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Biographical Data JESSE H. AUSUBEL is director of the Program for the Human Environment at The Rockefeller University in New York City. Mr. Ausubel's interests include environmental science and technology and industrial evolution. The main themes of the Rockefeller program are industrial ecology (a field Mr. Ausubel helped originate in 1988-1989) and the long-term interactions of technology and the environment. From 1977 to 1988, Mr. Ausubel was associated with the National Academy complex in Washington, D.C., first as a resident fellow of the National Academy of Sciences, then as a staff officer with the National Research Council Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, and from 1983 to 1988 as Director of Programs for the National Academy of Engineering. Educated at Harvard and Columbia universities, Mr. Ausubel serves concurrently as a program officer of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, where his concerns include the performance of the U.S. academic enterprise. ROBERT A. FROSCH is a senior research fellow at the Center for Science and International Affairs of the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. In 1989 Dr. Frosch revived, redefined, and popularized the term "industrial ecology," and his research has focused on this field in recent years, especially in metals-handling industries. In 1993 he retired from the position of vice president of the General Motors Corporation in charge of the North Ameri- can Operations Research and Development Center. Dr. Frosch holds a Ph.D. in theoretical physics from Columbia University. After doing research in underwa- ter sound and ocean acoustics, he served for a dozen years in a number of government positions, including deputy director of the Advanced Research 199

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200 BIOGRAPHICAL DATA Projects Agency of the Department of Defense, assistant secretary of the Navy, assistant executive director of the United Nations Environment Program, and administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. SHEKHAR GOVIND is assistant professor of civil and environmental engineer- ing at the University of Texas at Arlington, where he teaches transportation planning, urban infrastructure, and systems analysis. Dr. Govind received his bachelor of technology degree in civil engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, and his master's and Ph.D. degrees in civil engineering from the University of Texas at Austin. His research interests include intermodal transportation systems, urban planning and growth, and design of algorithms for parallel processing computers. ARNULF GRUB LER is a research scholar in the Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies Project at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analy- sis in Laxenburg, Austria. Dr. Grubler's scientific interests include the long-term qualitative and quantitative history of technological evolution and its relationship to global change, as well as the dynamic modeling and analysis of technical change within and between different economic and social environments. He has built up a database of more than a thousand cases of diffusion of technologies, especially in energy and transportation. Dr. Grubler received his master's degree in engineering from the Technical University of Vienna, where he was also awarded his Ph.D. He lectures regularly at the University of Vienna, the Techni- cal University of Graz, and the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste. ROBERT HERMAN is L. P. Gilvin Centennial Professor, Emeritus, in Civil Engineering and sometime professor of physics at the University of Texas at Austin. Before assuming his present position in 1979, Dr. Herman headed the Department of Theoretical Physics and the Traffic Science Department of the General Motors Research Laboratories. His research has covered a wide range of both theoretical and experimental investigations, including molecular and solid- state physics, high-energy electron scattering, astrophysics and cosmology, and operations research, especially vehicular traffic science and transportation. He led a National Academy of Engineering project on infrastructures that resulted in the 1988 National Academy Press book Cities and Their Vital Systems (J. H. Ausubel and R. Herman, eds.~. With Ralph Alpher in 1948, Dr. Herman made the first theoretical prediction that the universe should now be filled with cosmic microwave background radiation, which is key evidence for the validity of the big bang model of the origin of the universe. He holds degrees in physics from

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BIOGRAPHICAL DATA 201 City College, New York, and from Princeton University and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. ROBERT W. KATES is an independent scholar in Trenton, Maine, and director emeritus of the Feinstein World Hunger Program at Brown University. His interests include the prevalence and persistence of hunger, long-term population dynamics, sustainability of the biosphere, and natural and technological hazards. Professor Kates worked in a steel mill in Gary, Indiana, and received a Ph.D. degree from the University of Chicago without having received an undergraduate degree. From 1962 to 1986 he served on the faculty at Clark University. From 1967 to 1969 Professor Kates directed the Bureau of Land Use Planning in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Science. CESARE MARCHETTI is an Institute Scholar at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which he joined 1974 to contribute to research on energy systems. Dr. Marchetti received his education in physics at the University of Pisa. His early work was in physical chemistry and chemical engineering of nuclear reactors. He joined the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) in 1959 and represented EURATOM in Canada for 2 years, work- ing in the field of reactor optimization. He returned in 1961 to head the European Community Ispra Research Center Physical Chemistry Division, and later the Materials Division, where his group pioneered the exploration of the production of hydrogen by thermochemical and other means. Since the early 1970s he has authored more than 100 papers on the time patterns of technological choice, their conceptual origins, and their implications for future developments in energy, transportation, and the spatial organization of human activities. KLAUS MICHAEL MEYER-ABICH is a professor of the philosophy of nature at the Wissenschaftszentrum (science center) in Nordrhein-Westfalen and at the University of Essen. He studied physics and philosophy at Hamburg and Gottingen in Germany and at Bloomington, Indiana, and Berkeley, California, in the United States. He received his M.S. degree in physics in 1961 and his Ph.D. in 1964. Dr. Meyer-Abich has held faculty positions at the University of Ham- burg and at the Max Planck Institute for the Study of the Conditions of Life in the Modern World at Stamberg, near Munich. He has also served as a minister for science and research in the state of Hamburg and as a member of the German parliament's Enquete Commissions on the Future of Energy Policy and on the Protection of the Atmosphere. NEBOJSA NAKICENOVI(: directs the Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies Project at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria. He also leads energy scenario development for the World

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202 BIOGRAPHICAL DATA Energy Council and has been a principal contributor to the energy studies of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. His research interests include the representation of technical change in economic modeling, the long-term patterns of technological change and economic development, and, in particular, the evolu- tion of energy, automotive, and aerospace technologies. Dr. Nakicenovic holds bachelor's and master's degrees in economics and computer science from Princeton University and the University of Vienna, where he also received his Ph.D. LEE S CHIPPER is a visiting scientist at the International Energy Agency, on leave from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berke- ley, where he has been a leader of the International Energy Studies group. He has consulted for the United Nations, the World Bank, and many other international organizations and has worked in or visited more than 30 countries in connection with his work. His current work includes comparisons of energy use in the manufacturing and transportation sectors of major industrialized countries. Dr. Schipper holds degrees in music and physics from the University of California, Berkeley. He is a jazz vibraphonist and pianist and has been a faculty member of the San Francisco Conservatory of Music. CHAUNCEY STARR was founding president and vice chairman of the Electric Power Research Institute, where he is now president emeritus. Following a 20- year career in industry, during which he was vice president of Rockwell Interna- tional and president of its Atomics International Division, Dr. Starr served as dean of the School of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of California, Los Angeles. He made pioneering contributions to nuclear propul- sion for rockets and ramjets, miniaturization of nuclear reactors for space, and development of nuclear power plants. Dr. Starr received a degree in electrical engineering and a Ph.D. in physics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and in 1990 received the National Medal of Technology for his contributions to engineering and the elec- tric industry. PAUL E. WAGGONER is a Distinguished Scientist at the Connecticut Agricul- tural Experiment Station in New Haven. He has held that title since 1987, after serving 15 years as director of the station. Dr. Waggoner was educated in meteo- rology and was a weather forecaster in the U.S. Air Force. He studied agricul- tural climatology and plant pathology at Iowa State University, where he re- ceived his Ph.D. His investigations have encompassed water relations and diseases of plants as well as micrometeorology. Since 1983 he has participated in studies of climate change with the National Research Council, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

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BIOGRAPHICAL DATA 203 IDDO K. WERNICK works as a research associate in the Program for the Human Environment at The Rockefeller University. Dr. Wernick received his bachelor's degree in physics from the University of California, Los Angeles, and his Ph.D. in applied physics from Columbia University. Dr. Wernick's research covers the environmental consequences of natural resource use and environmental analysis of materials flows in the U.S. economy. He is currently investigating materials flows as they relate to industrial practice in the forest products sector. His recent work includes preparation of a research agenda for the emerging discipline of industrial ecology. Dr. Wernick has also written on the technical and political context for community assessment of local environmental risk. ROBERT M. WHITE is a senior fellow of the University Corporation for Atmo- spheric Research, president of the Washington Advisory Group, a Washington, D.C., consulting firm, and president emeritus of the National Academy of Engi- neering. Dr. White established one of the first private corporations devoted to environmental science and services. He served in the federal government under five presidents, from 1963 to 1977, first as chief of the U.S. Weather Bureau and finally as the first administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad- ministration. In these capacities he is credited with bringing about a revolution in the U.S. weather warning system using satellite and computer technology, help- ing to initiate new approaches to the balanced management of the country's coastal zones, and promoting the protection of American fisheries. Dr. White holds a bachelor's degree in geology from Harvard University and a master's and Ph.D. in meteorology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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