These kinds of conflicts are experienced at the federal level among agencies charged respectively with supporting research and services programs and are evidenced by the relatively limited collaborations between the AIDS research programs at NIAAA, NIDA, and NIMH and the AIDS services programs of SAMHSA, CDC, and HRSA, and the broader service-providing community. Even information exchange is limited. For example, each year the three research institutes sponsor many research exchange meetings, including research planning meetings, technical review meetings, workshops, and symposia. However, most of these meetings are designed to bring researchers together and very few reach beyond the research community to include service providers. Information about other linkages reported by the institutes in response to a committee request is provided below. (This is not an exhaustive review, but is meant to provide a sense of the range of existing activities.)

NIAAA

NIAAA identified only two AIDS research projects that it considers to have a direct relationship to the provision of services. The first is a longitudinal research program called The Native American Prevention Project on AIDS and Substance Abuse (NAPPASA), which developed rural school-based and community research partnerships that have produced positive outcome effects among southwestern Native American and other youth at risk. Community outreach programs were expanded to include reservation-wide, inter-reservation, statewide, regional, and national networking with Native American substance abuse and prevention groups. Workshops and conferences were cosponsored with the Navajo Tribe and with the Indian Health Service (a PHS agency). A community program coordinator representing the project has become integrated into the community and served as a member of the various prevention task forces.

The success of this continuing project is perceived to be a result of the ability of the principal investigator to form cooperative relationships between the research staff, schools, local public agencies, and the Native American Council. Staff members were hired from within the region, interventions were pretested with focus groups, and intervention materials were made available to additional school sites, which eventually requested partnerships with the research project. Both the Hopi Tribe and the Washington State Department of Indian Education have approached the principal



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