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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States A REASSESSMENT OF THE MARINE SALVAGE POSTURE OF THE UNITED STATES COMMITTEE ON MARINE SALVAGE ISSUES MARINE BOARD COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1994
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The program described in this report is supported by cooperative agreement No. 14-35-0001-30475 between the Minerals Management Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior and the National Academy of Sciences and by interagency cooperative agreement No. DTMA91-94-G-00003 between the Maritime Administration of the Department of Transportation and the National Academy of Sciences. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 94-68622 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05149-5 Limited copies are available from: Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418 Additional copies are for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) B-472 Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Cover: The Argo Merchant, photograph courtesy of the U.S. Coast Guard
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States COMMITTEE ON MARINE SALVAGE ISSUES MEMBERS GORDON W. PAULSEN, Chairman, Healy & Baillie, New York, New York PETER F. BONTADELLI, Office of Oil Spill Prevention & Response, California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento J. HUNTLY BOYD, JR., Booz-Allen, Hamilton, Inc., Arlington, Virginia KENNETH J. FULLWOOD, Maritime Relations and Environmental Affairs, Safety and Nautical Services, Mobil Shipping and Transportation Company, Fairfax, Virginia RICHARD F. LEE, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Savannah, Georgia J.H. (Mick) LEITZ, J.H. Leitz & Associates, Inc., Portland, Oregon JOHN H. ROBINSON, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Retired, Santa Barbara, California NINA SANKOVITCH, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, New York ROGER E. VAN DUZER, Marine Operations, Shell Marine Department, Shell Oil Company, Houston, Texas JOHN A. WITTE, Donjon Marine Co., Inc., Hillside, New Jersey LIAISONS KEN KEANE, Marine Environmental Protection Division, Office of Marine Safety, Security and Environmental Protection, United States Coast Guard, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM PECK, Salvage and Diving, Naval Sea Systems Command, U.S. Navy, Arlington, Virginia STAFF CHARLES A. BOOKMAN, Director RICHARD WILLIS, Consultant AURORE BLECK, Administrative Assistant
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States MARINE BOARD MEMBERS RICHARD J. SEYMOUR, Chairman, Offshore Technology Research Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas JERRY A. ASPLAND, Arco Marine, Inc., Long Beach, California ANNE AYLWARD, National Commission on Intermodal Transportation, Alexandria, Virginia ROBERT G. BEA, NAE, University of California, Berkeley MARK Y. BERMAN, Amoco Production Company, Houston, Texas BROCK B. BERNSTEIN, EcoAnalysis, Ojai, California JOHN W. BOYLSTON, Argent Marine Operations Inc., Solomons, Maryland SARAH CHASIS, Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., New York, New York CHRYSSOSTOMOS CHRYSSOSTOMIDIS, Sea Grant College Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JAMES M. COLEMAN, NAE, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana EDWARD D. GOLDBERG, NAS, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California MARTHA GRABOWSKI, LeMoyne College and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Cazenovia, New York ASHISH J. MEHTA, University of Florida, Gainesville M. ELISABETH PATE-CORNELL, Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, Terman Engineering Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California DONALD W. PRITCHARD, NAE, Marine Sciences Research Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Severna Park, Maryland STEPHANIE R. THORNTON, Coastal Resources Center, San Francisco, California ROD VULOVIC, Sea-Land Service, Inc., Elizabeth, New Jersey ALAN G. YOUNG, Fugro-McClelland BV, Houston, Texas STAFF Charles A. Bookman, Director Donald W. Perkins, Associate Director Doris C. Holmes, Staff Associate
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States PREFACE BACKGROUND A major concern in promoting safe maritime commerce is the capability to effectively respond to marine casualties that threaten the environmental and economic resources of U.S. waterways and coastlines. Preventing marine accidents should be a perpetual goal of shipping interests and organizations, but the ability to react adequately after an accident to save all or part of an imperiled ship or cargo is an important element in preventing any environmental or economic harm. That capability—to render services to save maritime property, defined as "salvage"—is the focus of this study. The National Research Council (NRC) addressed the U.S. capability to respond to an imperiled ship in 1982 and subsequently published a report entitled Marine Salvage in the United States (NRC, 1982). The study found, among other things, that the traditional salvage company, with dedicated vessels and personnel, was disappearing from the commercial salvage market due to high maintenance costs and fewer marine accidents. This trend has continued into the 1990s, along with a corresponding increase in the occasional use of general marine contractors for salvage. In addition, significant changes and pressures have emerged in both the environmental and the regulatory arenas during the past decade, heightening concern over the readiness in the United States to respond to a stricken ship and save the ship and all or part of its cargo. SCOPE OF STUDY The Committee on Marine Salvage Issues was established in April 1992, at the request of the U.S. Navy Supervisor of Salvage, to examine the issue of jettisoning cargo from a stranded vessel in order to lighten the ship and save it, thus averting further pollution. Subsequently, in response to a request from the U.S. Coast Guard, the committee's charter was expanded to include updating the 1982 Marine Board report (NRC, 1982), and in so doing to evaluate and make recommendations concerning national salvage capability. The committee included shipping and salvage experts, legal and environmental protection specialists, and scientists and engineers (biographies of the members appear in Appendix A). Care was taken to ensure a balance of experience with the multiple interests related to this issue, including environmental, economic, and regulatory aspects. The committee was assisted by liaison representatives of the sponsoring federal agencies, the Navy, and the Coast Guard. The principle guiding the committee, consistent with NRC policy, was not to exclude any information, however biased, that might accompany input vital to the study, but to seek balance and fair treatment. To fulfill its mission, the committee held a one-day symposium on the issue of jettisoning cargo from a stranded vessel in Washington, D.C., on February 23, 1993. Invited participants represented the U.S. Congress, federal and state agencies, and the fields of marine environmental protection, salvage, vessel operations, admiralty
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States law, and marine insurance. A report based on the symposium (see Appendix B) has been published separately (NRC, 1994). To carry out the second part of its mission, the reassessment of U.S. salvage capability, the committee undertook a number of information-gathering tasks. First, using updated accident scenarios from the 1982 report, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to solicit input on the status of salvage response efforts from salvage specialists and responsible state and federal agencies (respondents are listed in Appendix C). The committee analyzed the information it received and identified key issues for further review. Second, the committee held regional meetings to evaluate the salvage capabilities on the East, West, and Gulf coasts. Individuals with specific expertise were invited to focus on specific technologies and regional issues (participants in the meetings of the Committee on Marine Salvage Issues are listed in Appendix D). The committee also examined what the salvage industry's response would be today to the accident scenarios in the 1982 report. Finally, the committee evaluated all the information acquired, including its assessments of more than a dozen key issues and materials from the jettisoning symposium, to determine current U.S. salvage readiness and capability. A quantitative analysis of salvage equipment and personnel resources was beyond the committee's means. The review of the salvage posture was limited to activities on the East, Gulf, and West coasts, due to time and cost constraints and the determination that changes in those areas would be representative of other areas of the country. This limitation notwithstanding, some salvage incidents examined by the committee occurred in the Great Lakes, and some of the U.S. professional salvage capability assessed in the study is located in this region. ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT This final report synthesizes all the information gathered by the committee: Chapter 1 reviews the importance of salvage in preventing marine pollution and in maintaining ports and waterways. Chapter 2 outlines the major changes that have occurred in the industry since the 1982 report and assesses regional salvage readiness and capability. Chapter 3 examines major issues facing the industry and alternative approaches for addressing the various concerns. Chapter 4 presents the committee's major conclusions and recommendations. The report is intended to assist federal and state governments and the private sector in determining the policy, regulatory, and economic actions needed to ensure that the United States can respond effectively to marine accidents and prevent or minimize environmental and economic damage. It is hoped that the report also will help educate the public, the media, and all who are involved in any aspects of marine salvage. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The committee greatly appreciates the valuable input and insight provided by the participants in the symposium and the regional meetings and by the respondents to the questionnaire. Jerry Aspland, Arco Marine, Inc. and a member of the Marine Board, served as the Marine Board's liaison with the committee. The committee also wishes to acknowledge the valuable input of reviewers, who did an exceptional job of providing specific suggestions and revisions; of the liaisons from federal agencies, who provided extensive information and support; and of Marine Board staff members, who provided unwavering support.
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 8 The Importance of Salvage in Preventing Marine Pollution 10 The Importance of Salvage in Maintaining Ports and Waterways 12 CHAPTER 2: CHANGES IN THE MARINE SALVAGE INDUSTRY SINCE 1982 13 The Business Environment 13 The Political Environment 14 Changes Since the 1982 Report 15 1982 Regional Salvage Assessment 15 Current Assessments of Regional Salvage Readiness and Salvage Capability 18 CHAPTER 3: NATIONAL SALVAGE POSTURE ISSUES 23 Salvage Business Conditions 23 Salvage Decision Making 27 National Salvage Policy 30 The Concept of the "Professional Salvor" 33 Salvage Human Resources 36 Rescue Towing 37 Marine Firefighting 40 Cargo Transfer 43 Damage Stability Information 46 Salvage in the Presence of Hazardous Cargo 48 Jettisoning 49 Safe Havens 52 Salvage Readiness of Vessel and Crew 53 The Navy's Contribution to the National Salvage Capability 55 CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 58 National Salvage Posture 58 Compensation for Salvage 59 National Salvage Policy 59 Salvage Assets and Services 60 Tug Availability 60 Salvage Readiness of Vessels and Crew 61 Training 61 Marine Fire fighting 61 Response to Hazardous Cargo 61 Jettisoning 62 Safe Havens 62 APPENDIX A: BIOGRAPHIES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS 63 APPENDIX B: JETTISON REPORT AND RECOMMENDATIONS 67 APPENDIX C: RESPONDENTS TO QUESTIONNAIRE 82
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States APPENDIX D: INVITED PARTICIPANTS AT COMMITTEE MEETINGS 84 APPENDIX E: INSTANCES OF SALVAGE IN U.S. WATERS REPORTED TO THE COMMITTEE 89 APPENDIX F: CURRENT U.S. NAVY SUPPORT FOR THE COMMERCIAL SALVAGE INDUSTRY 102 APPENDIX G: ACCIDENT SCENARIOS 105 APPENDIX H: U.S. LAWS AFFECTING SALVAGE 113 APPENDIX I: SALVAGE TUG REQUIREMENTS 121 REFERENCES 132
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A Reassessment of the Marine Salvage Posture of the United States TABLES AND FIGURES Table 2-1 Recommendations and Conclusions from the 1982 NRC Report and Action to Date. 16 Figure 3-1 Unified Command Structure. 28 Figure B-1 Decision Tree. 73 Figure I-1 Wind and sea scale for fully arisen sea. 125 Figure I-2 East Coast Onshore Wave Height Probability Distribution. 126 Figure I-3 U.S. Gulf Coast Onshore Wave Height Probability Distribution. 126 Figure I-4 California Onshore Wave Height Probability Distribution. 127 Figure I-5 Pacific Northwest Onshore Wave Height Probability Distribution. 127 Figure I-6 Gulf of Alaska Onshore Wave Height Probability Distribution. 128 Figure I-7 80- to 280-MDWT tanker wave drift force. 129 Figure I-8 80- to 280-MDWT tanker wind force. 129 Figure I-9 Tug power estimate required to hold 80-MDWT fully loaded tanker. 130 Figure I-10 Tug power estimate required to hold 140-MDWT fully loaded tanker. 130 Figure I-11 Tug power estimate required to hold 280-MDWT fully loaded VLCC. 131
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