information and influence that help drive policymaking. These include presidential and congressional commissions, task forces and advisory bodies, professional and trade associations, and public interest, consumer, and community-based groups.

Although I argue below that health policy is best formulated through rigorous and objective assessment of data, I do not support any restriction on the right of interest groups to publish their views and to appropriately lobby policy makers. A robust constitutional society that values freedom of expression and unrestricted participation in the political process should support a role for interest groups in health policy formulation. It should not censor or fetter the views of those who seek to participate in the process. Yet, the various branches of government should be able to rely on full, objective information and advice based upon sound scientific evidence. This essay will explore some mechanisms for achieving these aims.

Health policy encompasses a vast range of issues in health care, public health, and biotechnology. This essay selects illustrations from several areas that, over a period of time, have generated a great deal of policy formulated by each branch of government. These include reproductive rights, the right to die, and mental health. I will also use examples in the fields of health care reform, AIDS, and civil rights of persons with disabilities.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUND POLICY DEVELOPMENT

What factors are important in developing sound health policies? The policies themselves are rarely subjected to scientific scrutiny. Whether society seeks to reform the health care system, to restrict or to expand women's choices to receive an abortion, or to authorize or to criminalize physician-assisted dying, it has no precise means by which to test for the "correct" approach. Health policy decisions often reflect choices between competing values, as well as assessments of available data. Interest groups, including organizations representing various health care professionals, select their values and evaluate data through their own lenses. Clearly, groups comprised of highly expert and well-intentioned professionals often make markedly different decisions about health policy.

The New York case of New York State Society of Surgeons v. Axelrod 3exemplifies the difficulty of deciding on one "correct" policy solution to complex health problems. The highest state court considered whether the state health commissioner had correctly categorized HIV infection as a communicable disease. This policy, on its face, appears noncontroversial and subject to neutral assessment. Yet, health professionals strongly split on this issue. Many public health organizations (e.g., the American Public Health Association) supported the commissioner, because the communicable disease classification under New York law adopted a voluntary ap-



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