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References

Abrahamson S. 1978. Diseases of the curriculum. J Med Educ 53(12):951–957.

Anderson MB. 1993. Medical education in the United States and Canada revisited. Acad Med 68(6):555–563.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1991. Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (No. 16)—Nitrate/Nitrite Toxicity. Atlanta: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1992. Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (No. 26)—Taking an Exposure History. Atlanta: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

American College of Physicians. 1990. Occupational and environmental medicine: The internist’s role. Ann Int Med 113(12):975–982.

American Lung Association of San Diego. 1983. Taking the occupational history. Ann Intern Med 99:641.

Association of American Medical Colleges. 1983. General and Professional Education of the Physician and College Preparation for Medicine. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Medical Colleges.

Association of American Medical Colleges. 1992a. American Medical Education: Institutions, Programs, and Issues. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Medical Colleges.

Association of American Medical Colleges. 1992b. Educating Medical Students: Assessing Change in Medical Education—The Road to Implementation. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Medical Colleges.

Association of American Medical Colleges. 1993. Curriculum Directory. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Medical Colleges.


Bellinger D, Leviton A, Needleman H, Watemaux C, and Rabinowitz M. 1986. Low-level lead



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Environmental Medicine: Integrating a Missing Element into Medical Education References Abrahamson S. 1978. Diseases of the curriculum. J Med Educ 53(12):951–957. Anderson MB. 1993. Medical education in the United States and Canada revisited. Acad Med 68(6):555–563. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1991. Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (No. 16)—Nitrate/Nitrite Toxicity. Atlanta: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1992. Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (No. 26)—Taking an Exposure History. Atlanta: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. American College of Physicians. 1990. Occupational and environmental medicine: The internist’s role. Ann Int Med 113(12):975–982. American Lung Association of San Diego. 1983. Taking the occupational history. Ann Intern Med 99:641. Association of American Medical Colleges. 1983. General and Professional Education of the Physician and College Preparation for Medicine. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Medical Colleges. Association of American Medical Colleges. 1992a. American Medical Education: Institutions, Programs, and Issues. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Medical Colleges. Association of American Medical Colleges. 1992b. Educating Medical Students: Assessing Change in Medical Education—The Road to Implementation. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Medical Colleges. Association of American Medical Colleges. 1993. Curriculum Directory. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Medical Colleges. Bellinger D, Leviton A, Needleman H, Watemaux C, and Rabinowitz M. 1986. Low-level lead

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Environmental Medicine: Integrating a Missing Element into Medical Education exposure and infant development in the first year. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 8:151–161. Bentur Y and Koren G. 1991. The three most common occupational exposures reported by pregnant women: An update. Am J Obstet Gynecol 165:429. Bloom SW. 1988. Structure and ideology in medical education: An analysis of resistance to change. J Health Soc Behav 29(4):294–306. Bloom SW. 1989. The medical school as a social organization: The sources of resistance to change . Med Educ 23:228–241. Burstein JM and Levy BS. 1994. The teaching of occupational health in U.S. medical schools: Little improvement in 9 years. Am J Public Health 84(5):846–849. California Public Health Foundation. 1992. Kids and the Environment: Toxic Hazards. A Course on Pediatric Environmental Health. Berkeley: California Public Health Foundation. Centers for Disease Control. 1982. Carbon Monoxide Intoxication—A Preventable Environmental Health Hazard. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control. Centers for Disease Control. 1991. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control. Connecticut Department of Health Services. 1992. The Environmental and Occupational Exposure History. A handbook accompanying the videotape “The Exposure History: A Key to Better Care of Your Patients.” Hartford: Division of Environmental Epidemiology and Occupational Health. Cook TD and Campbell DT. 1979. Quasi-Experimental Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings. Beverly Hills: Sage. Cortese AD and Armoudlian AS. 1991. Fostering ecological and human health. The PSR Q 1(2):77–85. Cullen MR and Figueroa ST. 1990. Incorporating environmental medicine into training programs in occupational medicine. J Occup Med 32(11):1104–1107. Cullen MR and Rosenstock L. 1988. The challenge of teaching occupational and environmental medicine in internal medicine residencies. Arch Intern Med 148(11):2401–2404. Duchin JS, Koster FT, Peters CJ, Simpson GL, Tempest B, Zaki SR, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Nichol S, and Umland ET. 1994. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: A clinical description of 17 patients with a newly recognized disease. JAMA 330(14):949–955. Elmes PC. 1966. The epidemiology and clinical features of asbestos and related diseases. Postgrad Med J 42(492):623–635. Enarson C and Burg F. 1992. An overview of reform initiatives in medical education. JAMA 268(9):1141–1143. Epstein PR and Sharp D. 1993. Medicine in a warmer world. The Lancet 432(8878):1003. Goldman R and Peters J. 1981. The occupational and environmental health history. JAMA 246:2831. Guidotti TL. 1991. Preventive medicine, public health, and the environmental movement. Am J Prev Med 7(2):124–125. Institute of Medicine. 1988. Role of the Primary Care Physician in Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Institute of Medicine. 1990. Meeting Physicians’ Needs for Medical Information on Occupations and Environments. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Institute of Medicine. 1991. Addressing the Physician Shortage in Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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Environmental Medicine: Integrating a Missing Element into Medical Education Institute of Medicine. 1993a. Environmental Medicine and the Medical School Curriculum. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Institute of Medicine. 1993b. Indoor Allergens: Assessing and Controlling Adverse Health Effects. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Johnson CJ, et al. 1987 Fatal outcome of methemoglobinemia in an infant. JAMA 257(20): 2796–2797. Kipen HM and Craner J. 1992. Sentinel pathophysiologic conditions: An adjunct to teaching occupational and environmental disease recognition and history taking. Environ Res 59:93–100. Kurland LT, Faro SN, and Seidler H. 1960. Minamata disease. World Neurol 1:370. Landrigan PJ. 1993. Commentary: Environmental disease—A preventable epidemic. Am J Public Health 82(7):941–943. Larsen GL. 1992. Asthma in children. N Engl J Med 326:1540–1545. Leaf A. 1989. Potential health effects of global climate and environmental changes. N Engl J Med 321:1577–1583. Leaning J. 1990. Medicine for a small planet—A challenge for physicians. Harvard Med Alumni Bull 64(1):16–21. Levy BS. 1985. The teaching of occupational health in United States medical schools: Five-year follow-up of an initial survey. Am J Public Health 75:79–80. Liaison Committee on Medical Education. 1991. Functions and Structure of a Medical School: Standards for Accreditation of Medical Education in Programs Leading to the M.D. Degree. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Medical Colleges, American Medical Association. Marston RQ. 1992. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Commission on Medical Education—The sciences of medical practice, summary report. JAMA 266(9):1144–1145. Marston RQ and Jones RM, eds. 1992. Medical Education in Transition. Report of the Commission on Medical Education: The Sciences of Medical Practice. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. McCallum DB and Covello VT. 1989. What the public thinks about environmental data. EPA J (May/June):22–23. McCally M and Cassel CK. 1990. Medical responsibility and global environmental change. Ann Intern Med 113(6):467–473. Morris TQ and Sirica CM, eds. 1992. Taking Charge of Graduate Medical Education: To Meet the Nation’s Needs in the 21st Century. Naples, FL: Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation. National Center for Health Statistics. 1989. Vital Statistics of the United States, 1987. Vol. 11, Part B. DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 89–1102. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. National Research Council. 1991. Environmental Epidemiology: Public Health and Hazardous Wastes. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. O’Neil EH. 1992. Education as part of the health care solution—Strategies from the Pew Health Professions Commission. JAMA 268(9):1146–1148. Partnership for Prevention. 1993. Prevention Is Basic to Health Reform—A Position Paper from an Expert Panel. Washington, D.C.: Partnership for Prevention. Patton MQ. 1990. Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Beverly Hills: Sage.

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Environmental Medicine: Integrating a Missing Element into Medical Education Paul ME. 1993. Occupational and Environmental Reproductive Hazards: A Guide for Clinicians. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. Paul M and Himmelstein J. 1988. Reproductive hazards in the workplace: What the practitioner needs to know about chemical exposures. Obstet Gynecol 71(6):921–933. Pew Health Professions Commission. 1991. Healthy America: Practitioners for 2005. Durham, NC: Pew Health Professions Commission, Duke University Medical Center. Rappleye WC. 1932. Medical Education: Final Report of the Commission on Medical Education. New York: Association of American Medical Colleges. Rossi PH and Freeman HF. 1993. Evaluation: A Systematic Approach, Fifth Edition. Newbury Park: Sage. Rutstein DD, Mullan RJ, Frazier TM, Halperin WE, Melius JM, and Sestito JP. 1983. Sentinel health events (occupational): A basis for physician recognition and public health surveillance. Am J Public Health 73(9):1054–1062. Schalock RL and Thornton CVD. 1988. Program Evaluation: A Field Guide for Administrators. New York: Plenum. Upton AC and Graber E, eds. 1993. Staying Healthy in a Risky Environment: The New York University Medical Center Family Guide. New York: Simon and Schuster. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. 1991. Healthy People 2000. DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 91–50212. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 1993. Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States by Industry, 1991. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1993. 1991 Toxics Release Inventory: Public Data Release. EPA 745-R-93–003. Washington, D.C.: Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Wagner JC, Sleggs CA, and Marchand P. 1960. Diffuse pleural mesothelioma and asbestos exposure in the North Western Cape Province. Br J Ind Med 17:260. Wolff MS, Toniolo PG, Lee EW, Rivera M, and Dubin N. 1993. Blood levels of organochlorine residues and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 85(8):648–652.

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