Index

A

Accidental discharge of debris, 43, 46 n.10

Accountability

in port management, 163-165

recommendations, 6, 243, 244

Administration and management

of Annex V implementation effort, 9, 192-196, 251

of education and training activities, 7, 175, 185-187

of MARPOL, 15

of model education program, 184

organizational and operational change to reduce debris, 69, 74-76

port governance, 155-156, 159-160, 163-165, 168

for U.S. Navy Annex V compliance, 24

of vessel garbage system, 3-6

See also Leadership

Agriculture, U.S. Department of, 6, 12, 21

See also Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

AIDS, 53 n.14

Air pollution, 15, 152

American Association of Port Authorities, 156

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), 20, 148, 168

Annex V and, 6, 20, 168

cargo fleet regulation, 101, 230

enforcement procedures, 200, 201

information gathering activities, 99-100, 211, 220, 249

quarantine requirements, 160-163

recommendations for, 6, 12, 243, 245

statistical data, 22

Annex V of MARPOL

control strategy, 16, 63

on data collection, 2

discharge restrictions, 16, 264-267

disposal equipment performance standards, 148

enforcement of. See Enforcement of Annex V

exceptions, 267

fleets covered by, 19

goals of, 1



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Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Index A Accidental discharge of debris, 43, 46 n.10 Accountability in port management, 163-165 recommendations, 6, 243, 244 Administration and management of Annex V implementation effort, 9, 192-196, 251 of education and training activities, 7, 175, 185-187 of MARPOL, 15 of model education program, 184 organizational and operational change to reduce debris, 69, 74-76 port governance, 155-156, 159-160, 163-165, 168 for U.S. Navy Annex V compliance, 24 of vessel garbage system, 3-6 See also Leadership Agriculture, U.S. Department of, 6, 12, 21 See also Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service AIDS, 53 n.14 Air pollution, 15, 152 American Association of Port Authorities, 156 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), 20, 148, 168 Annex V and, 6, 20, 168 cargo fleet regulation, 101, 230 enforcement procedures, 200, 201 information gathering activities, 99-100, 211, 220, 249 quarantine requirements, 160-163 recommendations for, 6, 12, 243, 245 statistical data, 22 Annex V of MARPOL control strategy, 16, 63 on data collection, 2 discharge restrictions, 16, 264-267 disposal equipment performance standards, 148 enforcement of. See Enforcement of Annex V exceptions, 267 fleets covered by, 19 goals of, 1

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Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea hazard evolution model, 3 implementation of. See Implementation of Annex V offshore industry regulations, 45 on port reception facilities, 20, 140 scope, 16 signatories, 15-16 text of regulations, 263-268 U.S. ratification, 1, 18 U.S. regulatory regime and, 19-20 APHIS. See Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Army Corps of Engineers, 165 B Beach cleanups and surveys, 2, 23, 26, 34, 80, 181 amount of plastic items, 49 appearance of heavy items, 49 for monitoring Annex V effects, 214-216 plastic debris in, 218 sampling technique, 219 Benthos debris accumulation in, 2 marine debris in, 34 plastic debris in, 218-219 recommendations for monitoring debris in, 241, 242 Biodegradable plastics, 33 n.1 Birds entanglement with marine debris, 54-55 ingestion of plastic debris, 55 C California, 26 Cargo-associated waste, 16, 271 Cargo fleet, 2 access to garbage management technology, 229 crew complement, 43-44 disposal records, 229-230 educational efforts, 105-106, 180, 230 information gathering in, 99-100 interventions to improve Annex V compliance, 10, 12, 101-106 mandated off-loading at U.S. port calls, 168 regulatory structure, 100-101 size of, 43 strategic objectives for Annex V compliance, 229-231 Center for Marine Conservation, 177, 181-182, 203, 215, 216 Clean Water Act, 115 Coast Guard cargo fleet regulation, 10, 99, 100, 230 commercial fisheries oversight, 94 compliance measures in, 110, 111, 147 data gathering by, 211, 220, 248, 249 education and training activities, 176 enforcement in civil cases, 8, 10-11, 199-200 in enforcement of Annex V, 7, 8, 21, 196-197, 230, 248-249 in enforcement of MARPOL, 1, 146 fleet characteristics, 45 leadership role in Annex V implementation, 192 monitoring shipboard garbage disposal records, 10, 201 National Safe Boating Week activities, 178-179 opportunities for increasing compliance of recreational boaters,86 port facility oversight, 6, 20, 164 recommendations for, 10-11, 244, 245, 248, 249

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Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea in regulation of passenger day boats and ferries, 107 regulation of port reception facilities, 20 Commercial fishing fleet, 2 access to garbage management technology, 11, 227 diversity of practice in, 90 enforcement of Annex V in, 7, 228-229 garbage disposal practices, 40, 92 ghost fishing, 56 information-gathering activities in, 87, 90-93 interventions to promote Annex V compliance, 11-12, 94-95, 98-99 net recycling program, 26-27 port facilities, 157, 226-227 private efforts for debris reduction, 43 regulatory environment, 84, 92-94 size of, 41-42 strategic objectives for Annex V compliance, 226-229 types of debris produced by, 42-43 Compactors, incinerators, pulpers, and shredders Annex V guidelines, 283-288, 295-312 Annex V restrictions, 16 comminuters, 148-149 compactor technology, 147-148 current research activity, 147 incinerator technology, 150-154 on-board utilization, 3-4, 6, 18 pulper and shredder technology, 148-150 in recommendations, 246, 247 technical standards, 111 U.S. Navy policy and practice, 24, 120 nn.12-14, 120-121, 234-235 use in commercial fleet, 95 use in cruise ship industry, 127 Congress, United States, recommendations for, 9, 250, 252 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, 213, 214 Corporate culture, 69, 74-76 Crabs, 56 Cruise ships, 2, 10, 12 Annex V control mechanisms, 126 debris produced by, 46-47 education projects, 180 information on garbage generation and management, 125-126 interventions for Annex V compliance, 126-127 mandated off-loading at U.S. port calls, 168 objectives for Annex V compliance, 236-238 on-board treatment/destruction technology, 147 as source of maritime debris, 40 vessel design, 127 waste management system, 151 D Data collection and management for Annex V compliance and enforcement , 8, 11, 32, 84-85, 210-214, 220, 248, 249 beach surveys, 23, 214-216, 219 characteristics of maritime garbage, 36-40 on effects of debris in marine environment, 2, 11 environmental monitoring, 214-220, 241-242 garbage off-loading statistics, 22 identifying vessel garbage, 33-35 information exchange opportunities, 182-183 international efforts, 11, 212-214 legal discharge, 32-33 lost fishing gear, 95 marine accidents involving debris, 53

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Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea on-board garbage records, 8, 10, 11, 94 n.3, 115-116, 136, 201 plastics in marine environment, 217-220 port-issued garbage receipts, 7, 9, 10, 11 recommendations, 9, 10, 11, 241-242, 248, 249 repeat violators, 200-201 research needs, 2-3 shortcomings of, 2, 57 standardization, 215-216 surveillance of disposal practices, 201-203 trawl surveys, 219 wildlife impacts, 54, 55-56, 57, 216-217 Dispersal of marine garbage, 48-52, 57 Disposable commodities, 35-36 Dolphins, 55 Dunnage, 16, 44 E Economic issues access to on-board garbage management systems, 11-12 agency funding for Annex V compliance efforts, 22 beach cleanup costs, 15 n.1 cost of marine debris effects, 15 economic incentives for Annex V compliance, 25, 78-79, 98-99, 106 funding for education and training efforts, 187-188 garbage maintenance on research ships, 132, 136 interventions in offshore industry, 116-117 payment for vessel garbage disposal, 166-167, 168-169, 230, 243 shoreside garbage disposal, 158 tariff for garbage disposal cost, 167 in technology acquisition, 246 technology development activities, 79, 154-155, 168 vessel garbage management system, 6 Education and training for cargo ship sector, 105-106, 230 commercial fishing fleet, 95, 227, 228 for cruise ship industry, 126, 237 definition, 173 for employees in maritime industry, 175 federal role, 185-189 funding issues, 187-188 good examples of, 179 guidelines for Annex V implementation, 272-274 for implementation of Annex V, 6-7, 76-77, 176-177 industry projects, 180-181 information exchange opportunities, 182-183 international efforts, 182 for management, 175 as marine debris control strategy, 76-78, 173 Marine Debris Information Offices, 177-178 model program, 183-185 Navy projects, 181 objectives for small public vessel sector, 232 for offshore industry, 116, 234 opportunities for improvement, 188-189 port projects, 179-180 private organization for, 187 public awareness, 8, 11, 22, 86, 174, 181-182 publicly chartered independent foundation for, 7, 250 recommendations for, 10, 249-250

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Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea for recreational boating community, 87, 178-179, 226 for research fleet, 133-136, 238-239 Sea Grant program, 178 sectoral focus, 76-77 strategic role of, 6, 173, 174, 183-184 targeting of groups for, 184-185 types of, 174-175 Enforcement of Annex V by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 200 Annex V guidelines, 289-292 in cargo fleet, 100-101, 230-231 in commercial fishing fleet, 93-94, 95, 228 in cruise fleet, 237-238 definition, 7 n.3 handling of civil cases, 8, 10-11, 199-200 international monitoring of, 18, 201-202 liability issues, 165-166 in Navy, 117-121, 124 obstacles to, 22, 84, 196-198 in offshore industry, 114-116 opportunities for improvement, 7-8, 198-203, 208 participants in information gathering, 84-85 in passenger cruise ship industry, 126 in passenger day boat and ferry sector, 107 penalties, 7 port state authority, 7, 198-199 private sector efforts, 78 public awareness, 8, 11, 22 recent trends, 197 recommendations, 10-11, 247-249 record-keeping for, 8, 201 in recreational boating community, 87 repeat offenders, 200-201 in research fleet, 132-133 responsibility for, 1, 8 role of, 78 in special areas, 8, 16, 27-28 surveillance activities, 201-203 U.S. policy, 18 Environmental concerns Annex V enforcement in sensitive areas, 8 effects of marine debris, 52, 53-54 human health risks from marine debris, 52-53 monitoring Annex V effects, 210, 214-220 private efforts for Annex V compliance, 26 scientific monitoring of debris impacts, 241-242 Environmental Protection Agency, 48 in data collection effort, 212, 216 education and training activities, 176 funding for Annex V compliance efforts, 22 Gulf of Mexico Program, 27-28 hazardous waste management strategy, 80-81 on integrated solid waste management systems, 141 leadership role in Annex V implementation, 192-194 port facility oversight, 164, 168 in port management of vessel garbage, 6 recommendations for, 9, 11, 242, 244, 245 in regulation of offshore industry, 114-115 regulatory authority, 21 research vessel, 127-130 surveillance program, 203

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Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea F Ferries. See Passenger day boats and ferries Fish, 55. See also Commercial fishing fleet Food waste, 8, 16, 148-149, 271 Foreign fleet compliance, 228-229 Fur seals, 54, 216-217 G Gas exchange in marine environment, 1, 54, 217 Ghost fishing, 56 Gulf of Mexico, 27-28, 50, 116 special areas designation, 204 n.12, 206-207 H Hazard evolution model application to marine debris analysis, 66-67 application to seafarer community, 79 for assessment of Annex V, 3, 63, 66-67, 79-81 characteristics, 64-66 conceptual development, 64 economic incentives in, 78-79 educational interventions, 76-78 government and private regulation in, 78 organizational and operational change in, 69, 74-76 sectoral analysis, 79 significance of, 80-81 technological innovations in, 68-69 Hazardous waste, 53, 166 produced by offshore industry, 45 Health risks, 52-53 Historical practice, 13 Hypoxic marine environment debris as cause of, 1, 2, 54, 217 definition, 2 n.1 I Implementation of Annex V APHIS and, 20, 168 assessment of effectiveness of, 210, 220, 223-224 certificate of compliance, 100-101 economic incentives, 78-79 education and training for, 6-7, 76-77, 173, 174, 176-177 evaluation criteria, 224 federal government role, 167-168 by foreign fishing fleets, 228-229 guidelines for, 269-292, 294-312 hazard evolution model for analysis of, 3, 63, 66-67, 79-81 international monitoring of, 18 knowledge base for, 32 liability issues as obstacle to, 165-166 obstacles to, 1, 19-21, 63 opportunities for, 28-29, 240 organizational implications, 69, 74-76 overarching issues, 7-8, 191, 208 private efforts, 26-27 recommendations, 8-12, 223, 241-253 role of strategic planning in, 222 scientific monitoring, 241-242 sectoral objectives, 3, 83 in special areas, 204-208 state initiatives, 25-26 strategy design, 83-85, 143, 223 successful efforts, 22 technology assistance for, 167-168 trends, 22-23 U.S. agencies involved in, 21 U.S. experience, 21-23 Incinerators. See Compactors, incinerators, pulpers, and shredders Individual behavior, 76, 77 research personnel, 132-133

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Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Inspections MARPOL, 146 port facilities, 163, 164 sanitation, 144-145 Integration of shoreside and marine garbage management, 5, 6 Annex V provisions, 140 commercial fishing fleet and, 227 development of plan for, 143, 222 international comparison, 156-157 opportunities for improvement, 159-169 in passenger day boat and ferry sector, 231 port components, 155, 157-159 port governance and, 155-156, 159-160 principles of, 141-142 recommendations, 9, 242-245 system functioning, 140-141 See also Port management of vessel garbage Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, 11 International Coastal Cleanup Campaign, 215 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. See Annex V of MARPOL; MARPOL 73/78 International Maritime Organization, 1, 7, 11, 85 monitoring of port facilities, 202 on port facilities, 156 n.7, 245 in promotion of Annex V compliance, 28 role of, 15 special areas protections, 206 International practice data collection, recommendations for, 242 education and training, 182 monitoring Annex V compliance, 212-214 monitoring shipboard garbage disposal, 201-202 port management, 156-157, 231 International Safety Management Code, 104-105 International Whaling Convention, 213 Interventions to reduce marine debris hazard after debris discharge, 80 in cargo fleet, 101-106 in commercial fishing fleet, 43, 94-95, 98-99 conceptual basis of strategy selection, 84-85, 223-225 in cruise ship industry, 126-127 economic incentives, 78-79 educational, 76-78 government and private regulation, 78 hazard evolution model, 3, 66-68 in Navy, 117-124 in offshore industry, 116-117 organizational and operational, 69, 74-76 in passenger day boat and ferry sector, 107 in recreational boating community, 86-87 in research fleet, 133-136 in small public vessel sector, 111 source reduction, 143-144 technological innovations, 68-69 types of, 68 upstream focus, 64, 80-81, 188, 224 J Justice, U.S. Department of, 10 L Leadership, 7, 9 of education and training efforts, 185-187

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Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea importance of, in Annex V implementation, 191, 208 Navy role, 194, 236 new national commission for, 194-196, 251-253 organizational structure for, 191-196 recommendations for, 250-253 Legal issues evolution of MARPOL agreements, 15-19 handling of civil cases, 8, 10-11, 199-200 liability, 165-166 obstacles to enforcement of Annex V, 22, 196-198 port state authority, 7, 18, 198-199, 248 punishment of repeat violators, 200-201 recent trends in enforcement, 197 Liability issues, 165-166 Lobster, 56 London Dumping Convention, 213, 214 M Manatees, 55-56 Marine Debris Information Offices, 177-178 Marine Entanglement Research Program (MERP), 2, 6, 22, 176, 180,187, 216 n.2, 242 Marine Mammal Commission, 21 Marine Plastics Pollution Research and Control Act (MPPRCA), 1, 19-20 education and training activities, 176 foreign-flag ship compliance, 100 monitoring activity, 34 obstacles to, 22 Maritime Administration in enhancement of vessel garbage management, 6 leadership role in Annex V implementation, 194 mission, 21 recommendations for, 12, 247 research and development activities, 154, 168, 247 MARPOL 73/78, 1, 15 administration of, 15 Annex 1 compliance, 213-214 signatories, 15 structure and scope, 15 See also Annex V of MARPOL Medical waste, 52-53, 53 n.14 Merchant marine, 36 MERP. See Marine Entanglement Research Program Minerals Management Service, 11, 21, 45, 116, 202 leadership role in Annex V implementation, 194 mission, 85 Movement and persistence of marine debris, 51-52 MPPRCA. See Marine Plastics Pollution Research and Control Act N National Marine Fisheries Service, 11-12 commercial fisheries regulation, 84-85, 92-94, 229 education and training activities, 176, 177, 227 in promoting Annex V compliance, 93 research and development activities, 154-155, 168, 246 research on debris effects on wildlife, 54 surveillance of garbage disposal practices, 202

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Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data collecting capability and practice, 2-3, 48, 216, 217-218 education and training activities, 176, 187 leadership role in Annex V implementation, 194 recommendations for, 11, 242 research fleet, 127, 132, 133 Sea Grant Marine Survey, 12, 95 National Park Service, 21, 216 National Safe Boating Council, 179 National Science Foundation, 132 National Sea Grant College Program. See Sea Grant program Navy, United States, 2 Annex V compliance, 23-25, 120 Annex V enforcement, 124 auxiliary fleet, 45, 107-111 command and control structure, 117 debris produced by, 46 fleet characteristics, 46 garbage management education and training projects, 181 garbage management technologies, 117-121, 147 information about garbage generation and management, 117 leadership role in Annex V implementation, 194, 236 MPPRCA compliance, 19-20 objectives for Annex V compliance, 234-236 operations in special areas, 120 plan for Annex V compliance, 117 research and development activities, 154, 234-235 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 251 O Odor-barrier bags, 145 Offshore industry, 2 characteristics, 45 control structure, 114-116 debris produced by, 45-46 intelligence gathering mechanism, 111-114 interventions to improve Annex V compliance, 116-117 strategic objectives for Annex V compliance, 233-234 Oil pollution, 15, 51 Operational wastes, 16, 271 Organizational structure and functioning, 69, 74-76 cargo ship sector, 104-105 for effective garbage management, 142 Navy garbage management, 117 offshore industry, 116 port governance, 155-156 U.S. enforcement of Annex V, 196-198 P Packaging, 136 cargo-related garbage, 16 disposable items, 35-36 industry education, 7 in MARPOL conventions, 15 reducing plastic waste in military supplies, 25, 111 source reduction strategies, 143-144 Paper, 49, 149 Passenger day boats and ferries, 2 control structure for, 107 debris generated by, 44 intelligence gathering mechanisms, 106 interventions to improve Annex V compliance, 107 objectives for Annex V compliance, 231 types of ships in, 44

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Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Persistence of debris in marine environment, 48-50 Plastic debris Annex V restrictions, 16 beach surveys, 23, 218 behavior in marine environment, 49-50 benthic surveys, 218-219 biodegradable, 33 n.1 compaction, 147-148 definition, 271 disposal by U.S. Navy, 23, 24-25 distribution on beaches, 49 ecological effects, 53-54, 217 efforts to reduce in cruise ship industry, 127 entanglement of marine wildlife, 54-55 fishnet recycling program, 26-27 industry efforts at debris management, 181 ingestion by wildlife, 55-56 monitoring in marine environment, 33, 217-220, 241 on-board storage, 24, 144-145 packaging, 144 recommendations for monitoring, 11, 241 research needs, 2-3 Plastics Reduction in the Marine Environment, 25 Port management of vessel garbage, 3 accountability, 163-165 Annex V guidelines, 288-289 Annex V requirements, 20, 140 cargo fleet operations and, 101, 106, 229-230 Coast Guard oversight, 10 commercial environment, 140-141 commercial fishing fleet, 94, 157, 226-227 cost of, 78-79 cruise ship industry, 47, 126-127, 237 education and training for, 175, 179-180 EPA oversight, 11, 168 inadequacy of, 144, 155 liability issues, 165-166 MARPOL provisions, 268 for Navy, 117 offshore industry, 114, 233-234 opportunities for improvement, 6, 7-8, 9, 168-169 payment for, 166-167, 168-169 quarantine requirements, 162 record keeping, 211, 212 recreational boating sector, 225-226 recycling, 145, 159, 168 regulatory responsibility, 6 reporting of inadequate facilities, 10, 85, 202, 245, 293 research fleet, 131, 132, 238-239 sectoral diversity, 140 small public vessel sector, 232 in special areas, 206 strategies, 157-159 technical standards, 10 technological innovations, 69 U.S. regulation, 20 See also Integration of shoreside and marine garbage management Private regulation, 78 in offshore industry, 116 reporting of non-compliance, 84-85 Public vessels, 2, 10 debris generated by, 44-45 information gathering mechanisms, 107-110 military compliance with MPPRCA, 19-20 objectives for Annex V compliance, 232-233 regulatory structure, 110-111 types of, 44 Pulpers. See Compactors, incinerators, pulpers, and shredders Pycnocline, 48-49

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Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Q Quarantine of foreign garbage, 6, 20, 160-163 R Recreational boating control structure, 86 education and training programs, 178-179, 226 enforcement of Annex V, 7 intelligence-gathering apparatus, 85-86 objectives for Annex V compliance, 225-226 opportunities for Annex V compliance, 86-87 as source of maritime debris, 36-37, 40-41 Recycling opportunities in marine environment, 6, 222-223 private efforts, 26 promoting in recreational boating community, 87 recommendations for promoting, 9, 243, 244 shoreside facilities, 145, 159, 168 U.S. Navy policy and practice, 25, 235 Repeat violators, 200-201 Research fleet, 2, 47-48 control mechanisms for garbage management, 132-133 disposal challenges for, 130-131 information about garbage generation and management by, 127-131 objectives for Annex V compliance, 238-239 S Sanitation definition, 3 n.2, 144 n.1 monitoring of vessels, 144-145 on-board garbage handling and, 3-5, 144 Sea Grant program, 178, 187, 228, 247 Sewage, 15, 50 Shipping Industry Marine Debris Education Plan, 180 Shore Protection Act, 115 Shredders. See Compactors, incinerators, pulpers, and shredders Sorting, 143 Source control, 3, 143-144 Sources of vessel garbage, 2 Annex V application, 35 cargo ships, 43-44 commercial fishing fleet, 42-43 cruise ships, 46-47 current understanding, 35-37, 57 offshore industrial activities, 45-46 passenger day boats and ferries, 44 recreational boats, 40-41 research needs, 57 research vessels, 47-48 small public vessels, 44-45 U.S. Navy, 46 Special areas, 8, 16, 204 n.11 characteristics, 50 disposal practices in, 204 growth of, 204 n.13 Gulf of Mexico, 27-28 MARPOL definition, 263 MARPOL provisions, 203-204, 265-267 movement and persistence of debris in, 50-51 MPPRCA requirements, 20 Navy in, 120 port facilities, 206 research vessels in, 130-131 Wider Caribbean, 204, 206, 208 State, U.S. Department of, 10, 11, 194 Office of Ocean Affairs, 21

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Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea State governments initiatives for Annex V compliance, 25-26 marine police, 11 port facility oversight, 164-165, 168 Submerged debris, 50 Superfund, 165 T Technology for debris management access to, 11, 226, 229 comminuters, 148-149 compactors, 147-148 costs of, 246 demonstration projects, 246 enhancing research and development, 154-155 garbage storage, 145 government role in research and development, 167-168 in hazard evolution model, 64, 68-69 incinerator, 150-154 marine debris monitoring, 34-35 Navy research and development in garbage maintenance, 117-121, 232, 234-235 on-board garbage handling, 3, 4, 5-6, 68-69, 147-155 pulpers and shredders, 148-150 recommendations, 12, 245-247 research and development costs, 79 See also Compactors, incinerators, pulpers, and shredders Texas, 25-26 Total Quality Management, 76, 104, 175 Turtles entanglement with marine debris, 54 ingestion of plastic debris, 55 U United Nations, 15, 251 Convention on the Law of the Sea III, 18, 199 See also International Maritime Organization University National Oceanographic Laboratory Systems, 48 V Vessel design, 127 Vessel garbage amounts, 36-40, 57 composition, 13, 16, 33-34 disposal trends, 22-23 emergence of social concern, 13-14 evolution of legal environment, 15-19 fate of, 48-52, 57 historical practice, 13 identification of, 33-35 management system, 3-6 negative effects of, 14-15, 52-57 opportunities for improving management system, 5-6, 9, 159-169 submerged, 50 See also Sources of vessel garbage W Washington state, 26 Whales, 55 Wildlife entanglement in marine debris, 54-55, 216 ingestion of plastic, 55-56 monitoring Annex V impacts on, 216-217 recommendations for research on interaction with debris, 11 World Bank, 207, 237-238

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Clean Ships Clean Ports Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Z Zero-discharge, 8, 224-225, 251 in commercial fishing sector, 226 objectives for offshore industry, 233 objectives for U.S. Navy, 234-236 in passenger day boat and ferry sector, 231 in recreational boating sector, 225 research vessel operations, 238