TABLE A.1 Space-Physics-Related Launches in the 1960s

Mission

Start

Launch

Time to Launch

Lead Agency

Pioneer 2

5/1958

11/1958

6 mo

NASA

Explorer 6

7/1958

8/1959

1 yr 1 mo

NASA

Pioneer 5

1/1959*

3/1960

1 yr 2 mo

NASA

Discoverer 31

7/1960*

8/1961

1 yr 1 mo

NASA

Discoverer 33

7/1960*

9/1961

1 yr 2 mo

NASA

Discoverer 36

7/1960*

12/1961

1 yr 5 mo

NASA

IMP 1

12/1960*

11/1963

2 yr 11 mo

NASA

OGO 1

7/1962*

9/1964

2 yr 2 mo

NASA

IMP 2

1/1961*

10/1964

3 yr 9 mo

NASA

Mariner 4

7/1962

11/1964

2 yr 4 mo

NASA

IMP 3

12/1960*

5/1965

4 yr 6 mo

NASA

OGO 2

7/1962*

10/1965

3 yr 3 mo

NASA

Pioneer 6

7/1963*

12/1965

2 yr 5 mo

NASA

OGO 3

7/1962*

6/1966

3 yr 11 mo

NASA

Pioneer 7

7/1963*

8/1966

3 yr 1 mo

NASA

ATS 1

2/1965

12/1966

1 yr 10 mo

NASA

OGO 4

7/1962*

7/1967

5 yr

NASA

IMP 4

12/1964*

5/1967

2 yr 6 mo

NASA

OGO 5

8/1964

3/1968

3 yr 7 mo

NASA

OGO 6

3/1966

6/1969

3 yr 3 mo

NASA

IMP 5

7/1965*

6/1969

3 yr 11 mo

NASA

IMP 6

7/1968

7/1971

3 yr

NASA

Pioneer 10

7/1969

3/1972

2 yr 8 mo

NASA

IMP 7

11/1966

9/1972

5 yr 10 mo

NASA

Pioneer 11

7/1969

4/1973

3 yr 9 mo

NASA

IMP 8

11/1966

10/1973

6 yr 11 mo

NASA

AEC

7/1969

12/1973

4 yr 5 mo

NASA

Mariner 10

7/1969*

11/1973

4 yr 4 mo

NASA

ATS 6

7/1968

5/1974

5 yr 10 mo

NASA

Viking

7/1969

7/1975

6 yr

NASA

* Mission concept date used.

missions from this period. An asterisk indicates missions for which the concept date is used. The time from proposal to launch for our sample varied from less than two years to nearly seven years. Several of the missions took three to four years. One of the shortest was ATS 1, which took one year and ten months. ATS 1 was designed to test communications technology and was not originally intended to carry any scientific instruments. However, in early 1965 the decision was made to include a small number of scientific instruments. These had to be completed quickly to keep the project on schedule. The spacecraft with the longest development interval was IMP 8. IMP was a scientific spacecraft, and its development was originally planned to take six years, with launch in 1972. It



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