AIDS activities. (This would be linked directly to the SAMHSA Committee for Women's Services.)

COLLABORATIONS BETWEEN RESEARCH AND SERVICES

When the ADAMHA Reorganization Act of 1992 was passed, some expressed concern that it would affect the relationship between research and services, with regard to the rapid, bidirectional transmission of information. Would research findings make their way quickly "from bench to bedside," and would observations and concerns from practitioners reach the research community in a timely manner? Those concerned about the splitting of the research and services programs of ADAMHA expressed fears that such separation could disrupt the linkages that existed within a single agency and impede the process of technology transfer. Those favoring the reorganization argued that separating the programs might well enhance relationships and thus improve linkages. This point was made in the report accompanying S-1306 the Senate bill to reorganize ADAMHA:

It might seem logical to keep research and services under the same roof to facilitate "technology transfer," the process by which research findings are applied in the field. In practice, however, the research and services enterprises are so different that they cannot be effectively administered in one agency. Researchers and service providers share a common goal, but they speak a different language and thrive in different professional cultures. Rather than collaboration between research and services, ADAMHA has been the setting for competition between these activities, a situation compounded by overlap and confusion with respect to the duties of the institutes and the agencies. (Senate Report 102–131, p. 3)

As the Senate report notes, the problem of a lack of collaboration between the research and services communities exists beyond the federal agencies, and is based in great part on different professional cultures. The two salient features of the research culture are the drive for "knowledge for knowledge's sake" and the existence of a reward system based on number and type of publications. The pursuit of knowledge involves the employment of a scientific method that emphasizes using controlled experiments, limiting the randomness of outcomes, and producing findings that can be replicated by other scientists. It involves sophisticated mathematical and statistical methodologies and advanced verbal and written skills, and it requires objectivity and limited



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