. "Appendix A: Space Physics Missions." A Space Physics Paradox: Why Has Increased Funding Been Accompanied by Decreased Effectiveness in the Conduct of Space Physics Research?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1994.
missions from this period. An asterisk indicates missions for which the concept date is used. The time from proposal to launch for our sample varied from less than two years to nearly seven years. Several of the missions took three to four years. One of the shortest was ATS 1, which took one year and ten months. ATS 1 was designed to test communications technology and was not originally intended to carry any scientific instruments. However, in early 1965 the decision was made to include a small number of scientific instruments. These had to be completed quickly to keep the project on schedule. The spacecraft with the longest development interval was IMP 8. IMP was a scientific spacecraft, and its development was originally planned to take six years, with launch in 1972. It