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Cardiovascular Medicine, 106

Dermatology, 107

Emergency Medicine, 108

Endocrinology, 109

Family Medicine, 109

Gastrointestinal Disease, 110

Hematology/Oncology, 111

Infectious Disease, 111

Internal Medicine, 112

Nephrology, 113

Neurology, 113

Obstetrics and Gynecology, 114

Orthopedics, 115

Otolaryngology, 115

Pediatrics, 116

Pulmonary Medicine, 117

Psychiatry, 118

Radiology, 118

For each of the courses and clerkships presented below, we briefly discuss the relationship of environmental factors to the discipline and list relevant case studies from Appendix C that can be used for teaching and learning purposes (Index 2 of Appendix C lists specific case studies according to courses and clerkships). These lists are not meant to be all-inclusive, and creative teachers and students may find additional applications. Using these case studies should help to impart knowledge about environmental medicine along with that of the individual, specific discipline. [Note: Indexes in Appendix C facilitate the use of the case studies by presenting them according to (1) agent and condition, (2) courses and clerkships, (3) sentinel pathophysiological conditions for environmental and occupational evaluation, and (4) clinical signs, symptoms, and presenting complaints.]


Instruction in the basic sciences during the first year in medical school includes diverse courses encompassing a variety of the biological sciences. Several of these disciplines include the basic sciences that form the backbone of environmental medicine. Among these are biochemistry, genetics, pharmacology, pathology, and neuroscience. This appendix contains examples for use in teaching aspects of environmental medicine within many of these courses, with the intention of demonstrating that this curriculum content can and should become an integral component of these courses. This integration of examples of environmental medicine into core courses in the preclinical years may also facilitate more effective teaching of the sciences, since applied examples often motivate students, stimulate discussion, and enhance overall comprehension of the discipline.

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