they been exposed to alternative reasoning. Thus, while this committee believes that more good than bad can come from public moral discourse, it also recommends prudent caution whenever an ethical analysis of a major problem is proposed. Broad representation of distinct opinions is probably the best antidote.

REFERENCES

Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death. 1968. A definition of irreversible coma . Journal of the American Medical Association 205:337.

Arras, J. In press. Principles and particularity: The roles of cases in bioethics. Indiana Law Journal


Bayer, R. 1984. Ethics, politics, and access to health care: A critical analysis of the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Cardozo Law Review 6(2):303-320.


Gervais, K.G. 1989. Advancing the definition of death: A philosophical essay. Medical Humanities Review 3(2):7-19.


Hoffman, D.E. 1991. Does legislating hospital ethics committees make a difference? A study of hospital ethics committees in Maryland, the District of Columbia, and Virginia. Law, Medicine, and Health Care 19:105-119.


Jonsen, A.R., and Toulmin, S. 1988. The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.


Lo, B. 1987. Behind closed doors: Promises and pitfalls of ethics committees. New England Journal of Medicine 317:46-50.


Mill, J.S. 1859. On Liberty. New York: W.W. Norton.


New York State Task Force on Life and the Law. 1988. Surrogate Parenting: Analysis and Recommendations for Public Policy. New York, NY: New York State Task Force on Life and the Law.


President's Commission (President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research). 1981. Defining Death. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

President's Commission. 1982a. Making Health Care Decisions. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

President's Commission. 1982b. Splicing Life. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

President's Commission. 1983a. Deciding to Forego Life-Sustaining Treatment. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

President's Commission. 1983b. Securing Access to Health Care. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Veatch, R.M. 1993. From forgoing life support to aid-in-dying. Hastings Center Report 23(6):S7- S8.


Wikler, D. 1993. Brain death: A durable consensus? Bioethics 7(2/3):239-246.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement