Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1788); John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism (1863).


See John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Harvard University Press, 1971); T. M. Scanlon, "Contractualism and Utilitarianism," in Amartya Sen and Bernard Williams, eds., Utilitarianism and Beyond (Cambridge University Press, 1982).


Rawls, op. cit.


Something corresponding to it has been proposed by Rawls in his hypothetical social contract model called the Original Position.


See T. M. Scanlon, "Preference and Urgency," Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 72, 1975.

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