Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 263
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea APPENDIX B Annex V of MARPOL 73/78 Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships with attachments: Guidelines for the Implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78 Standard Specification for Shipboard Incinerators Regulation 1 Definitions For the purposes of this Annex: Garbage means all kinds of victual, domestic and operational waste excluding fresh fish and parts thereof, generated during the normal operation of the ship and liable to be disposed of continuously or periodically except those substances which are defined or listed in other Annexes to the present Convention. Nearest land. The term "from the nearest land" means from the baseline from which the territorial sea of the territory in question is established in accordance with international law except that, for the purposes of the present Convention, "from the nearest land" off the north-eastern coast of Australia shall mean from a line drawn from a point on the coast of Australia in latitude 11°00' S, longitude 142°08'E to a point in latitude 10°35' S, longitude 141°55' E, thence to a point latitude 10°00' S, longitude 142°00' E, thence to a point latitude 9°10' S, longitude 143°52' E, thence to a point latitude 9°00' S, longitude 144°30' E, thence to a point latitude 13°00' S, longitude 144°00' E, thence to a point latitude 15°00' S, longitude 146°00' E, thence to a point latitude 18°00' S, longitude 147°00' E, thence to a point latitude 21°00' S, longitude 153°00' E, thence to a point on the coast of Australia in latitude 24°42' S, longitude 153°15' E. Special area means a sea area where for recognized technical reasons in relation to its oceanographical and ecological condition and to the particular character of its traffic the adoption of special mandatory methods for the prevention of sea pollution by garbage is required. Special areas shall include those listed in regulation 5 of this Annex.
OCR for page 264
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Regulation 2 Application The provisions of this Annex shall apply to all ships. Regulation 3 Disposal of garbage outside special areas Subject to the provisions of regulations 4, 5 and 6 of this Annex: the disposal into the sea of all plastics, including but not limited to synthetic ropes, synthetic fishing nets and plastic garbage bags, is prohibited; the disposal into the sea of the following garbage shall be made as far as practicable from the nearest land but in any case is prohibited if the distance from the nearest land is less than: 25 nautical miles for dunnage, lining and packing materials which will float; 12 nautical miles for food wastes and all other garbage including paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery and similar refuse; disposal into the sea of garbage specified in subparagraph (b)(ii) of this regulation may be permitted when it has passed through a comminuter or grinder and made as far as practicable from the nearest land but in any case is prohibited if the distance from the nearest land is less than 3 nautical miles. Such comminuted or ground garbage shall be capable of passing through a screen with openings no greater than 25 millimetres. When the garbage is mixed with other discharges having different disposal or discharge requirements the more stringent requirements shall apply. Regulation 4 Special requirements for disposal of garbage Subject to the provisions of paragraph (2) of this regulation, the disposal of any materials regulated by this Annex is prohibited from fixed or floating platforms engaged in the exploration, exploitation and associated offshore processing of sea-bed mineral resources, and from all other ships when alongside or within 500 metres of such platforms. The disposal into the sea Of food wastes may be permitted when they have been passed through a comminuter or grinder from such fixed or floating platforms located more than 12 nautical miles from land and all other
OCR for page 265
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea ships when alongside or within 500 metres of such platforms. Such comminuted or ground food wastes shall be capable of passing through a screen with openings no greater than 25 millimetres. Regulation 5 Disposal of garbage within special areas For the purposes of this Annex the special areas are the Mediterranean Sea area, the Baltic Sea area, the Black Sea area, the Red Sea area, the "Gulfs area", the North Sea area, the Antarctic area and the Wider Caribbean Region, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, which are defined as follows: The Mediterranean Sea area means the Mediterranean Sea proper including the gulfs and seas therein with the boundary between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea constituted by the 41° N parallel and bounded to the west by the Straits of Gibraltar at the meridian 5°36' W. The Baltic Sea area means the Baltic Sea proper with the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland and the entrance to the Baltic Sea bounded by the parallel of the Skaw in the Skagerrak at 57°44.8' N. The Black Sea area means the Black Sea proper with the boundary between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea constituted by the parallel 41° N. The Red Sea area means the Red Sea proper including the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba bounded at the south by the rhumb line between Ras si Ane (12°8.5' N, 43°19.6' E) and Husn Murad (12°40.4' N, 43°30.2' E). The Gulfs area means the sea area located northwest of the rhumb line between Ras al Hadd (22°30' N, 59°48' E) and Ras al Fasteh (25°04' N, 61°25' E). The North Sea area* means the North Sea proper including seas therein with the boundary between: the North Sea southwards of latitude 62° N and eastwards of longitude 4° W; the Skagerrak, the southern limit of which is determined east of the Skaw by latitude 57°44.8' N; and the English Channel and its approaches eastwards of longitude 5° W and northwards of latitude 48°30' N. * Regulation 5(l)(f) was adopted by the MEPC at its twenty-eighth session and entered into force on 18 April 1991.
OCR for page 266
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea The Antarctic area* means the sea area south of latitude 60° S. The Wider Caribbean Region**, as defined in article 2, paragraph I of the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena de Indias, 1983), means the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea proper including the bays and seas therein and that portion of the Atlantic Ocean within the boundary constituted by the 30° N parallel from Florida eastward to 77°30' W meridian, thence a thumb line to the intersection of 20° N parallel and 59° W meridian, thence a rhumb line to the intersection of 7°20' N parallel and 50° W meridian, thence a rhumb line drawn south-westerly to the eastern boundary of French Guiana. Subject to the provisions of regulation 6 of this Annex: disposal into the sea of the following is prohibited: all plastics, including but not limited to synthetic ropes, synthetic fishing nets and plastic garbage bags; and all other garbage, including paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery, dunnage, lining and packing materials; except as provided in subparagraph (c) of this paragraph,*** disposal into the sea of food wastes shall be made as far as practicable from land, but in any case not less than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land; disposal into the Wider Caribbean Region of food wastes which have been passed through a comminuter or grinder shall be made as far as practicable from land, but in any case not subject to regulation 4 not less than 3 nautical miles from the nearest land. Such comminuted or ground food wastes shall be capable of passing through a screen with openings no greater than 25 millimetres.*** When the garbage is mixed with other discharges having different disposal or discharge requirements the more stringent requirements shall apply. Reception facilities within special areas: The Government of each Party to the Convention, the coastline of which borders a special area, undertakes to ensure that as soon as possible in all ports within a special area adequate reception facilities are provided in accordance with regulation 7 of this Annex, taking into account the special needs of ships operating in these areas. * Regulation 5(1)(g) was adopted by the MEPC at its thirtieth session and is expected to enter into force on 17 March 1992. ** Regulation 5(1)(h) Was adopted by the MEPC at its thirty-first session and is expected to enter into force on 4 April 1993. *** These amendments were adopted by the MEPC at its thirty-first session and are expected to enter into force on 4 April 1993.
OCR for page 267
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea The Government of each Party concerned shall notify the Organization of the measures taken pursuant to subparagraph (a) of this regulation. Upon receipt of sufficient notifications the Organization shall establish a date from which the requirements of this regulation in respect of the area in question shall take effect. The Organization shall notify all Parties of the date so established no less than twelve months in advance of that date. After the date so established, ships calling also at ports in these special areas where such facilities are not yet available, shall fully comply with the requirements of this regulation. * Notwithstanding paragraph 4 of this regulation, the following rules apply to the Antarctic area: The Government of each Party to the Convention at whose ports ships depart en route to or arrive from the Antarctic area undertakes to ensure that as soon as practicable adequate facilities are provided for the reception of all garbage from all ships, without causing undue delay, and according to the needs of the ships using them. The Government of each Party to the Convention shall ensure that all ships entitled to fly its flag, before entering the Antarctic area, have sufficient capacity on board for the retention of all garbage while operating in the area and have concluded arrangements to discharge such garbage at a reception facility after leaving the area. Regulation 6 Exceptions Regulations 3, 4 and 5 of this Annex shall not apply to: the disposal of garbage from a ship necessary for the purpose of securing the safety of a ship and those on board or saving life at sea; or the escape of garbage resulting from damage to a ship or its equipment provided all reasonable precautions have been taken before and after the occurrence of the damage, for the purpose of preventing or minimizing the escape; or the accidental loss of synthetic fishing nets, provided that all reasonable precautions have been taken to prevent such loss. * This amendment was adopted by the MEPC at its thirtieth session and is expected to enter into force on 17 March 1992.
OCR for page 268
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Regulation 7 Reception facilities The Government of each Party to the Convention undertakes to ensure the provision of facilities at ports and terminals for the reception of garbage, without causing undue delay to ships, and according to the needs of the ships using them. The Government of each Party shall notify the Organization for transmission to the Parties concerned of all cases where the facilities provided under this regulation are alleged to be inadequate.
OCR for page 269
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Guidelines for the implementation of Annex V of 73/78 Preface The main objectives of these guidelines are to (1) assist governments in developing and enacting domestic laws which give force to and implement Annex V, (2) assist vessel operators in complying with the requirements set forth in Annex V and domestic laws and, (3) assist port and terminal operators in assessing the need for, and providing, adequate reception facilities for garbage generated on different types of ships. Part IV (Garbage) of the Organization's Guidelines on the Provision of Adequate Reception Facilities in Ports, June 1978, has been modified and incorporated in this publication to consolidate all Annex V related guidelines. In the interest of uniformity, governments are requested to refer to these guidelines when preparing appropriate national regulations. 1 Introduction and definitions 1.1 These guidelines have been developed taking into account the regulations embodied in Annex V, the articles and resolutions of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78) (hereinafter referred to as the ''Convention''). Their purpose is to provide guidance to countries which have ratified Annex V and are in the process of implementing the Annex. The guidelines are divided into seven categories that provide a general framework upon which governments will be able to formulate programmes for education and training of seafarers and others to comply with the regulations; methods of reducing shipboard generation of garbage; shipboard garbage handling and storage procedures; shipboard equipment for processing garbage; estimation of the amounts of ship-generated garbage delivered to port; and actions to ensure compliance With the regulations. 1.2 Recognizing that Annex V regulations promote waste management systems for ships, and that ships vary tremendously in size, mission, complement and capability, these guidelines include a range of waste management options that may be combined in many Ways to facilitate compliance with Annex V. Further, recognizing that waste management technology for ships is in an early stage of development, it is recommended that governments and the Organization continue to gather information and review these guidelines periodically. 1.3 Although Annex V permits the discharge of a range of garbage into the sea, it is recommended that whenever practicable ships use, as a primary means, port reception facilities.
OCR for page 270
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea 1.4 Governments should stimulate the provision and use of port reception facilities for garbage from ships, as outlined in section 7.2 of these guidelines. 1.5 The Convention provides definitions for terms used throughout these guidelines which establish the scope of Annex V requirements. These definitions are incorporated in section I of these guidelines and in regulation I of Annex V. Definitions taken directly from the Convention are listed in section 1.6, and are followed by other definitions which are useful. 1.6 Definitions from the Convention 1.6.1 Regulations means the regulations contained in the annexes to the Convention. 1.6.2 Harmful substance means any substance which, if introduced into the sea, is liable to create hazards to human health, harm living resources and marine life, damage amenities or interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea, and includes any substance subject to control by the Convention. 1.6.3 Discharge, in relation to harmful substances or effluents containing such substances, means any release, howsoever caused, from a ship and includes any escape, disposal, spilling, leaking, pumping, emitting or emptying. 188.8.131.52 Discharge does not include: dumping, within the meaning of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, done at London on 13 November 1972; or release of harmful substances directly arising from the exploration, exploitation and associated offshore processing of sea-bed mineral resources; or release of harmful substances for purposes of legitimate scientific research into pollution abatement or control. 1.6.4 Ship means a vessel of any type whatsoever operating in the marine environment and includes hydrofoil boats, air-cushion vehicles, submersibles, floating craft and fixed or floating platforms. 1.6.5 Incident means an event involving the actual or probable discharge into the sea of a harmful substance, or effluents containing such a substance. 1.6.6 Organization means the International Maritime Organization. 1.7 Other definitions 1.7.1 Wastes means useless, unneeded or superfluous matter which is to be discarded.
OCR for page 271
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea 1.7.2 Food wastes are any spoiled or unspoiled victual substances, such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, poultry, meat products, food scraps, food particles, and all other materials contaminated by such wastes, generated aboard ship, principally in the galley and dining areas. 1.7.3 Plastic means a solid material which contains as an essential ingredient one or more synthetic organic high polymers and which is formed (shaped) during either manufacture of the polymer or the fabrication into a finished product by heat and/or pressure. Plastics have material properties ranging from hard and brittle to soft and elastic. Plastics are used for a variety of marine purposes including, but not limited to, packaging (vapour-proof barriers, bottles, containers, liners), ship construction (fibreglass and laminated structures, siding, piping, insulation, flooring, carpets, fabrics, paints and finishes, adhesives, electrical and electronic components), disposable eating utensils and cups, bags, sheeting, floats, fishing nets, strapping bands, rope and line. 1.7.4 Domestic waste means all types of food wastes and wastes generated in the living spaces on board the ship. 1.7.5 Cargo-associated waste means all materials which have become wastes as a result of use on board a ship for cargo stowage and handling. Cargo-associated waste includes but is not limited to dunnage, shoring, pallets, lining and packing materials, plywood, paper, cardboard, wire, and steel strapping. 1.7.6 Maintenance waste means materials collected by the engine department and the deck department while maintaining and operating the vessel, such as soot, machinery deposits, scraped paint, deck sweeping, wiping wastes, and rags, etc. 1.7.7 Operational wastes means all cargo-associated waste and maintenance waste, and cargo residues defined as garbage in 1.7.10. 1.7.8 Dishwater is the residue from the manual or automatic washing of dishes and cooking utensils which have been pre-cleaned to the extent that any food particles adhering to them would not normally interfere with the operation of automatic dishwashers. Greywater is drainage from dishwater, shower, laundry, bath and washbasin drains and does not include drainage from toilets, urinals, hospitals, and animal spaces, as defined in regulation 1(3) of Annex IV, as well as drainage from cargo spaces. 1.7.9 Oily rags are rags which have been saturated with oil as controlled in Annex I to the Convention. Contaminated rags are rags which haw been saturated with a substance defined as a harmful substance in the other annexes to the Convention. 1.7.10 Cargo residues for the purposes of these guidelines are defined as the remnants of any cargo material on board that cannot be placed in proper cargo holds (loading excess and spillage) or which remain in cargo holds and elsewhere after unloading procedures are completed (unloading residual and spillage). However, cargo residues are expected to be in small quantities.
OCR for page 272
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea 1.7.11 Fishing gear is defined as any physical device or part thereof or combination of items that may be placed on or in the water with the intended purpose of capturing, or controlling for subsequent capture, living marine or freshwater organisms. 1.7.12 Seafarers for the purposes of these guidelines means anyone who goes to sea in a ship for any purpose including, but not limited to transport of goods and services, exploration, exploitation and associated offshore processing of sea-bed mineral resources, fishing and recreation. 1.8 Application 1.8.1 Dishwater and greywater are not included as garbage in the context of Annex V. 1.8.2 Ash and clinkers from shipboard incinerators and coal-burning boilers are operational wastes in the meaning of Annex V, regulation 1(1) and therefore are included in the term all other garbage in the meaning of Annex V, regulations 3(1)(b)(ii) and 5(2)(a)(ii). 1.8.3 Cargo residues are to be treated as garbage under Annex V except when those residues are substances defined or listed under the other annexes to the Convention. 1.8.4 Cargo residues of all other substances are not explicitly excluded from disposal as garbage under the overall definition of garbage in annex V. However, certain of these substances may pose harm to the marine environment and may not be suitable for disposal at reception facilities equipped to handle general garbage because of their possible safety hazards. The disposal of such cargo residues should be based on the physical, chemical and biological properties of the substance and may require special handling not normally provided by garbage reception facilities. 1.8.5 The release of small quantities of food wastes for the specific purpose of fish feeding in connection with fishing or tourist operations is not included as garbage in the context of Annex V. 2 Training, education and information 2.1 The definition of ships used in the Convention requires these guidelines to address not only the professional and commercial maritime community but also the non-commercial seafaring population as sources of pollution of the sea by garbage. The Committee recognized that uniform programmes in the field of training and education would make a valuable contribution to raising the level of the seafarers' compliance with Annex V, thereby ensuring compliance with the Convention. Accordingly, governments should develop and undertake training, education and public information programmes suited for all seafaring communities under their jurisdictions.
OCR for page 273
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea 2.2 Governments may exchange and maintain information relevant to compliance with Annex V regulations through the Organization. Accordingly, governments are encouraged to provide the Organization with the following: 2.2.1 Technical information on shipboard waste management methods such as recycling, incineration, compaction, sorting and sanitation systems, packaging and provisioning methods; 2.2.2 Copies of current domestic laws and regulations relating to the prevention of pollution of the sea by garbage; 2.2.3 Educational materials developed to raise the level of compliance with Annex V. Contributions of this type might include printed materials, posters, brochures, photographs, audio and video tapes, and films as well as synopses of training programmes, seminars and formal curricula; 2.2.4 Information and reports on the nature and extent of marine debris found along beaches and in coastal waters under their respective jurisdictions. In order to assess the effectiveness of Annex V, these studies should provide details on amounts, distribution, sources and impacts of marine debris. 2.3 Governments are encouraged to amend their maritime certification examinations and requirements, as appropriate, to include a knowledge of duties imposed by national and international law regarding the control of pollution of the sea by garbage. 2.4 Governments are recommended to require all ships of their registry to permanently post a summary declaration stating the prohibition and restrictions for discharging garbage from ships under Annex V and the penalties for failure to comply. It is suggested this declaration be placed on a placard at least 12.5 cm by 20 cm, made of durable material and fixed in a conspicuous place in galley spaces, the mess deck, wardroom, bridge, main deck and other areas of the ship, as appropriate. The placard should be printed in the language or languages understood by the crew and passengers. 2.5 Governments are encouraged to have maritime colleges and technical institutes under their jurisdiction develop or augment curricula to include both the legal duties as well as the technical options available to professional seafarers for handling ship-generated garbage. These curricula should also include information on environmental impacts of garbage. A list of suggested topics to be included in the curriculum are listed below: 2.5.1 Garbage in the marine environment, sources, types and impacts; 2.5.2 National and international laws relating to, or impinging upon shipboard waste management; 2.5.3 Health and sanitation considerations related to the storage, handling and transfer of ship-generated garbage;
OCR for page 302
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea 4.5.1 Cleaning ashes and slag from the combustion chamber(s) and cleaning of combustion air openings before starting the incinerator (where applicable). 4.5.2 Operating procedures and instructions. These should include proper start-up procedures, normal shutdown procedures, emergency shutdown procedures and procedures for loading garbage (where applicable). 4.6 To avoid the building up of dioxins, the flue gas should be shock-cooled to a maximum 350°C right after the incinerator. 5 Operating controls 5.1 The entire unit should be capable of being disconnected from all sources of electricity by means of one disconnect switch located near the incinerator. (See 184.108.40.206) 5.2 There should be an emergency stop switch located outside the compartment, which stops all power to the equipment. The emergency stop switch should also be able to stop all power to the fuel pumps. If the incinerator is equipped with a flue gas fan, the fan should be capable of being restarted independently of the other equipment on the incinerator. 5.3 The control equipment should be so designed that any failure of the following equipment will prevent continued operations and cause the fuel supply to be cut off. 5.3.1 Safety thermostat/draught failure 220.127.116.11 A flue gas temperature controller, with a sensor placed in the flue gas duct, should be provided that will shut down the burner if the flue gas temperature exceeds the temperature set by the manufacturer for the specific design. 18.104.22.168 A combustion temperature controller, with a sensor placed in the combustion chamber, should be provided that will shut down the burner if the combustion chamber temperature exceeds the maximum temperature. 22.214.171.124 A negative pressure switch should be provided to monitor the draught and the negative pressure in the combustion chamber. The purpose of this negative pressure switch is to ensure that there is sufficient draught/negative pressure in the incinerator during operations. The circuit to the program relay for the burner will be opened and an alarm activated before the negative pressure rises to atmospheric pressure. 5.3.2 Flame failure/fuel oil pressure 126.96.36.199 The incinerator should have a flame safeguard control consisting of a flame sensing element and associated equipment for
OCR for page 303
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea shutdown of the unit in the event of ignition failure and flame failure during the firing cycle. The flame safeguard control should be so designed that the failure of any component will cause a safety shutdown. 188.8.131.52 The flame safeguard control should be capable of closing the fuel valves in not more than 4 s after a flame failure. 184.108.40.206 The flame safeguard control should provide a trial-for-ignition period of not more that 10 s during which fuel may be supplied to establish flame. If flame is not established within 10 s, the fuel supply to the burners should be immediately shut off automatically. 220.127.116.11 Whenever the flame safeguard control has operated because of failure of ignition, flame failure or failure of any component, only one automatic restart may be provided. If this is not successful then manual reset of the flame safeguard control should be required for restart. 18.104.22.168 Flame safeguard controls of the thermostatic type, such as stack switches and pyrostats operated by means of an open bimetallic helix, are prohibited. 22.214.171.124 If fuel oil Pressure drops below that set by the manufacturer, a failure and lockout of the program relay should result. This also applies to sludge oil used as a fuel. (Applies where pressure is important for the combustion process or a pump is not an integral part of the burner.) 5.3.3 Loss of power If there is a loss of power to the incinerator control/alarm panel (not remote alarm panel), the system should shut down. 5.4 Fuel supply Two fuel control solenoid valves should be provided in series in the fuel supply line to each burner. On multiple burner units, a valve on the main fuel supply line and a valve at each burner will satisfy this requirement. The valves should be connected electrically in parallel so that both operate simultaneously. 5.5 Alarms 5.5.1 An outlet for an audible alarm should be provided for connection to a local alarm system or a central alarm system. When a failure occurs, a visible indicator should show what caused the failure. (The indicator may cover more than one fault condition.) 5.5.2 The visible indicators should be designed so that, where failure is a safety-related shutdown, manual reset is required. 5.6 After shutdown of the oil burner, provision should be made for the fire box to cool sufficiently. (As an example of how this may be accomplished, the exhaust fan or ejector could be designed to continue
OCR for page 304
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea to operate. This would not apply in the case of an emergency manual trip.) 6 Other requirements 6.1 Documentation A complete instruction and maintenance manual with drawings, electric diagrams, spare parts list, etc., should be furnished with each incinerator. 6.2 Installation All devices and components should, as fitted in the ship, be designed to operate when the ship is upright and when inclined at any angle of list up to and including 15° either way under static conditions and 22.5° either way under dynamic conditions (rolling) and simultaneously inclined dynamically (pitching) 7.5° by bow or stern. 6.3 Incinerator 6.3.1 Incinerators are to be fitted with an energy source with sufficient energy to ensure a safe ignition and complete combustion. The combustion is to take place at sufficient negative pressure in the combustion chamber(s) to ensure no gases or smoke leak out to the surrounding areas. (See 126.96.36.199) 6.3.2 A drip tray is to be fitted under each burner and under any pumps, strainers, etc., that require occasional examination. 7 Tests 7.1 Prototype tests An operating test for the prototype of each design should be conducted, with a test report completed indicating results of all tests. The tests should be conducted to ensure that all of the control components have been properly installed and that all parts of the incinerator, including controls and safety devices, are in satisfactory operating condition. Tests should include those described in section 7.3 below. 7.2 Factory tests For each unit, if preassembled, an operating test should be conducted to ensure that all of the control components have been properly installed and that all parts of the incinerator, including controls and safety devices, are in satisfactory operating condition. Tests should include those described in 7.3 below. 7.3 Installation tests An operating test after installation should be conducted to ensure that all of the control components have been properly installed and that all
OCR for page 305
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea parts of the incinerator, including controls and safety devices, are in satisfactory operating condition. 7.3.1 Flame safeguard. The operation of the flame safeguard system should be verified by causing flame and ignition failures. Operation of the audible alarm (where applicable) and visible indicator should be verified. The shutdown times should be verified. 7.3.2 Limit controls. Shutdown due to the operation of the limit controls should be verified. 188.8.131.52 Oil pressure limit control. The lowering of the fuel oil pressure below the value required for safe combustion should initiate a safety shutdown. 184.108.40.206 Other interlocks. Other interlocks provided should be tested for proper operation as specified by the unit manufacturer. 7.3.3 Combustion controls. The combustion controls should be stable and operate smoothly. 7.3.4 Programming controls. Programming controls should be verified as controlling and cycling the unit in the intended manner. Proper pre-àpurge, ignition, post-purge and modulation should be verified. A stopwatch should be used for verifying intervals of time. 7.3.5 Fuel supply controls. The satisfactory operation of the two fuel control solenoid valves for all conditions of operation and shutdown should be verified. 7.3.6 Low voltage test. A low voltage test should be conducted to satisfactorily demonstrate that the fuel supply to the burners will be automatically shut off before an incinerator malfunction results from the reduced voltage. 7.3.7 Switches. All switches should be tested to verify proper operation. 8 Certification 8.1 Manufacturer's certification that an incinerator has been constructed in accordance with this standard should be provided (by letter or certificate or in the instruction manual). 9 Marking 9.1 Each incinerator should be permanently marked indicating: 9.1.1 Manufacturer's name or trademark. 9.1.2 Style, type, model or other manufacturer's designation for the incinerator.
OCR for page 306
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea 9.1.3 Capacity - to be indicated by net designed heat release of the incinerator in heat units per timed period; for example, British Thermal Units per hour, megajoules per hour, kilocalories per hour. 10 Quality assurance 10.1 Incinerators should be designed, manufactured and tested in a manner that ensures they meet the requirements of this standard. 10.2 The incinerator manufacturer should have a quality system that meets ISO 9001, ''Quality Systems - Model for Quality Assurance in Design/Development, Production, Installation and Servicing''. The quality system should consist of elements necessary to ensure that the incinerators are designed, tested and marked in accordance with this standard. At no time should an incinerator be sold with this standard designation that does not meet the requirements herein (see "Certification"). Annex A1 - Emission standard for shipboard incinerators with capacities of up to 1,160 kW Minimum information to be provided A1.1 An IMO Type Approval Certificate should be required for each shipboard incinerator. In order to obtain such certificate, the incinerator should be designed and built to an IMO approved standard. Each model should go through a specified type approval test operation at the factory or an approved test facility, and under the responsibility of the Administration. A1.2 Type approval test should include measuring of the following parameters: Max. capacity kW or kcal/h kg/h of specified waste kg/h per burner Pilot fuel consumption kg/h per burner O2 average in combustion chamber/zone % CO average in flue gas mg/MJ Soot number average Bacharach or Ringelman scale Combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature average §C Amount of unburned components in ashes % by weight
OCR for page 307
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea A1.3 Duration of test operation For sludge oil burning 6-8 hours For solid waste burning 6-8 hours A1.4 Fuel/Waste specification for type approval test (% by weight) Sludge oil consisting of 75% sludge oil from heavy fuel oil 5% waste lubricating oil 20% emulsified water Solid waste (class 2) consisting of 50% food waste 50% rubbish containing approx. 30% paper, approx. 40% cardboard, approx. 10% rags, approx. 20% plastic The mixture will have up to 50% moisture and 7% incombustible solids Classes of waste* Class 0 Trash, a mixture of highly combustible waste such as paper, cardboard, wood boxes, and combustible floor sweepings, with up to 10% by weight of plastic bags, coated paper, laminated paper, treated corrugated cardboard, oily rags and plastic or rubber scraps. This type of waste contains up to 10% moisture, 5% incombustible solids and has a heating value of about 19,700 kJ/kg as fired. Class 1 Rubbish, a mixture of combustible waste such as paper, cardboard cartons, wood scrap, foliage and combustible floor sweepings. The mixture contains up to 20% by weight of galley or cafeteria waste, but contains little or no treated papers, plastic or rubber wastes. This type of waste contains 25% moisture, 10% incombustible solids and has a heating value of about 15,100 kJ/kg as fired. Class 2 Refuse, consisting of an approximately even mixture of rubbish and garbage by weight. This type of waste, common to passenger ship occupancy, consists of up to 50% moisture, 7% incombustible solids and has a heating value of about 10,000 kJ/kg as fired. Class 3 Garbage, consisting of animal and vegetable wastes from restaurants, cafeterias, galleys, sick bays and like installations. This type of waste contains up to 70% moisture, up to 5% incombustible solids and has a heating value range of about 2,300 kJ/kg as fired. * Reference: Waste Classification, Incinerator Institute of America.
OCR for page 308
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Class 4 Aquatic life forms and animal remains, consisting of carcasses, organs and solid organic wastes from vessels carrying animal-type cargoes, consisting of up to 85% moisture, 5% incombustible solids and having a heating value range of about 2,300 kJ/kg as fired. Class 5 By-product waste, liquid or semi-liquid, such as tar, paints, solvents, sludge, oil, waste oil, etc., from shipboard operations. BTU values must be determined by the individual materials to be destroyed. Class 6 Solid by-product waste, such as rubber, plastics, wood waste, etc., from industrial operations. BTU values must be determined by the individual materials to be destroyed. Calorific values kcal/kg kJ/kg Vegetable and putrescibles 1,360 5,700 Paper 3,415 14,300 Rag 3,700 15,500 Plastics 8,600 36,000 Oil sludge 8,600 36,000 Sewage sludge 716 3,000 Densities kg/m3 Paper (loose) 50 Refuse (75% wet) 720 Dry rubbish 110 Scrap wood 190 Wood sawdust 220 Density of loose general waste generated on board ship will be about 130 kg/m3. A1.5 Required emission standards to be verified by type approval test O2 in combustion chamber 6-12% CO in flue gas maximum average 200 mg/MJ Soot number maximum average Bacharach 3 or Ringelman I (a higher soot number is acceptable only during very short periods such as starting up) Unburned components in ash residues max. 10% by weight Combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature range 900 -1,200°C
OCR for page 309
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea A high temperature in the actual combustion chamber/zone is an absolute requirement in order to obtain a complete and smoke-free incineration, including that of plastic and other synthetic materials while minimizing dioxin and VOC (volatile organic compounds) emissions. A1.6 Fuel-related emission Al.6.1 Even with good incineration technology the emission from an incinerator will depend on the type of material being incinerated. If for instance a vessel has bunkered a fuel with high sulphur content, then sludge oil from separators which is burned in the incinerator will lead to emission of SOx. But again, the SOx emission from the incinerator would only amount to less than one per cent of the SO x discharged with the exhaust from main and auxiliary engines. A1.6.2 Principal organic constituents (POC) cannot be measured on a continuous basis. Specifically, there are no instruments with provision for continuous time telemetry that measures POC, hydrogen chloride (HCI) or waste destruction efficiency to date. These measurements can only be made using grab sample approaches, where the sample is returned to a laboratory for analysis. In the case of organic constituents (undestroyed wastes), the laboratory work requires considerable time to complete. Thus, continuous emission control can only be assured by secondary measurements. A1.6.3 On-board operation/emission control For a shipboard incinerator with IMO type approval, emission control/ monitoring should be limited to the following: control/monitor O2 content in combustion. chamber (spot checks only); control/monitor temperature in combustion chamber flue gas outlet. By continuous (auto) control of the incineration process, ensure that the above-mentioned two parameters are kept within the prescribed limits. This mode of operation will ensure that particulates and ash residue contain only traces of organic constituents. A1.7 Passenger/Cruise ships with incinerator installations having a total capacity of more than 1,160 kW A1.7.1 On board this type of vessel, the following conditions will probably exist: generation of huge amounts of burnable waste with a high content of plastic and synthetic materials; incinerating plant with a high capacity operating continuously over long periods; this type of vessel will often be operating in very sensitive coastal areas.
OCR for page 310
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea A1.7.2 In view of the fuel-related emission from a plant with such a high capacity, installation of a flue gas sea water scrubber should be considered. This installation can perform an efficient after-cleaning of the flue gases, thus minimizing the content of HCI, SOx, particulate matter. A1.7.3 Any restriction in nitrogen oxide (NOx) should only be considered in connection with possible future regulations on pollution from the vessel's total pollution, i.e. main and auxiliary machinery, boilers, etc. A2 - Fire protection requirements for incinerators and waste stowage spaces For the purpose of construction, arrangement and insulation, incinerator spaces and waste stowage spaces should be treated as category A machinery spaces (SOLAS II-2/3.19) and service spaces (SOLAS II-2/3.12), respectively. To minimize the fire hazards these spaces represent, the following SOLAS requirements in chapter II-2 should be applied: A2.1 For passenger vessels carrying more than 36 passengers: regulation 26.2.2(12) should apply to incinerator and combined incinerator/waste storage spaces, and the flue uptakes from such spaces; and regulation 26.2.2(13) should apply to waste storage spaces and garbage chutes connected thereto. A2.2 For all other vessels, including passenger vessels carrying not more than 36 passengers: regulation 44.2.2(6) should apply to incinerator and combined incinerator/waste spaces, and the flue uptakes from such spaces; and regulation 44.2.2(9) should apply to waste storage spaces and garbage chutes connected thereto. A2.3 Incinerators and waste stowage spaces located on weather decks (regulation II-2/3.17) need not meet the above requirements but should be located: as far aft on the vessel as possible; not less than 3 m from entrances, air inlets and openings to accommodations, service spaces and control stations; not less than 5 m measured horizontally from the nearest hazardous area, or vent outlet from a hazardous area; and not less than 2 m should separate the incinerator and the waste material storage area, unless physically separated by a structural fire barrier.
OCR for page 311
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea A2.4 A fixed fire detection and fire-extinguishing system should be installed in enclosed spaces containing incinerators, in combined incinerator/waste storage spaces and in any waste storage space in accordance with the following table: Automatic sprinkler system Fixed fire-extinguishing system Fixed fire detection system Combined incinerator and waste storage space X Incinerator space X X Waste storage space X A2.5 Where an incinerator or waste storage space is located on weather decks it must be accessible with two means of fire extinguishment: either fire hoses, semi-portable fire extinguishers, fire monitors or a combination of any two of these extinguishing devices. A fixed fire-extinguishing system is acceptable as one means of extinguishment. A2.6 Flue uptake piping/ducting should be led independently to an appropriate terminus via a continuous funnel or trunk. A3 - Incinerators integrated with heat recovery units A3.1 The flue gas system, for incinerators where the flue gas is led through a heat recovery device, should be designed so that the incinerator can continue operation with the economizer coils dry. This may be accomplished with bypass dampers if needed. A3.2 The incinerator unit should be equipped with a visual and an audible alarm in case of loss of feed-water. A3.3 The gas side of the heat recovery device should have equipment for proper cleaning. Sufficient access should be provided for adequate inspection of external heating surfaces. A4 - Flue gas temperature A4.1 When deciding upon the type of incinerator, consideration should be given as to what the flue gas temperature will be. The flue gas temperature can be a determining factor in the selection of materials for fabricating the stack. Special high-temperature material may be required for use in fabricating the stack when the flue gas temperatures exceed 430°C.
OCR for page 312
Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Annex Form of IMO Type Approval Certificate for shipboard incinerators with capacities of up to 1,160 kW Certificate of Shipboard Incinerator Name of Administration Badge or Cypher This is to certify that the shipboard incinerator listed has been examined and tested in accordance with the requirement of the standard for shipboard incinerators for disposing of ship-generated waste appended to the Guidelines for the implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78. Incinerator manufactured by _____________________________________ Style, type or model of the incinerator* ___________________ Max. capacity ________ kW or kcal/h ________ kg/h of specified waste ________ kg/h per burner O2 average in combustion chamber/zone __________ % CO average in flue gas mg/MJ _______________________ Soot number average ______________________________ Bacharach or Ringelman scale Combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature average ___ °C Amount of unburned components in ashes ________________________________________ % by weight A copy of this certificate should be carded on board a vessel fitted with this equipment at all times. Official stamp Signed ________________________________________ Administration of ________________________________ Dated this _____ day of ___ ________________________________ * Delete as appropriate.
Representative terms from entire chapter: