of HIV viral coat proteins to change neuronal metabolism leading to AIDS-related dementia. Most recently, intramural researchers of the Laboratory of Clinical Studies have been investigating highrisk behaviors leading to AIDS exposure using a nonhuman primate model of impulsivity and habitual behavior.
Since 1988, NIAAA has funded studies that examine the relationships between alcohol and other drug use and highrisk sexual behavior, rates of HIV seroconversion, and the development and clinical course of AIDS. These research grants include: surveys to track incidence and prevalence of highrisk behaviors among alcohol treatment inpatients; cross-sectional surveys and prospective cohort studies to examine relationships among alcohol and drug use, highrisk behavior, and HIV seropositivity among various risk groups, including alcohol-dependent adults and adolescents; a supplement to expand an ongoing prospective survey to include information on sexual practices, drug use, AIDS knowledge, and perceived risk in investigating racial/ethnic and gender differences in the relationship between alcohol consumption and AIDS-risk behaviors; and a supplement to a National Alcohol Research Center grant to develop estimates of the incidence and prevalence of sexual risk taking and drinking and an examination of beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions of AIDS risk.
In June 1991 NIAAA issued an announcement for Research on relationships between alcohol use and sexual behaviors associated with HIV transmission . NIAAA has funded several grants to understand the relationship between alcohol use and highrisk sexual behavior and the development of strategies to prevent highrisk behaviors.
Most research thus far has focused on the determinants of highrisk behaviors among adolescents, women, and various racial and ethnic groups. Most recently, NIAAA has funded several projects to develop and evaluate AIDS preventive interventions. These include a culturally relevant school-based prevention program for Navajo youth and their families living on or near the Navajo Nation Reservation; an HIV risk reduction intervention for gay and bisexual males using skills-building techniques for reducing risky