Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 173
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea 6 Education and Training Education and training have important strategic roles to play in the implementation of MARPOL Annex V, as previous chapters have demonstrated. Most significantly, many opportunities for intervening in the hazard evolution model (Chapter 4) involve these approaches. Moreover, it is clear that, given the vast expanse of the sea, violations of Annex V are and will continue to be difficult to detect and prosecute; accordingly, implementation must rely heavily on motivation and education of seafarers, to persuade them to comply voluntarily and give them, through training, the requisite skills and tools. Furthermore, regulatory authorities alone cannot control land-based sources of marine debris. What is needed is behavioral and ethical change. This chapter outlines strategies for initiating and sustaining the various types of education and training needed to promote successful implementation of Annex V. As defined in this report, education refers to informal, formal, and professional communications for all types of audiences, as well as information exchange programs aimed at disseminating experiences with Annex V implementation strategies and technologies. Training is a specific type of education focused on development of skills in repetitive tasks and practices. The first section of the chapter outlines opportunities for education and training in implementing Annex V, briefly highlighting where these efforts are needed in various maritime sectors. The second section assesses past experience with education and training to support Annex V implementation and outlines a model program. The last section describes the key elements needed from government if the full potential of education and training is to be exploited.
OCR for page 174
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea OVERVIEW OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING Education and training play important roles in Annex V implementation throughout all fleets. The two approaches are mutually reinforcing. Early environmental education motivates young sailors to comply with the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act (MPPRCA), for example, while Navy training enables them to carry out the mandates. This example also illustrates that, to effect behavioral change in groups, education and training programs must be long-term. It is important to remember that such programs, as valuable as they are, cannot easily overcome failure of the port side (or any other element) of the vessel garbage management system. Education is a key tool for influencing recreational fishermen and boaters and is also critical for commercial fisheries, due to limited enforcement capabilities and the difficulty of reaching these sectors in any other way. Information exchange programs need to reach all sectors, to maximize the benefits of knowledge gained about Annex V implementation strategies and technologies. Training of crews on large commercial and military ships is essential if proper garbage-handling procedures are to be followed consistently. Beyond the practical arguments for conducting Annex V education and training programs, there are political reasons as well. Education is one of the most accepted interventions for dealing with environmental hazards (Laska, 1994). Even so, direct government appropriations for support of educational programs are rare. Types of Education and Training There are three basic audiences for Annex V education and training: the public; employees and/or visitors on vessels, in ports, and in the supply chain; and managers of vessel, port, and supply operations. Different types of programs must be developed for each audience. The goal of all three types of programs is implementation of Annex V, but the objectives vary depending on audience characteristics. The three types of programs are described briefly here. Public Awareness Campaigns Public awareness campaigns are directed at informing the general public about Annex V and fostering support for compliance. The ultimate goal of such campaigns is social and cultural change. An example would be a multimedia campaign in coastal areas explaining the ecological harm caused by marine debris.
OCR for page 175
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Education and Training for Employees and Visitors Education and training for employees and visitors on fleets and in ports can help ensure that proper waste reduction, sorting, and disposal procedures are followed. This form of instruction is designed to control both vessel and land-based sources of marine debris. Examples include education of fishermen concerning the harmful effects of discarded or lost nets and traps (including reductions in commercial fish and shellfish stocks) and the economic losses incurred when debris is caught in trawls; education of cargo and cruise ship personnel concerning the types of garbage subject to Annex V as contrasted with U.S. quarantine regulations; boating safety courses that include Annex V information; education of cruise passengers to convince them to forego certain amenities for the sake of the environment; and education of waste haulers who otherwise might dispose of ship garbage by dumping it illegally. Employee education and training also can target product and service suppliers for ports and fleets. For example, vendors and packaging designers can be educated about environmentally conscious design techniques. Experience shows that market pressures alone are not enough to stimulate production of environmentally conscious products; suppliers need to understand the nature of a problem before they will respond. Education played a role in the redesign of bait boxes used by commercial fishermen to eliminate plastic strapping bands. Management Education and Training Annex V education and training programs must target management, including owners and operators of vessels and shore-based garbage management systems as well as government managers. These are the agents of change—professionals who oversee and influence others and establish organizational culture. Because they select organizational practices and materials, managers must be the key audience for information exchange programs. This category of programs includes education to introduce vessel operators to Total Quality Management principles; meetings to improve coordination and share information among the federal agencies responsible for Annex V and quarantine inspections, and among individuals involved in on-board and shore-based garbage management; training for employers focusing on the benefits to a company's image accruing from environmental initiatives; efforts to disseminate information about the shipboard garbage treatment technologies developed by the Navy or the passenger cruise ship industry; and education of port operators and local government concerning the garbage disposal facilities they need to provide.
OCR for page 176
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea EXPERIENCE BASE RELATED TO ANNEX V During the past decade, numerous educational and some training programs have been carded out to combat the problem of marine debris, and a variety of Annex V materials have been developed for these purposes. These efforts, while limited in scale, have been critical in the success to date of Annex V implementation. Because marine debris comes from a variety of land-based sources as well as mariners at sea, the educational campaign, by necessity, has been waged on many fronts. The early educational programs were developed as a result of the 1984 International Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris (Shomura and Yoshida, 1985), the first comprehensive effort to examine the impacts of marine debris on living marine resources. Among other things, workshop participants identified an urgent need to educate vessel operators and others about the marine debris problem. Shortly thereafter, the U.S. Congress directed the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), to help define and resolve the problem, and, in consultation with the Marine Mammal Commission (MMC), to develop a plan of activities defining priority research and management needs (Herkelrath, 1991). Over the ensuing years, the NMFS provided funds through the Marine Entanglement Research Program (MERP) to carry out the action plan, which includes mariner education and public awareness efforts (Herkelrath, 1991). A number of non-profit organizations have been awarded funds to conduct public education projects, and the state Marine Advisory Services, funded in part by NOAA's National Sea Grant College Program, have maintained public awareness efforts. State and local governments also have participated, through sponsorship of beach cleanups and public education. After MERP was established, the MPPRCA recognized the importance of education in remedying the marine debris problem. The MPPRCA directs the Coast Guard, along with NOAA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), to develop public awareness programs and citizen monitoring groups. However, no funds have been appropriated under the Act for public education, so federal agencies have been constrained in carrying out their mandate. Therefore, MERP officials have continued to spearhead efforts to educate and persuade mariners and the general public to safeguard the marine environment (Coe, 1992). Without question, MERP has led the way in federal Annex V education efforts (while also laying a strong foundation in other areas). A number of other agencies also have contributed. The Coast Guard, for example, distributes Annex V information through several existing channels, such as contacts with vessel crews during routine boardings and inspections as well as interactions with boaters during boating safety campaigns. The committee reviewed past and ongoing marine debris education and training programs. In general, successful programs have targeted defined populations
OCR for page 177
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea and involved cooperation among federal agencies and between the public and private sectors. The role of government has been to provide leadership and limited funding. The private sector, including non-profit organizations, scientists, teachers, and community activists, has provided the experience and expertise needed to design and implement the programs. The federal government has made a start in fulfilling its role, but it is acknowledged widely that much more is needed. The objectives of the various agencies with respect to Annex V have not been defined clearly, and perceptions of these goals certainly are not uniform. No agency has established meaningful objectives that would enable measurements of progress. Similarly, no agency has articulated an appropriate organizational theme for rallying the available work force and attracting adequate resources to implement a long-term education and training program that would assure full Annex V compliance at reasonable costs. Following is a summary of the major education and training activities that have been initiated, highlighting lessons learned that may be useful in developing future programs. The summary is not exhaustive but it offers a sense of the characteristics, accomplishments, and diversity of the efforts. These efforts constitute perhaps the richest reservoir of Annex V implementation experience available, as pilot projects have touched every maritime sector. Marine Debris Information Offices The NMFS determined early on that education would have to be a major component of Annex V implementation efforts, because few fishermen or recreational boaters recognized the adverse effects of discharging garbage overboard. The greatest impact of the early educational efforts was believed to be in helping fishermen and others recognize that improved handling of vessel garbage was in their self interest. Several successful MERP programs were aimed at commercial mariners, both in the United States and internationally (Kearney/Centaur, 1989; Recht and Lasseigne, 1990; Wallace, 1990). To reach the wider community of seafarers, MERP sought the assistance of other federal agencies and the private sector. The keystone of the MERP educational program is a pair of Marine Debris Information Offices (MDIOs), established in 1988 and run by the non-profit Center for Marine Conservation (CMC) (Center for Marine Conservation, 1989). The EPA also provides funding for the MDIOs, and the Coast Guard and NOAA cooperate on some of the individual projects. The MDIOs have evolved into international clearinghouses for information and print materials developed by MERP and other organizations, The MDIOs develop and disseminate print material to approximately 11,000 educators, government and industry personnel, and media organizations annually; create, prepare, and distribute information packets aimed at 18 specific maritime groups; and distribute thousands of brochures to recreational boating, fishing, and ship-
OCR for page 178
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea ping industry audiences. The establishment of the MDIOs has accomplished one fundamental government objective, by making information available to not only the general public but also other educators and specific maritime communities. An example of a cooperatively produced project distributed through the MDIOs is a grade-school curriculum, U.S.S. My School, developed by the CMC with Navy funding. Students pretend they are on board an aircraft carrier for a week and must develop plans to manage garbage. Techniques learned through this curriculum can be applied in the students' homes. Sea Grant Activities The MERP effort spawned related work within the National Sea Grant College Program, which funds some 29 programs involving approximately 300 colleges, universities, and marine research institutions. Most programs address marine debris issues through research, outreach, and education (e.g., Liffman, 1987; Louisiana State University Sea Grant Program, 1987, 1989). Annex V activities include beach cleanup efforts, marina recycling programs, and MARPOL information programs. Sea Grant offices produce their own brochures, radio spots, videos, and bibliographies; they also disseminate materials produced by others. Sea Grant's Marine Advisory Service supports several hundred coastal marine extension agents,1 who transfer information and technologies to marine users, especially fishermen and boaters, in most U.S. ports. Among other marine pollution education activities, agents have worked to persuade fishermen in Oregon, New Jersey, and other states to return plastic garbage to port. But there are clearly opportunities for this program to include more Annex V-related activities, particularly in work with commercial and recreational fishermen. Agents also could work with local governments and agencies to reduce littering by beach goers. Efforts Targeting Boaters Through the annual National Safe Boating Week campaign (see sidebar), the Coast Guard taps into 25,000 volunteer coordinators who run local boat safety campaigns, staff booths at boat shows and fairs, develop relationships with the press and local employers, and conduct other types of education and outreach. Since 1989, these activities have involved Annex V materials developed by the CMC. In 1991, the federal government funded the reprinting of existing Annex V educational materials for distribution through the Coast Guard Auxiliary, a group of boat owners who voluntarily help foster boating safety. These packets were 1 There were 284 local agents and university-based specialists in 1992 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1993).
OCR for page 179
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea A Model for Educational Leadership The National Safe Boating Council is a group of private citizens and boating organization representatives who advise the Coast Guard in a variety of matters. The council's most visible public activity is National Safe Boating Week, an annual public awareness campaign aimed at recreational boaters. The council is an example of a private, independent group that collaborates with federal authorities to achieve common educational objectives. The format of National Safe Boating Week, which has taken years to evolve, deserves some examination as a model for other broad-based maritime educational efforts. The program has three simple strengths. The first is coordinated preparation. The private groups make all the decisions and handle all the preparations; both the producers of the educational materials and the boating organizations that distribute them work together in a consistent manner year after year. This coordination helps the large-scale effort succeed despite any personnel changes. A second merit of this program is that costs are shared in predictable ways. The government provides consistent funding. Each year, funds are appropriated through the Coast Guard to pay for administration and the coordinated distribution of all 25,000 packets of information to groups across the country. However, those· funds do not cover all production expenses or the mailing of additional packets requested. Therefore, private organizations that want to participate know they must pay the full costs for any materials they want to include in the packets. A third strength of this program is that the educational materials originate within the communities of boaters. The recipients recognize that the information has been prepared by groups knowledgeable about boating, not a regulatory agency or some other ''outside'' group. Readers' identification with the authors makes the message more palatable. distributed widely during the 1991 boating season. The Coast Guard also gives out MARPOL fact sheets to callers requesting such information from the Boating Safety Hotline (1-800-368-5647). The Coast Guard also is developing its own educational materials for use by the auxiliary. Although they do not enforce the law, members of the auxiliary supplement Coast Guard safety patrols, conduct public education courses in boating safety, and carry out other tasks that augment federal boating safety resources. With appropriate guidance and support, the auxiliary could become more active in educating recreational boaters about Annex V. Port Projects From January 1987 through March 1988, MERP supported a pilot project (described by Recht, 1988) to demonstrate port reception facilities for commercial vessels in Newport, Oregon. The fishing port management and fishing vessel owners collaborated to encourage vessel operators to return garbage, obsolete netting, and other gear to the port. Receptacles for the nets were placed at
OCR for page 180
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea dockside, and the collected materials were handled in a variety of ways. Some were taken by homeowners for use as decorations and for protecting fruit trees from pests, while other materials were shipped for recycling and remanufacture into other products. Other port recycling programs have been organized by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission and the New Jersey Sea Grant Program, which also has conducted research to identify ways to increase use of the recycled materials. For a recycling project in California, the Coastal Resources Center developed a comprehensive set of educational materials, including information for port tenants that was translated into Vietnamese for the local Asian fishing community. In 1990, MERP launched an initiative to design and implement a model port/ marina Annex V implementation project in Fajardo, Puerto Rico. This project, supported by Sea Grant personnel in Puerto Rico and New Jersey, was of strategic importance in that it extended MERP's focus from the North American coast to the Wider Caribbean region. Spanish-language educational materials, debris education programs, and an adequate port reception facility have been developed (Wypyszinski and Hernandez-Ariba, 1994). In another type of outreach effort, the Coast Guard recently initiated the SEA-KEEPERS Campaign, a six-month pilot program in which some 270 reservists assigned to 47 port communities throughout the nation educated both civilian and military marine users about marine environmental protection laws, regulations, and strategies. Target groups included port operators, shipping agents, waste haulers, commercial fishing vessel operators, and recreational boaters. The Department of Defense funded this pilot program as part of the federal government's defense conversion strategy. Efforts Involving Industry In 1988, MERP launched the Shipping Industry Maxine Debris Education Plan. This program had two major components. The first involved development of a binder of informative materials to assist vessel operators in complying with Annex V. The binder, distributed to shipping organizations, included MARPOL placards, the plastic control and minimization plan, sample waste management plans, examples of port reception facilities, international guidelines for implementation of Annex V, various regulation and policies regarding MARPOL implementation, and commercial telephone numbers for Coast Guard Captains of the Port (Wallace, 1990). The second component Of the plan, included in the activities of the MDIOs, was liaison with cruise line operators and owners. Activities included writing Annex V articles for cruise trade journals, presenting Annex V information at cruise trade meetings, producing and distributing brochures on the problem of vessel garbage, and development of a workshop presentation about Annex V compliance for members of cruise industries.
OCR for page 181
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., has worked cooperatively with CMC, EPA, and NOAA to plan and fund the Clean Ocean Campaign. This public service effort targeted five separate audiences (commercial fishermen, recreational fishermen, the maritime industry, recreational boaters, and the plastics industry). The campaign included full-page advertisements, brochures, posters, buttons, television announcements, and development of a citizen's guide to plastic marine debris (O'Hara et al., 1988). Programs Involving Government Fleets and Personnel The Navy has carried out a number of educational efforts (which have not proven adaptable to applications outside the military). Indeed, the Navy has been relying on education to change shipboard practices until on-board garbage treatment technologies can be upgraded. Practices for handling plastics (see Chapter 1) were instituted with a fleetwide education program. The plastics education package sent to all Navy ships includes posters, a videotape, and a guide that addresses the problems caused by plastics in the marine environment, pertinent Navy requirements, essential elements of a successful shipboard program, and a list of plastic and substitute non-plastic items (Koss et al., 1990; Koss, 1994). The sailors have understood rapidly both the new controls and the reasons for them. Several training programs have been developed by public agencies. For example, the EPA developed a training session on enforcement and implementation of marine protection laws, including MARPOL, for participants from various federal agencies. The Coast Guard is pursuing a "train the trainers" strategy to show members of its auxiliary how to reach out into their communities to train others in maritime debris management approaches. Public Awareness Programs The Center for Marine Conservation has become the dominant national environmental advocacy organization working to reduce marine debris and implement Annex V.2 The CMC takes a broad educational perspective in addressing marine debris and Annex V, but the most visible efforts are beach cleanups. The CMC initiated and maintains the annual International Beach Cleanup Program (now supported by several federal agencies) and works to improve statistics on debris. The CMC concentrates on cooperative educational approaches, such as its citizen pollution patrols (efforts to inform boaters about regulations and how to 2 Established in 1972, the CMC is a national, non-profit organization funded by foundations, corporations, members, and government grants. It runs five large programs addressing species recovery, marine protected areas, biodiversity, fisheries management, and pollution prevention. Programs involve research, policy, and education projects.
OCR for page 182
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea detect and report violations). The CMC also works through the media to persuade mariners to change their behavior (Weisskopf, 1988; Stoller, 1992). Beach cleanups also axe sponsored by a number of other groups, such as the Texas General Land Office, the American Littoral Society, and myriad environmental advocacy organizations across the country. Other types of public awareness efforts have been mounted as well. For example, the National Aquarium in Baltimore recently launched a marine debris education project that includes a documentary about the rescue, treatment, and return to the wild of a pygmy sperm whale that had ingested plastics (Craig Vogt, EPA, personal communication to Marine Board staff, August 5, 1994). The EPA contributed funds for the video. International Efforts Among its other Annex V implementation efforts, the EPA participates in the Gulf of Mexico Program (GOMP), which developed a Boater's Pledge Program to educate boaters about MARPOL and initiated a Take Pride Gulf Wide educational campaign that includes fact sheets and brochures. The GOMP also conducts a public awareness program aimed at marinas in region IV, in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico (U.S. Coast Guard, 1994). The EPA also has produced a marine debris curriculum, available in Spanish, with a chapter on MARPOL. Information Exchange The exchange of information of all varieties has been crucial to the development and implementation of Annex V from the start. Indeed, the scale and scope of marine debris as an environmental pollutant first became clear to government authorities after scientists met to exchange disparate observations and data sets, which yielded a composite picture of harm involving many bodies of water, many ecosystems, and many sources of debris. And where Annex V implementation initiatives have succeeded, considerable credit must go to persistent, aggressive, and largely informal efforts to exchange information. The principal forums for formal information exchange have been three international conferences on marine debris, held in 1984, 1989, and 1994. Sponsors of these conferences have included federal agencies, universities, industry, international organizations, agencies of foreign governments, and research and development institutes. The papers presented and reports of workshops held at these conferences constitute much of the literature base supporting Annex V implementation efforts. Among U.S. government information-exchange efforts, the Marine Debris Roundtable persevered from 1987 to 1990 after a task force failed to produce a formal interagency arrangement to implement Annex V. Through this informal roundtable, mid-level federal managers assembled with representatives from environmental advocacy organizations and the newly regulated maritime sectors.
OCR for page 183
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Because little formal communication took place among the agencies, the roundtable served as a clearinghouse for ideas, pilot projects, data analysis, and coordination. At the suggestion of the Marine Mammal Commission and in consultation with the Coast Guard and NOAA, the EPA plans to build on this concept in establishing a marine debris coordinating committee involving all appropriate federal agencies. The committee will address MARPOL-related issues and study all sources of marine debris. Another effective but temporary for am for information exchange was the Navy's Ad Hoc Plastics Advisory Group (described in Chapter 1), through which congressional staff and environmental organizations were able to share concerns about the military's garbage disposal practices and discuss alternatives. Notwithstanding the benefits of the international conferences and short-term government efforts, the lack of formal, ongoing information exchange reaching all maritime sectors dearly is holding back Annex V implementation. Although a variety of technologies and methods is available for managing marine debris, the committee found that knowledge about them is not widespread. For example, the Navy's experiences in developing shipboard garbage treatment equipment appear to be largely unknown within other government agencies and the private sector.3 And organizers of fishing net recycling efforts could benefit from knowledge of the EPA's waste exchanges, which could help locate markets for used nets. Information exchange could foster the development of a national infrastructure for recycling fishing gear. A MODEL ANNEX V EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Based on its assessment of opportunities for intervention in each maritime sector (Chapter 4) and its review of past and ongoing education and training programs, the Committee on Shipborne Wastes developed a model strategy to support Annex V implementation. Many elements of this model may be found in the MERP program; the key element missing from that effort is adequate long-term resources to carry out comprehensive, nationwide education. What is needed is an aggressive, coordinated education program that modifies the ethics and behaviors of all who use and profit from the marine environment. In developing this model, the committee relied heavily on the professional expertise of several of its members as well as findings from the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, at which education was addressed in a workshop. The findings of that workshop (O'Hara, 1990) underscored the point that education is not a last resort to be employed when all else fails but rather a 3 Some information can be located, but only with effort and only if one knows where to look. For example, the Navy's 1993 report to Congress outlines the on-board technology development strategy and status and the Navy has participated in international conferences on marine debris.
OCR for page 184
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea strategic tool for fostering voluntary Annex V compliance and, as such, is deserving of adequate, long-term funding. The 1989 Education Working Group also found that dissemination of marine debris educational materials could be enhanced through existing organizations, such as the Coast Guard Auxiliary and licensing and registration procedures for fishing and boating. The need for program evaluation also was emphasized, because it may be necessary to prove that education is a productive investment of time and money. Indirect evaluation includes long-term monitoring of beach debris and use of port reception facilities; direct evaluation includes surveys conducted through re-licensing programs to assess changes in attitude and behavior. The 1989 working group stressed five criteria that must be satisfied to create strong educational programs: (1) involve members of the target audience when developing materials and organizing distribution; (2) identify specific, discrete behavior for individuals; (3) set realistic goals; (4) make educational experiences positive and enjoyable; and (5) involve individuals familiar with the target audience (each target group must identify its educator as well-known and reliable, expert, and sympathetic to the group's needs and concerns). In the judgment of the Committee on Shipborne Wastes, an Annex V education and training program of an effective scope could be created and implemented only under the aegis of a single entity that would have the ultimate responsibility for directing, coordinating, and funding the program. This lead organization would coordinate the efforts of all other government agencies and private organizations. The program could include the following elements: Targeted, Coordinated Efforts to Reach Multiple Audiences. Education and training programs need to be well-defined; "shotgun" efforts are more expensive and less effective. The lead organization could organize, coordinate, and encourage the participation of a group of educators qualified to represent and identify with target groups. There is a particular need to educate managers and to expand the types of groups targeted beyond those that generate marine debris. To address the marine debris problem fully, innovations are needed in packaging design, garbage treatment equipment, and approaches employed in operations and enforcement. Therefore, future educational efforts need to include groups such as the packaging industry, government officials, and fishing tackle manufacturers.4 The lead office could transform empirical data and information into a series of selected educational campaigns, which each educator could deliver to 4 Groups that have been or currently are targeted for Annex V implementation education include plastics manufacturers and processors,. offshore oil and gas workers, commercial fishermen and processors, military personnel, solid waste managers, port and terminal operators, commercial shipping companies, recreational fishermen, recreational boaters, charter vessel operators, and cruise ship operators and passengers. Additional groups that have been identified for future targeted education programs include the
OCR for page 185
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea his or her respective group. This approach would avoid duplication of effort and expand the benefits derived from available resources. Still, to be effective, this work will require more money than currently is appropriated. Appropriate Messages, Media, and Settings. Education and training are most effective when the message clearly defines the problem in terms relevant to the target group, identifies with and responds to the specific needs of the target group, and offers viable solutions to the problem. In addition, the educational vehicle (e.g., electronic media, person-to-person communication, special event) must suit the audience; experience with a target audience is critical in determining which educational tool is most appropriate. Timing and delivery also are critical. The educator must use the appropriate setting (e.g., formal academic classes, informal youth or adult groups), and timing is important because many maritime activities are seasonal. Train the Trainers. The lead office could explore ways to enable the newly educated members of target groups, particularly unorganized groups such as recreational boaters, to become agents of change. These individuals could be taught how to conduct training for others and be given access to educational and other materials provided by the lead agency. Outreach agents, perhaps Sea Grant marine extension agents, could provide support and training as necessary. Evaluation. The program must include an evaluation process that emphasizes the strategic impact of different activities. To date, the best effort to monitor marine debris education activity comes from the MDIOs, but they only monitor what has been disseminated. A tracking obligation could spur more people to collect the data and provide national accountability on the effectiveness of the educational materials. However, routine tracking by the federal government would require specific approvals that would be difficult to obtain. In addition to these elements, the model program would include a formal information exchange network reaching all maritime sectors, to assure that decisionmakers have access to knowledge about the latest Annex V education and training strategies, garbage treatment equipment, and data. THE FEDERAL ROLE IN ANNEX V EDUCATION AND TRAINING Leadership To build on past success and exploit the potential of Annex V education and training programs, improved leadership appears to be essential. Leadership is packaging industry; government officials and enforcement agencies; coastal tourism industries; tackle manufacturers; operators of small ports, docks, marinas, and yacht clubs; suppliers of stores for vessels; boat manufacturers; employees of retail stores (including fast-food and convenience stores, and fishing and boating stores); environmental and conservation organizations; employees of shipyards; longshoremen; and coastal hunters.
OCR for page 186
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP MODEL: SMOKEY BEAR In the early 1940s, with over 30 million acres of forest land burned every year due to carelessness and Japanese wartime shelling of the Pacific Coast, the U.S. Forest Service recognized the need for a program to help prevent person-caused forest fires. The agency obtained support from the Advertising Council, a coalition of advertising executives working on public interest projects, and the National Association of State Foresters. Since then, the three partners have worked together on the Cooperative Forest Fire Prevention Program, the symbol of which is Smokey Bear. The program is managed by the Forest Service and funded by federal appropriations (roughly $1.5 million a year), but decisions are made cooperatively, and the Advertising Council donates expertise in the development of a media campaign. The success of the program is reflected in Smokey's high profile: 94 percent of adults and 77 percent of children recognized the bear in a 1988 survey. (Data also indicate that the acreage burned has declined, to less than 5.4 million acres in 1990.) Officials attribute this accomplishment to the clear, concise message; the effectiveness of the Smokey Bear symbol; and the longevity and non-controversial nature of the program (Elsie Cunningham, program manager, Cooperative Forest Fire Prevention Program, personal communication to Marine Board staff, February 4, 1994). needed to ensure that the relevant government agencies, companies, and individuals are informed fully about Annex V requirements, given technical and operational information routinely, and provided with educational and other materials designed to improve compliance and reduce enforcement costs. Leadership also is needed to coordinate regional, national, and international information exchange. What is lacking is a central office providing long-term leadership, focus, coordination, and stimulus for collaboration. An example of the type of program needed is the Smokey Bear campaign (see sidebar). The MPPRCA gives the Coast Guard the major responsibility for enforcing Annex V requirements yet provides little guidance on how to handle other aspects of implementation. The result is that no single agency "owns" the issue. This problem is especially visible with respect to education, training, and information exchange, where so much needs to be accomplished but only assorted small efforts have been carried out. It is difficult to envision the present collection of education programs, which are largely informal and short-term, evolving into the broad, long-term education and training program needed to support an Annex V implementation strategy. Marine debris is more than a litter problem, so education needs to accomplish more than teach mariners how to be tidy. There are three ways to execute an Annex V education and training program.
OCR for page 187
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea One is to maintain the status quo, and thereby continue the strategy of piecemeal, short-term projects that are not necessarily informed by or coordinated with similar efforts conducted elsewhere. Experience has shown that this course of action does not lead to the coherent, long-term effort needed to implement Annex V fully. The other two options involve the establishment of a central manager—the preferred way to create and sustain a coherent, long-term program. Apart from having access to the necessary expertise, a coordinating authority for Annex V education and training would have to be able to reach all maritime sectors, either directly or indirectly. The most obvious option would be to make official the leadership role now played by NOAA. The MERP and Sea Grant efforts have led the way in educating mariners and the public about marine debris and have proven that NOAA has vision. This agency is particularly effective in dealing with debris generated by fishing activities. However, NOAA would require assistance in dealing with the needs of some other groups (e.g., recreational boaters, cargo and cruise ships, the packaging industry) as well as port and technology issues. Furthermore, NOAA could not be expected to expand and enhance its current education and training efforts without additional resources designated for this purpose over the long-term—something that has not been available in the past and is unlikely to materialize in the near future. A third option would be to seek congressional action to establish a quasi-governmental private foundation chartered to focus on education, training, and information exchange related to Annex V implementation. There is precedent for this approach to coordinating national programs. The National Safe Boating Council and the Fish and Wildlife Foundation are examples. A foundation could bring together all the requisite expertise and would be less likely to be distracted from education and training than would overburdened federal agencies. A foundation also would have more flexibility than would a government agency in dealing with the private sector and pursuing national and international efforts. Carefully drafted, the charter for the foundation could articulate clearly defined goals and objectives supporting Annex V implementation. The foundation could develop a coherent program to be executed through appropriate channels, making the best use of past experiences in the field. Grants could be awarded to private industry and associations, academic institutions, public agencies, and non-profit organizations to develop and carry out programs. Secure Funding Funding for education and training is a significant problem. Perhaps as a result of the leadership vacuum, government agencies appear to have limited their investments in education and training at a time when such efforts could be particularly effective. The social ferment and the growth of environmental awareness and activism over the past two decades has created a climate that may be
OCR for page 188
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea conducive to behavioral change. In addition, education is one of the most economical ways of encouraging compliance (Wypyszinski, 1993) and thus become even more attractive given the need to leverage federal spending and obtain maximum impact from every effort. In the current budget climate, dedicated long-term funding for comprehensive Annex V education and training is unlikely to be obtained through one or even several federal agencies. The foundation concept may offer the best hope of establishing secure funding in that the existence of such an entity would serve to emphasize the importance of Annex V education and training and, of equal or greater significance, support could be obtained from the private sector. The Congress could provide a one-time endowment and/or modest annual appropriations, perhaps using a portion of existing maritime fees (e.g., fuel taxes or tariffs on imported fishing equipment). A nominal federal investment in this area could yield significant dividends. Innovation While many Annex V education and training programs have been developed, there are needs for new concepts that might succeed with marine users who are difficult to reach or persuade, and needs to target audiences who can help develop innovative technological, organizational, operational, regulatory, and economic strategies. Innovation requires not only knowledge of past education and training efforts and gaps in Annex V implementation in each maritime sector, but also the time, money, and mandate to go beyond the ordinary and foster development and testing of promising new concepts. Again, this is unlikely to be accomplished by an existing federal agency or group of agencies, simply because they must contend with many routine demands and distractions. A foundation that supports education and training may be the most effective means of fostering innovation and, through dissemination of the results, bringing overall Annex V implementation to a higher level. Ideally, education and training programs would extend beyond groups that cause the marine debris problem to those whose can help solve it. This approach would encourage the development of innovative strategies, with particular emphasis on "upstream" interventions in the hazard evolution model (described in Chapter 3). The possibility of achieving integrated innovation by providing national leadership for all Annex V activities is addressed in Chapter 7. SUMMARY Two basic findings can be drawn from the preceding discussion. First, education and training have important strategic roles to play in Annex V implementation, and a permanent capability is needed to develop and implement such programs at all levels in all maritime sectors. As environmental protection has
OCR for page 189
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea become a responsibility of every industry, it is especially important that these efforts target all senior managers in order to foster organizational change. Second, numerous Annex V education and training programs have been carried out, but these efforts clearly need to be elevated to a higher level in order to meet the challenges involved in implementing the international treaty and the U.S. law. Strong national leadership, secure funding,: and innovation will be required to coordinate and enhance education and training. Given the current budget climate and the many distractions faced by federal agencies, the most promising alternative may be for the Congress to charter and endow a foundation to coordinate a sustained, long-term, national program devoted to Annex V education and training. REFERENCES Center for Marine Conservation (CMC). 1989. Marine Debris Information Offices, Atlantic Coast/ Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Coast: Annual Report, October 1, 1988-September 30, 1989. Washington, D.C.: CMC. Coe, J. 1992. Presentation by James Coe, National Marine Fisheries Service, to the Committee on Shipborne Wastes of the National Research Council, Annapolis, Md., May 7, 1992. Herkelrath, J. 1991. Description and Status of Tasks in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Marine Entanglement Research Program for Fiscal Years 1985-1991. AFSC Processed Report 91-12. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash, April. Kearney/Centaur Division of A.T. Kearney, Inc. 1989. Model Plastics Refuse Control and Minimization Plan for Ships. Report prepared for the Marine Entanglement Research Program, Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, Seattle, Wash. December. Koss, L., F. Chitty, and W.A. Bailey. 1990. U.S. Navy's Plastics Waste Educational Efforts. Pp. 1132-1139 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. II), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. Koss, L.J. 1994. Dealing With Ship-generated Plastics Waste on Navy Surface Ships. Paper prepared for the Third International Conference on Marine Debris, Miami, Fla., May 8-13, 1994. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C. Laska, S. 1994. Exploring a Wide Range of Interventions for Recreational Users by Applying the Hazards Evolution Model. Paper prepared for the Third International Conference on Marine Debris, Miami, Fla., May 8-13, 1994. University of New Orleans, New Orleans, La. Liffman, M.M. 1987. Prepared statement of Michael Liffman, Louisiana State University Sea Grant Program, for the National Ocean Policy Study and the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Photocopy. July 29. Louisiana State University Sea Grant Program. 1987. Marine litter: More than an eyesore. Aquanotes 16(2): 1-5. June. Louisiana State University Sea Grant Program. 1989. Saltwater anglers did research. Aquanotes 18(1): 1-4. June. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 1993. Sea Grant Review: 1990 through 1992. Silver Spring, Md.: NOAA National Sea Grant College Program.
OCR for page 190
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea O'Hara, K.J. (chair). 1990. Report of the working group on marine debris education. Pp. 1256-1260 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii, R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. O'Hara, K.J., S. Iudicello, and R. Bierce. 1988. A Citizens Guide to Plastics in the Ocean: More Than a Litter Problem. Washington, D.C.: Center for Environmental Education (now the Center for Marine Conservation). Recht, F. and S. Lasseigne. 1990. Providing refuse reception facilities and more: The port's role in the marine debris solution. Pp. 921-934 in Proc. of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. II), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. Recht, F. 1988. Report on a Port-Based Project to Reduce Marine Debris. NWAFC Processed Report 88-13. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Shomura and Yoshida, eds. 1985. Proceedings of a Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris, 27-29 November, 1984, Honolulu, Hawaii. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-54. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Stoller, G. 1992. Garbage overboard. Conde Nast Traveler (June):17-18. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). 1994. Managing Waste at Recreational Boating Facilities: A Guide to the Elimination of Garbage Disposal at Sea. Washington, D.C.: USCG Marine Environmental Protection Division, Environmental Coordination Branch. Wallace, B. 1990. Shipping industry marine debris education plan. Pp. 1115-1122 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. II), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. Weisskopf, M. 1988. In the sea, slow death by plastic. Smithsonian 18(12):58-67. Wypyszinski, A.W. 1993. Prepared Statement of Alex. W. Wypyszinski, director, Sea Grant Marine Advisory Service, Rutgers University, for the Subcommittee on Superfund, Ocean, and Water Protection of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate, 102nd Congress, Second Session, Washington, D.C., Sept. 17, 1992. Pp. 60-67 in Implementation of the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act. S. Hrg. 102-984. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Wypyszinski, A.W. and M.L. Hernandez-Ariba. 1994. Latin American Marine Debris Public Awareness Project—Final Report. PRU-T-94-001. Report by the University of Puerto Rico Sea Grant Program, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico.
Representative terms from entire chapter: