The recent case of City of New York v. U.S. Department of Commerce (1993, Eastern District, New York) is the latest court decision that discusses, in part, the statistical methods that might be used for the conduct of the census; Appendix C presents a fuller discussion of legal issues.


Available evidence from the 1980 census indicates that the costs per follow-up interview increase with the more calls that are attempted for nonresponding households. Citro and Cohen (1985: Appendix 6.2) discuss information on follow-up procedures in the 1980 census and illustrate the costs for a census that uses reduced follow-up callbacks or sampling in the nonresponse follow-up.


See the report of the Panel to Evaluate Alternative Census Methods (Steffey and Bradburn, 1994:97-105) for a more detailed discussion about the possible operations for nonresponse follow-up.


The joint use of the PES and census to estimate the "true" population size is a type of dual-system estimation. Dual-system estimation is generally used in many ways to estimate human and animal populations. For biological research, animals are caught in a survey and then matched against the number caught at later times or who are spotted in a count of an area. Biologists refer to these estimates as capture-recapture estimates. For demographic research, the dual-system estimation is used to provide an estimate of coverage for the census.


The 1990 census operated 449 district offices, plus 9 in Puerto Rico. Only 346 offices processed completed mail questionnaires.

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