9
National Strategy

Previous chapters have examined the problem of vessel garbage from a variety of perspectives, by addressing scientific understanding of marine debris, the legal requirements of MARPOL Annex V and the related U.S. law, and characteristics of the maritime sectors that must comply with these mandates. The report has identified a variety of barriers to compliance as well as potential solutions and factors complicating those solutions. The report also has explored strategic issues and limitations generated by considerations of importance to government agencies and the regulated communities.

The task now is to integrate all these elements into a coherent strategy that will enhance implementation of Annex V. In the committee's judgment, such a strategy needs to be tailored to practical realities, not only in terms of the needs and characteristics of each maritime sector but also in the context of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) in place for land-generated waste. That is, the strategy should target problems and opportunities specific to each sector, and it should serve to integrate the handling of vessel garbage into the ISWMS, taking into account both the trends and the shortcomings of that system.

This approach suggests that progressive changes in the handling of land-generated garbage should be encouraged in the maritime world. Recycling, for instance, is now standard in many homes and offices. Residents in many parts of the country are accustomed to separating, cleaning, storing, and setting at curbside a variety of recyclable waste materials. It is therefore plausible that fisheries personnel could become accustomed to returning used nets and lines to port for recycling. While not specifically required by Annex V, recycling would foster



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea 9 National Strategy Previous chapters have examined the problem of vessel garbage from a variety of perspectives, by addressing scientific understanding of marine debris, the legal requirements of MARPOL Annex V and the related U.S. law, and characteristics of the maritime sectors that must comply with these mandates. The report has identified a variety of barriers to compliance as well as potential solutions and factors complicating those solutions. The report also has explored strategic issues and limitations generated by considerations of importance to government agencies and the regulated communities. The task now is to integrate all these elements into a coherent strategy that will enhance implementation of Annex V. In the committee's judgment, such a strategy needs to be tailored to practical realities, not only in terms of the needs and characteristics of each maritime sector but also in the context of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) in place for land-generated waste. That is, the strategy should target problems and opportunities specific to each sector, and it should serve to integrate the handling of vessel garbage into the ISWMS, taking into account both the trends and the shortcomings of that system. This approach suggests that progressive changes in the handling of land-generated garbage should be encouraged in the maritime world. Recycling, for instance, is now standard in many homes and offices. Residents in many parts of the country are accustomed to separating, cleaning, storing, and setting at curbside a variety of recyclable waste materials. It is therefore plausible that fisheries personnel could become accustomed to returning used nets and lines to port for recycling. While not specifically required by Annex V, recycling would foster

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea compliance by reducing a source of marine debris. At the same time, it is important to recognize that the infrastructure for recycling plastic materials used by mariners is not well developed. Even where markets exist for recycled materials and products, there is seldom a convenient and cost-effective arrangement for converting the collected waste materials into products. But as this and other aspects of the ISWMS are improved, new opportunities will be created to improve management of vessel garbage. This chapter takes such considerations into account in identifying, for each maritime sector, a set of strategic objectives that should serve as milestones in working toward the overall goal of Annex V implementation. In addition, specific actions are recommended or suggested that would foster attainment of these objectives. In combination, these sets of objectives and tactics constitute the foundation for a national Annex V implementation strategy. Federal actions needed to help execute this strategy across all fleets are described in Chapter 10. The committee wishes to emphasize that an objective is something to be pursued, rather than an absolute requirement (as would be established by law), and that existing obstacles to Annex V compliance, however onerous, should not serve as justification for abandoning an objective. The following introduction outlines the committee's approach to identifying priorities for each sector. IDENTIFYING AND EVALUATING STRATEGIES AND TACTICS The starting point for developing the sector-by-sector implementation strategy is the set of interventions identified in Chapter 4. The matrices in that chapter illustrate the options the committee considers worthy of serious consideration. While any of those interventions might yield some benefits, the committee believes certain objectives and actions to be compulsory if full implementation of Annex V is to be achieved. This chapter outlines these essential elements, which were identified based on the analysis presented in Chapters 4 through 8 and the collective judgment and expertise of the committee. The proposed interventions may be neither easy to execute nor rapidly achieved, but they are critical elements of a national Annex V implementation strategy. As a guide in identifying the priorities, the committee established a set of criteria, which were employed to screen possible interventions. The committee relied on its collective judgment, rather than formal analysis, to determine whether an alternative met the criteria. (Formal analysis may be impossible, in any case, due to the paucity of data on marine debris and the difficulty of measuring debris levels.) Authorities implementing Annex V should continue to employ these criteria consistently but informally, without elaborate analyses, in evaluating the effectiveness of any actions proposed here that are pursued. The committee believes the implementation program would be strongest if these few criteria were applied informally to all activities, as opposed to a more complicated ap-

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea proach. The committee also believes the continuing evaluation process should retain the benefit of the direct observations and experiences of individuals engaged in implementing Annex V. In their daily work, the members of the various maritime sectors know far better than any outside observers what succeeds in their arena. The following criteria were developed and used by the committee: Effectiveness. An intervention must be likely to reduce, or provide essential data for reducing the environmental hazard posed by vessel garbage, by either reducing the amount of material or improving handling of the material, in ways that undeniably can show trends in waste entry to the marine environment. Cost Effectiveness. An intervention must be effective enough to justify its cost. The committee did not examine costs of the various options in detail but believes the proposed actions would be effective enough to justify the expenses incurred. The most expensive proposals might have to be evaluated independently by those who would implement them. Other, less expensive proposals may be desirable in the short-term. Efficiency. The interventions must interfere as little as possible with ongoing activities and must be affordable in terms of time and resources to the maritime sector(s) and government regulators involved. Timeliness of Results. The actions must allow for some reasonable level of preparation and control and yield improvement within an acceptable time frame. Equity. The interventions must provide remedies where most needed or in ways that distribute the implementation effort both within and among the maritime sectors. Sustainability. The actions must help build a permanent Annex V implementation regime and foster the mariner's capability to sustain compliance. In using these criteria to identify priority objectives and tactics for each maritime sector, the committee did not attempt to rank the proposals. However, two biases emerged in the analysis that serve to emphasize certain types of proposals. First, the committee placed priority on actions that are upstream (toward the left) in the hazard evolution model described in Chapters 3 and 4. Logic dictates that these actions would tend to be the most beneficial environmentally (although not necessarily in terms of cost and social advantages) because they address the problem in its earliest stages. Waste reduction is an example of such an approach. Second, the committee emphasized the need to achieve zero-discharge capability, where appropriate. This is a legal mandate for vessels that operate in special areas (where only food waste may be discharged). It is also an appropriate objective for vessels dedicated to day trips, because zero discharge should be easy to achieve in this sector and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) guidelines for Annex V implementation recommend use of port re-

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea ception facilities "whenever practicable." Furthermore, federal law supports the concept of zero discharge. (The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Title I, Section 101 (1), states that "it is the national goal that the discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters be eliminated . . .") Following are the strategic objectives and tactics identified for each maritime sector. The order of presentation reflects only the sequence in which sectors and topics were introduced in the preceding chapters. STRATEGY FOR EACH MARITIME SECTOR Recreational Boats and Their Marinas Objective: Achieve zero-discharge capability Because recreational boaters generally remain within 12 nautical miles of shore, they usually are prohibited from discharging any garbage overboard (unless the vessel is equipped with a comminuter). This situation, combined with the fact that most boaters take day trips, makes zero-discharge capability an objective for this sector. It should be fairly easy to store all garbage on board for disposal ashore. Even so, innovative measures may be needed to attain this objective, because boats tend to be small (with little storage space) and many boaters are unaccustomed to planning for proper garbage handling. An obvious tactic for boaters would be to reduce use of disposable materials. In addition, Convenient garbage storage bins should be incorporated into the design of new boats, and small commercial trash compactors should be installed on boats capable of extended voyages. Objective: Assure adequacy of port reception facilities Although reception facilities at marinas generally are not deficient, recreational boats may come ashore at a variety of simple docks and ramps. While small landing areas are not required by the Coast Guard to have reception facilities, it is important to assure that waste receptacles are available and easily accessible. "Clean marina" programs should be established by state licensing Objectives for Recreational Boating Sector Achieve zero-discharge capability Assure adequacy of port reception facilities Assure that boaters are provided with appropriate Annex V information and education

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea agencies and trade or recreational associations to certify that landing areas meet established criteria for garbage reception facilities. Objective: Assure that boaters are provided with appropriate Annex V information and education Because implementation of Annex V depends heavily on responsible personal behavior, it is important that boaters receive the information needed to make the fight decisions. Existing communication channels, including signs, the recreational media, and radio, should be employed for this purpose. Annex V information should be distributed at boat races, fishing derbies, and other activities, including contacts with the Sea Grant Marine Advisory Service. This information also should be included as part of state boater registration processes and Coast Guard inspections. In addition, boaters should be encouraged to participate in beach cleanups. There is a particular need for education concerning the problems caused by improper disposal of monofilament fishing line. In addition, international channels should be created for distributing information about Annex V and compliance strategies. Effective strategies should be promoted and shared through racing associations and/or United Nations groups. International educational events should be sponsored for boaters. Boaters who undertake international voyages should be given Annex V information so they can inform foreign ports about their disposal needs. To support all these efforts, Coast Guard, Customs, state marine police, and other officials who interact with boaters should be trained in how to persuade boaters to comply with Annex V. Commercial Fisheries and Their Fleet Ports Objective: Achieve zero-discharge capability for fishing vessels that operate as day boats The vast majority of fishing vessels take day trips and should be able to refrain from discharging any garbage overboard. Although this objective is not reasonable for the minority of fishing vessels that take extended voyages, even they should be able to store most garbage on board for disposal in port. Objective: Provide adequate port reception facilities Port reception facilities in some remote areas are inadequate for receiving the garbage generated by fishing fleets. To encourage Annex V compliance by fisheries vessels, adequate garbage reception facilities should be provided at all fishing piers, not only for vessel-generated garbage and galley wastes but also for

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Objectives for Commercial Fisheries Achieve zero-discharge capability for fishing vessels that operate as day boats Provide adequate port reception facilities Assure access to appropriate on-board garbage handling and treatment technologies Provide comprehensive vessel garbage management system Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training Improve Annex V enforcement Extend U.S. cooperation to encourage compliance by foreign-flag vessels debris caught in fishing nets. State authorities who regulate state-numbered fishing vessels should be engaged in establishing reception facilities. Objective: Assure access to appropriate on-board garbage handling and treatment technologies Fishing vessels that undertake extended voyages may require installation of garbage handling and treatment technologies in order to achieve compliance with Annex V. Special efforts should be mounted to demonstrate and foster adoption of technologies appropriate to vessel size and operations, in both new and existing vessels. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) should offer grants to foster development and installation of integrated waste management systems for fishing vessels. Objective: Provide comprehensive vessel garbage management system Beyond providing reception facilities and on-board technologies, it is important to strengthen the overall vessel garbage management system. Fishing ports (especially those in remoter areas) should be incorporated into the regional ISWMS. The NMFS should discourage abandonment of fishing gear, especially in heavily fished areas. In addition, a national system for recycling fishing gear should be developed based on successful existing pilot programs, and the system should be integrated into the chemical industry (which produces the materials used in nets and lines). Because this is a unique waste stream that has not been recycled on a wide scale previously, it may be helpful to offer financial incentives to encourage fishermen to return their gear. For example, industry or the NMFS could require deposits on all monofilament lines and nets. Fishermen could collect this money when returning their old gear; unclaimed deposits could be used to help defray costs of establishing the recycling system.

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Objective: Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training Due to the lack of direct regulatory oversight of the fisheries sector, it is important to encourage voluntary compliance through education. Existing channels, including the Sea Grant Marine Advisory Service, can be used for this purpose. Annex V information should be included in processes for fishing license renewal and boat registration, and marine debris issues should be raised at regional fisheries forums. In addition, while most fishing vessels are uninspected, the Coast Guard's voluntary examination program should be exploited as an avenue for distributing Annex V information. New approaches for distributing information also should be devised. Newsletters soliciting innovative educational and technological ideas should be developed and disseminated throughout the fisheries community, as is done in the agricultural population. In addition, because fishing is often a family business, families should be educated as a means of influencing their seagoing members. Educational efforts should address, among other things, opportunities for recycling and uses for recycled plastics and other materials. Reports on gear lost in the oceans should be circulated to persuade fishermen of the potential reduction in fish stocks caused by ghost fishing. Objective: Improve Annex V enforcement The fisheries fleet is the one maritime sector where routine enforcement is needed and can be cost effective in assuring Annex V compliance. Where appropriate and feasible, fisheries observers should be enlisted to monitor garbage disposal practices. In addition, fishing nets could be labeled or imprinted with the name of the vessel using them, so vessel operators that lose or discard nets could be identified. Although it would be difficult to distinguish between illegal discards and accidental losses, the NMFS could keep track of the identifications on recovered nets and use the information to identify fisheries where special educational, monitoring, and possibly enforcement efforts are needed. Fisheries councils also should require reporting of lost gear, both to collect information on this problem and to identify where additional measures to prevent such losses are needed. The IMO guidelines for Annex V implementation recommend that such records be kept and encourage development and deployment of such measures. Objective: Extend U.S. cooperation to encourage compliance by foreign-flag vessels Because garbage discharged outside U.S. waters can drift toward the coast, it is important to consider means of fostering Annex V implementation by foreign

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea fishing fleets operating nearby. Such implementation should be a condition of any joint fishing ventures or possibly trade agreements with other nations. Other types of international agreements can serve as mechanisms for this purpose as well. For example, the NMFS scientific agreement with Mexico could encourage or require Annex V compliance by the Mexican shrimp industry, which is blamed in part for the debris in the Gulf of Mexico. Cargo Ships and Their Itinerary Ports Objective: Improve access to on-board garbage handling and treatment technologies To reduce the amounts of garbage that must be discarded, vessel operators should install, maintain, and use on-board compactors, thermal processors, pulpers, and incinerators. These technologies should be retrofitted where feasible and appropriate and integrated into all new construction. Objective: Provide comprehensive vessel garbage management system, including adequate port reception facilities Numerous steps can and should be taken to improve the garbage management system for cargo ships. Improvements are needed in three general areas: monitoring of on-board garbage handling by both U.S.-flag and foreign-flag ships; port reception facilities; and handling of Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) waste. All ocean-going, U.S.-flag ships of 12.2 meters (about 40 feet) or more in length are required to maintain a log documenting the volume, date, time, and location of each discharge of garbage. To provide for greater accountability, the Coast Guard should require all cargo ships (except those with comprehensive onboard waste management systems) to off-lead Annex V garbage at every U.S. port call. (Such requirements are in place in the North Sea and other foreign waters; in these areas, record keeping is mandated by port states and applies to all Objectives for Cargo Ships Improve access to on-board garbage handling and treatment technologies Provide comprehensive vessel garbage management system, Including adequate port reception facilities Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training Fully exercise U.S. authority to improve compliance by foreign-flag vessels and by all vessels in foreign waters

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea vessels entering ports.) Vessel logs and on-board garbage handling and treatment technology should be examined during routine Coast Guard inspections. To help improve the port side of the vessel garbage management system, state agencies should require adequate reception facilities as a condition of issuing permits to ports and should assure that garbage disposal is integrated with regional ISWMS. The Coast Guard should require a port to have the appropriate state permits as a condition of granting a Certificate of Adequacy (COA). Port and terminal operators also should assume expanded roles in overseeing the adequacy of reception facilities and assuring customer satisfaction with services. Cost issues need to be addressed in the permitting process. Ports should be able to recover disposal costs from users, but fees paid by ships should be in line with charges for disposal of land-based garbage. Alternatively, port tariffs or related user fees could be increased to cover garbage disposal. In addition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture should work to integrate the APHIS program more fully with the Annex V regime to minimize compliance difficulties. Cargo ships should be required to off-load APHIS garbage at every U.S. port call (as is required of aircraft), and ship operators should be educated about the types of garbage subject to quarantine. Objective: Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training As with other fleets, it is important that merchant mariners be given sufficient information and training to enable compliance with Annex V. The need for such training extends throughout each company, from the chief executive officer, who controls the corporate culture, down to the employees who order supplies and personally handle the garbage. Requirements for employee training in proper waste management should be enacted and enforced throughout this sector. In addition, employees responsible for vessel provisioning should receive training in how to reduce amounts of packaging taken on board and how to emphasize use of recyclable materials. Objective: Fully exercise U.S. authority to improve compliance by foreign-flag vessels and by all vessels in foreign waters Because most cargo vessels are foreign flag, it is imperative that special efforts be made to improve Annex V compliance by foreign-flag vessels transiting U.S. waters. The Coast Guard should continue to step up its enforcement activities targeting foreign vessels. The garbage log requirement should be extended to foreign-flag vessels, through either international agreement or unilateral U.S. action in accordance with its port state authorities, and violators should be punished.

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Negotiations will be required in various international forums to improve garbage handling in foreign ports, not only because U.S.-flag vessels call at these ports but also because improper at-sea garbage disposal near the U.S. coastline can have adverse effects in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and territorial waters. More specifically, steps must be taken to address the need for adequate port reception facilities in special areas. U.S. authorities should work with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and other forums to develop clear international criteria and guidelines for port/vessel interfaces. To improve Annex V implementation in nations with scarce resources, the United States should explore the use of regional memoranda of understanding (MOUs) to enable the sharing of enforcement assets and other resources. Passenger Day Boats, Ferries, and Their Terminals Objective: Achieve zero-discharge capability (for plastics, glass, cans, and paper), integrating the handling of vessel garbage into local solid waste management systems Due to the short duration of voyages by these vessels (some casino ships don't move at all) and the resulting ease of returning all garbage to shore, zero-discharge capability should be the objective in this sector. This may have been achieved already, but simple steps can be taken to assure success. Vessel operators should strive to reduce use of packaging, particularly items that could be blown overboard by the wind. They also should cover Annex V in public announcements to passengers and provide numerous on-board MARPOL posters or placards and convenient trash cans. Ferry terminal operators should provide these informational services as well. State governments should require ports serving day boats to have adequate waste receptacles as a condition of granting permits. Also, authorities should ensure that Annex V information is included in literature and guidelines directed at this sector (e.g., new IMO guidelines on roll-on/roll-off carriers). Finally, ferries with international routes should be required to comply with Annex V as a condition of bilateral agreements signed by the nations involved. Objective for Day Boat Sector Achieve zero-discharge capability, integrating the handling of vessel garbage into local solid waste management systems

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Objectives for Small Public Vessels Improve onboard garbage handling and treatment technology Assure adequacy of port reception facilities Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training Develop model Annex V compliance program Small Public Vessels and Their Home Ports Objective: Improve on-board garbage handling and treatment technology When on day trips, vessels in these fleets should be able to hold all garbage for proper disposal ashore. To reduce the amounts of garbage that must be stored in cramped quarters on longer voyages, advanced garbage handling and treatment technology should be incorporated into any new construction and, where feasible, retrofitted on older vessels. The Navy's technology development efforts should be expanded to include regional demonstration of a suite of on-board garbage treatment equipment for small vessels. The private sector might be encouraged to participate through cooperative and grant and contract programs. Objective: Assure adequacy of port reception facilities As a user of all types of ports and the enforcement agent for Annex V, the Coast Guard should redouble its efforts to monitor port reception facilities, through the COA program, informal contacts with port operators, and formal reporting of inadequate facilities. The Navy should report to the Coast Guard any inadequate reception facilities encountered at commercial ports. Objective: Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training To ensure that all personnel have sufficient information to comply with Annex V, all agencies that operate small public vessels should take advantage of their command management structures to implement and integrate appropriate management and education initiatives. Objective: Develop model Annex V implementation program All federal agencies that operate small public vessels should develop Annex

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea V compliance programs that can serve as models for the private sector. Each service should develop, in coordination with the other agencies, an internal strategy for compliance, and each service should articulate that strategy and end reliance on temporary coping mechanisms. The Navy should continue to develop a separate scheme for its auxiliary fleet. All strategies should emphasize source reduction and the provision of adequate garbage reception facilities at home ports. Zero-discharge capability should be achieved for vessels that take short trips or transit special areas. Offshore Platforms, Rigs, Supply Vessels, and Their Shore Bases Objective: Achieve zero discharge at sea With storage space on offshore oil and gas platforms and a continuous stream of supply boats able to shuttle garbage to shore, this sector should be able to refrain from contributing to the marine debris problem once several key problems are addressed. First, steps should be taken to minimize losses of supplies and waste materials that fall off platforms in harsh conditions and contribute to the marine debris problem. In addition, the Coast Guard should examine garbage logs during its occasional inspections of platforms. These records also could be examined by the Minerals Management Service (MMS) as part of its routine rig inspections. The Coast Guard could pursue an MOU with the MMS as a mechanism for enabling the latter to enforce Annex V on oil platforms. Objective: Assure comprehensive garbage management system, including adequate port reception facilities Although the MMS oversees offshore platforms, the other segments of the industry—supply boats and shore bases—are not regulated as tightly. These weak links in the garbage management system need to be strengthened. Supply boats and shore bases should be monitored in some fashion to assure proper garbage handling. Boats could be boarded by the Coast Guard, and their Objectives for Offshore Industry Achieve zero discharge at sea Assure comprehensive garbage management system, including adequate port reception facilities Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea activities assessed, based on reports of marine debris in the area. Shore bases, which are required to have reception facilities but not necessarily COAs, should be required by the states that license them to provide adequate reception facilities. Terminals could be required to obtain COAs, even if the boats they serve are smaller than the minimum size qualifying as a port for the program. Objective: Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training Annex V educational efforts should target all segments of the offshore industry. Management personnel should be given information covering the full spectrum of requirements for the handling of solid waste. The industry's voluntary ban on use of foamed plastic should be held up as an example of how to minimize or eliminate garbage. Supply boat operators in particular need information about Annex V. In addition, MMS officials engaged in routine overflights of offshore operations could be informed about Annex V so they can report violations as well as concentrations of marine debris on the water or shorelines. Planning for educational programs should recognize that the offshore industry hires a continuous flow of new workers unfamiliar with Annex V, and that the companies involved have fewer resources and narrower expertise than in the past. The MMS should focus its limited resources on encouraging marginal independent operators to comply with Annex V, the approach used to minimize oil spills. Specific messages need to be emphasized. Like other seafarers, offshore operators should be encouraged to reduce the use of packaging. They also should be urged to transport operational wastes to shore in a timely fashion, to minimize losses at sea. Overall, new attitudes concerning environmental protection should be encouraged, so that industry personnel voluntarily refrain from tossing anything overboard. Navy Surface Combatant Vessels and Their Home Ports Objective: Develop plans for full Annex V compliance, including capability to achieve zero discharge in special areas, making the best use of existing technologies and strategies While it must contend with special burdens in developing a plan for full Annex V compliance, the Navy also has unique opportunities due to the large sums of money that have been appropriated for research and development and its effective command and control organization that can implement successful strategies on a fleetwide basis. It is important to make the most of these assets. To that end, the Navy should reconsider its decisions to abandon on-board garbage treatment technologies—specifically compactors and incinerators—employed successfully on large ships in other fleets (and, in fact, on some Navy

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Objectives for Navy Surface Combatant Vessels Develop plans for full Annex V compliance, including capability to achieve zero discharge in special areas, making the best use of existing technologies and strategies Develop model Annex V implementation program ships). The Navy already has devoted considerable time and resources to these technologies, and state-of-the-art units are available. Compactors are a basic element of compliance strategies in most other fleets, including Coast Guard ships that remain at sea for months at a time. Incinerators are standard on passenger cruise ships. Designed and used properly according to IMO guidelines, incinerators can eliminate garbage almost entirely—a significant benefit in that wastes need not be either stored or discharged overboard. The Navy should evaluate the possible use of incinerators that meet or exceed IMO guidelines and make a new decision based on rigorous scientific and engineering tests. The Navy also should seek out and heed other lessons gained from experiences in other maritime sectors. For example, recycling programs—another standard practice on cruise ships—can help reduce waste streams. The Navy's shipboard recycling effort varies by operating unit. Even when on-board garbage treatment technology is installed, metal cans, glass, cardboard, and paper will continued to be discharged into the water as permitted by Annex V. The Navy should encourage its crews to reclaim and recycle ferrous and non-ferrous food and beverage containers for which a market and suitable on-board storage space exist. The Navy also should explore the feasibility of returning glass to shore for recycling or disposal. The Navy also should conduct a critical review of its food service system and provide leadership in source reduction and development of packaging systems that would reduce use of ferrous and glass containers. While space shortages and fire hazard concerns preclude extended on-board storage of cardboard and paper wastes, the Navy has the option of using its pulpers or shredders to reduce the cellulosic material to particles less than 25 millimeters in size. The failure to obtain legislation allowing use of pulpers and shredders in special areas should not preclude the installation of this equipment. The Navy should consider installing pulpers and shredders for use where permitted, to eliminate discharge of floating debris. To prepare for the entry into force of special areas such as the Mediterranean, where operations are extensive, the Navy must develop a capability to achieve zero discharge. Proposals are being solicited from industry for mature technologies suitable for shipboard use, and a separate National Research Council study is examining the Navy's compliance efforts. If no appropriate systems (including compactors and incinerators) can be developed and deployed, then the Navy

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea should consider other alternatives, perhaps using the hazard evolution model (see Chapter 4) to identify ''upstream'' options. Objective: Develop model Annex V implementation program As the authority responsible for assuring U.S. compliance with Annex V, and as an international leader in IMO and in global environmental protection, the federal government should set an example through its own fleets for private and foreign vessels. It is especially important that the Navy not only satisfy the mandates of Annex V, but also, as the largest federal fleet, provide a model compliance program. As time passes, it is increasingly difficult to justify heavy fines against commercial ship operators for illegal garbage discharges, when similar actions carried out by the Navy are tolerated. The Navy should make a top-level commitment to planning for and achieving full compliance. Priority should be placed on information exchange, both within the fleet and between the Navy and other maritime sectors. Successful technologies and strategies should be shared and deployed. To foster recycling and reduce volumes of garbage that must be discharged in port reception facilities, the Navy should establish comprehensive fleetwide recycling practices and explore marketing the metal and glass wastes it now collects and separates. State-of-the-art reception facilities should be provided in home ports, and commercial and foreign ports of call should be encouraged to provide such facilities as well. Foreign ports have economic motivations to comply in order to attract and retain naval business. Passenger Cruise Ships and Their Itinerary Ports Objective: Increase use of on-board garbage handling and treatment technologies To reduce the amounts of garbage that must be stored on cruise ships for Objectives for Cruise Ship Sector Increase use of on-board garbage handling and treatment technologies Assure comprehensive vessel garbage management system, including adequate port reception facilities Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training Exploit U.S. authority to improve compliance by foreign-flag vessels and by all vessels in foreign waters

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea disposal in port, modern garbage handling and treatment technologies should be integrated into new construction. The growing popularity of cruises that emphasize ecological knowledge and environmental pursuits offers an opportunity to test innovations in waste management aboard cruise ships with willing populations. Objective: Assure comprehensive vessel garbage management system, including adequate port reception facilities All measures proposed to improve the garbage management system for cargo vessels also apply to the cruise ship sector, because many of the same problems plague both fleets. Cruise ships should be required to off-load both Annex V and APHIS garbage at U.S. port calls. States and port operators should help ensure that reception facilities in U.S. ports are adequate to handle cruise ship garbage. In addition, cruise ships should be required to provide Annex V educational programs (perhaps through videos, such as the safety presentations shown on airlines) for passengers and crews as a condition of access to U.S. ports, and violators should be punished. Objective: Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training Due to the large volumes of garbage generated on cruise ships, the rapid growth of the industry, and inability to monitor such large populations effectively, educational efforts targeting this sector, particularly crews and passengers, need to be expanded. Vessel operators should be encouraged to reduce amounts of packaging brought on board. Crews need to be trained in proper garbage handling practices. Passengers must be persuaded to respect the environment. Preservation of the ocean environment should be promoted as a basis for preserving cruise itineraries in unique and fragile locations (the standard should be the same regardless of the itinerary). Objective: Exploit U.S. authority to improve compliance by foreign-flag vessels and by all vessels in foreign waters All measures proposed to improve compliance by foreign-flag cargo ships also apply to the cruise ship sector. The Coast Guard should continue to step up its enforcement activities targeting foreign vessels. The garbage log requirement should be extended to foreign-flag vessels, and violators should be punished. In addition, U.S. authorities should encourage islands on cruise ship itineraries to assist in implementation of Annex V by providing adequate garbage disposal services, because these islands derive economic benefits from the cruise trade. Particularly important in this respect is the World Bank's search for a

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea regional mechanism that will improve waste management in the Caribbean; a solution will go a long way toward meeting the needs of cruise vessels operating in that region. Research Vessels and Their Ports of Call Objective: Provide model Annex V compliance program Because research vessels visit pristine areas, are dedicated to the study and preservation of the marine environment, and often are supported by the federal government, this fleet should strive to provide a model Annex V compliance program. That means vessels operating in special areas should achieve zero-discharge capability. Vessel operators should consider all possible ways of reducing overboard discharges, including reducing the use of packaging. In addition, the Department of State should resolve, through IMO or other avenues, the procedural obstacles that block garbage off-loading at some foreign ports. Objective: Improve on-board garbage handling and treatment technology As they address other aspects of marine science, research vessel personnel should provide leadership in development and demonstration of garbage handling, treatment, and recycling technologies. Government agencies that sponsor marine research could draw the private sector into development of shipboard technology through cooperative and grant and contract programs. To ensure that operating funds are not depleted to cover the costs of garbage handling and treatment, funds should be earmarked for equipment to enable Annex V compliance. Objective: Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training Operators of research vessels have an obligation to educate not only their own crews and visitors but also, due to the nature of their work, the general public. Visiting scientists should be informed about Annex V, as they may be Objectives for Research Vessel Sector Provide model Annex V compliance program Improve on-board garbage handling and treatment technology Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training

OCR for page 222
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea oblivious to shipboard rules and practices. In addition, vessel operators should hold open houses and laboratories to educate the public and other fleets about proper garbage handling and treatment methods. Researchers also should promote recognition of the marine debris problem at scientific research forums.