171, 174, 175, 186 thresholds, 5, 51, 55, 61, 75, 76, 92-93, 95, 100-101, 103-108, 146, 202 vegetation and, 24, 133-134, 140, 143, 147-148, 184 visual indicators, 5 weather and, 146 Hydrophyte List, 6, 10, 56, 80, 122-126, 128-129, 134, 147, 148,181, 186, 188, 189 Hydrophytic vegetation absence of, 136-137 adaptations, 123, 131, 141, 172 boundary delineation with, 126, 148 definitions, 56, 78-80, 121, 122-123 dominance measure, 7, 82-83, 126-128, 129, 135, 147 FAC-neutral tests, 7, 132 fidelity rating, 6-7, 80, 124 hydrology and, 76, 104, 140, 147-148, 184 importance, 4, 57, 61 indicators, 81-84, 124, 133, 141, 147-148 manuals compared, 78-85, 122-123 prevalence index, 7, 56, 80-85, 126, 128-129, 135, 144, 147, 205 soil requirements, 118, 133, 134-135 thresholds, 129-130 wetland ecotypes, 125-126, 131-132 I Illinois, 37, 216 Institute of Ecology, 48 International Committee on Aquic Moisture Regime, 254 Invertebrates, aquatic, 137, 157, 172 Iowa, 174 Island biogeography, 37 Isolated wetlands, 155, 156. See also Depressional wetlands K Kirkham wetlands, 133 L Lake Calumet, 216 Lodgepole pine bogs, 85 Longleaf pine wet savannahs, 85 Louisiana, 89, 157

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Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries M Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, 206 Managed wetlands, 24, 225 Manuals, delineation comparisons, 3, 74-89, 93, 97, 103 definitions and, 65-66 differential applications, 88-89, 214 EPA (1988), 2, 71-72, 97 flow diagrams and charts, 213 interagency (1989), 2, 3, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76-77, 78, 79, 81, 83-84, 86, 88, 89, 93, 97, 98, 103, 111, 128, 165, 174, 185, 190, 205 National Food Security Act Manual (1985), 2, 69, 72-73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 82, 85, 86, 88, 159, 161, 195, 211, 222 recommendations, 3, 144-148 regionalization, 185-186 revisions, proposed (1991), 2, 3, 73-74, 76, 77, 78, 79-80, 82, 84 -85, 87-88, 93, 97, 103 USACE (1987), 2, 3, 70-71, 72, 73, 74, 75-76, 77, 78, 80-81, 82, 85-86, 87, 88, 89, 96, 97, 100-101, 103, 105, 107, 128, 161, 165, 185, 205 Maps/mapping conventions, 193, 195 digitization, 201 ecoregion, 175, 176-178 soils, 69, 110, 119-120, 144, 146, 165, 171, 181, 192, 193, 201, 256 topographic, 165, 192, 201 wetlands inventory, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195-201 McCracken, Ralph, 114 Methane fluxes, 99 Minnesota peatlands, 20-21, 99, 157, 171 Mississippi River delta, 20, 40, 119, 171 Mississippi River Valley, 160 Missouri River Basin (Upper), 132 Models and modeling, 10, 100-102, 103, 105, 106, 146, 165, 187, 191, 201-204, 206, 221 Monanthochloe littoralis, 172 Montana, 153 Mosses, 98, 125, 137, 150, 151, 157 Muskie, Edmund, 46, 53 Muskegs, 85 Muskrats, 25 N National Aerial Photography Program, 196 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 191, 201 National Flood Insurance Program, 154 National High Altitude Photography program, 196 National List of Plant Species that Occur in Wetlands. See Hydrophyte List National Marine Fisheries Service, 48 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 50 National Stream Quality Accounting Network, 175 National Technical Committee for Hydric Soils (NTCHS), 6, 85, 96, 114, 181 National Wetlands Inventory, 10, 48, 66, 69, 114, 118, 123, 164, 190, 191, 192, 194, 195-201, 217 National Wetlands Policy Forum, 18, 225 Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Agricultural Water Quality Incentives Program, 194 budget, 158 definition of wetlands, 57, 159 delineation of wetlands, 68, 69, 72-73, 158, 190, 194-195, 211 Environmental Conservation Acreage Program, 194 hydric soils definition, 110 manual, 2, 72-74 National Resources Inventory, 147, 175, 187 regionalization, 179, 181, 183 Soil Interpretations Record database, 115 Wetlands Reserve Program, 19, 194 Nature Conservancy, 48 New Hampshire, 219 New Jersey, 219 Nixon administration, 46 North Carolina, 196 North Dakota, 191

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Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries O Office of Coastal Zone Management, 48 Okefenoke Swamp, 38 Organic matter, 25, 110-111, 121, 150-151 P Paper birch swamps and bogs, 85 Parker, W.B., 114 Peatlands, 20-21, 25, 99, 125, 131 Peltandra virginica, 104 Permafrost soils, 112, 149-150 wetlands, 8, 97, 150-152, 166 Permitting systems and programs Advanced Identification, 224 altered sites, 51-52 Clean Water Act, 66-67, 211 compensatory mitigation, 223 exemptions, 67 functional assessments, 217, 218-219, 223 Nationwide Permit 26, 9, 154, 155-156, 166-167 permits by rule, 67-68 reforms, 19 Refuse Act of 1899, 46 state authority, 53-54 timeliness of assessments, 212-213 verification of delineations, 211 Pine flatwoods, 25, 41 Pitch pine lowlands, 85 Playas, 73, 82, 85, 112, 155 Plymouth, North Carolina, 100-102, 105, 107 Pocosins, 73, 85 Policies, federal. See also Regulation of wetlands Bush administration, 2 conversion of wetlands, 1, 44 excluded lands, 8-9, 11-12, 58, 63-64, 69-70, 155 floodplains, 154 "no net loss" principle, 18-19 protection of wetlands, 13-14, 45, 56 Prairie potholes agricultural use, 73, 160 biodiversity and, 37 boundary determination, 41, 141 case study, 132, 160 classification schemes, 174 drainage and fill permits, 155 functions, 37, 156, 216 hydrology, 24, 104 regionalization, 171, 172, 174, 186 satellite imaging of, 191 sedimentation and nutrient cycling, 40 vegetation, 82, 85, 132 R Recommendations altered lands, 167 assessment methodologies, 203 delineation of wetlands, 64, 188, 226 federal administration, 214 functional assessment of wetlands, 226 hydrology, 144-146, 189 isolated wetlands and headwaters, 166-167 manuals, 144-148 permafrost wetlands, 166 quality control and quality assurance, 214 recordkeeping, 214 regionalization, 188-189 reference definition, 64 reference wetlands, 214 riparian ecosystems, 166 soils, 146-147, 189 studies of wetland phenomena, 42, 96, 146 training and certification of delineators, 214 transition zones, 167 vegetation, 147-148, 189 Red maple swamps, 126, 129-130, 131, 132, 141 Reed, P.B., 123 Reference sites, 108, 148, 187, 214, 221 Refuse Act of 1899, 46 Regionalization abundance of wetlands, 173-174 advantages and disadvantages, 185-186 classification schemes, 174-179, 225 climatic and physiographic basis, 169, 175, 180, 184-185, 186, 188

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Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries and delineation of wetlands, 9-10, 146, 168-169, 185 ecological basis, 175, 176-178, 188 federal agencies, 179-180 growing season concept and, 146 hierarchy of variation, 169-174 hydrogeomorphic classification, 175, 179, 220-221 hydrology, 170-171, 174, 175, 180, 181, 183-184, 186, 188 implementation, 188 recommendations, 188-189 research support for, 186-187 soils, 117, 146, 171, 181, 186 vegetation, 123, 172-173, 174, 181, 186 Regulation of wetlands. See also individual statutes agricultural wetlands, 161-162 consistency and reliability problems, 207-208 current context for, 18-19 history, 16-18 jurisdiction, 15, 47, 51, 52, 53-54, 64, 66, 70, 88 permafrost, 152 responsibility for, 66, 214 riparian ecosystems, 153 staff requirements, 148 state authority, 53-54, 66 Restoration of wetlands, 167, 225 Riparian zones, 8-9, 25, 37, 41, 112, 152-155, 166, 171 River bottomlands, 37 Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, 45 S S. 2770, 46 Salicornia subterminalis, 172 Salicornia virginica, 172 Salt marshes, 41, 91, 172 Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, 52 Shallow/intermittently flooded wetlands, 9, 156-157, 167 Slope wetlands, 25 Smith, Rep. 53 Smithsonian Institution, 123 Society of Wetland Scientists, 210 Soil Conservation Service, 48, 175, 254. See also National Resources Conservation Service Soils. See also Hydric soils alterations in, 163 anaerobic conditions, 94-96, 107, 111-113, 115, 118, 121 aquic conditions, 110, 118, 254-256 Canadian classification system, 112 definitions of, 109-110 histosols, 110, 140 inundation, 257 maps/surveys, 69, 110, 119-120, 144, 146, 165, 171, 181, 196, 201, 256 microbes and microbial activity, 98-99 moisture regime, 110, 171, 254 natural drainage classes, 256-257 nomenclature, 171, 253-254 permafrost, 112 recommendations, 146-147 reduction, 255-256 redoximorphic features, 113, 255, 256 regionalization, 117, 146, 171 saturation, 255 taxonomy, 171 temperature, 94-96 transition zones, 134, 139 variation, 139 South Carolina, 103 Sport Fishing Institute, 48 St. Louis, Missouri, 95, 96 Substrates. See also Hydric soils; Soils assessment, 6-7 criterion, 6, 55, 57-58, 61, 62-63 nonhydric indicators, 6, 136, 147 Sugar maple swamps, 85 Swamp Land Act of 1850, 16-17, 44, 160 Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), 126 T Taiga ecosystems, 98 Tamarack, 85, 104 Tennessee Valley Authority, 48 Terminology "adjacent wetlands,"; 53, 55 "criteria," 4, 62-63 "disturbed areas,"; 87-88 "dominant dpecies,"; 82-83

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Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries growing season, 78, 96-97 history of, 43-47 "hydric soils,"; 56, 114-115 "hydrophytic vegetation, 56, 78-80 "indicators,"; 62-63 "navigable waters,"; 45, 47, 53, 55, 66 normality issue, 51-52 "parameters,"; 4, 61 "swamp,"; 43 "wetland,"; 43, 110 Thermokarst lakes, 151 Transition zones, 9, 14-15, 24, 41-42, 58, 64, 131, 132-133, 134, 135-136, 139, 166, 167 Tundra See Arctic tundra; Permafrost wetlands Tussock, 104, 123 U University of Rhode Island, 50 Uplands, 36, 38, 41-42, 125, See also Transition zones U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) certification of wetland delineators, 209, 210, 211, 214 conversion of wetlands, 16-17, 45 definition of wetlands, 2, 49, 51-52, 56, 57, 62 delineation manual, 2, 65-66, 70-71, 73, 74, 75-76, 77, 78, 80-81, 82, 85-86, 88, 89, 96, 100-101, 103, 105, 107, 161, 165 dredge and fill program, 46-47 functional assessment manual, 217-218, 219-220 permitting authority, 46-47, 54, 66-67, 179, 180, 217 regionalization, 179, 180, 182 Special Area Management Plans, 224-225 Waterways Experiment Station, 70, 218, 220 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Conservation Program, 160 conversion of wetlands, 17, 160 manual, 2 regionalization, 175 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) manual, 2, 71-72 North American Landscape Characterization program, 201 policy initiatives, 18, 69 regionalization, 175, 179, 182 wetlands evaluation authority, 46, 68, 211, 223 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). See also National Wetlands Inventory Annotated National Wetland Plant Species Database, 124 definition of wetlands, 48, 49-51, 57-58 Habitat Evaluation Procedure, 218 manual, 2 regionalization, 179, 183 Soil-Vegetation Correlation reports, 174 U.S. Forest Service, 48, 114 U.S. Geological Survey, 48, 50, 175, 187, 196, 201 U.S. Water Resources Council, 218 V Vegetation. See also Hydrophytic vegetation alterations in, 162-163 analysis, 41, 140 boundary setting with, 135-136, 141 criterion, 6-7, 52, 55, 57, 61, 63 evapotranspiration, 112-113 facultative species, 84-85, 125-126, 131-133, 135, 173 and hydrology, 24, 133-134 indicators, 4, 6, 142 opportunistic species, 132 permafrost wetlands, 150-151 phreatophytes, 154, 155 prevalence, 52 regional variation, 172-173, 174 riparian ecosystems, 154, 155 succession, 150-151 stresses on, 121, 172 transition zones, 131, 132-133, 134, 135-136 variation over time, 138-139 zonation, 24, 28-29 Vernal pools, 41, 82, 85, 112, 155, 157 Virginia Institute of Marine Science, 219

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Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries W Waterfowl, 17, 34, 45, 48, 156 Watershed planning, 223-225 White pine bogs, 85, 131 White spruce (Picea glauca), 150 Wildlife Management Institute, 48 Wildlife Refuge System, 45 Willamette River Valley, 112 Wisconsin, 104, 174, 219 World Wildlife Fund, 89 Y Yazoo River Basin, 191