which population is an important factor for fund allocation. Representatives of the black, Asian and Pacific Islander, Hispanic, and American Indian and Alaskan Native populations have stressed their concerns about improvements in population coverage for their groups.

The analysis in this chapter reports reapportionment rates and funding allocation levels for state and local governments. However, much of the effect of population coverage is at the substate level, although there are few data to document those effects. Of those variables currently measured, population coverage varies primarily by housing characteristics (tenure and types), race, sex, and age. The possible shifts in legislative representation and possible shifts in state and local monies would be greater at substate levels than demonstrated above for federal reapportionment and funding allocation, because of the greater heterogeneity in population characteristics across small areas than across larger areas.



The reasons why people who were counted at the wrong location are both an omission and an erroneous enumeration and why substitutions are treated as coverage errors has to do with the way in which coverage and the net undercount are estimated by a postenumeration survey (see Chapter 5). Because the postenumeration survey, by design, selects people in a sample of areas, it detects errors in geographic residence as well as omissions and erroneous enumerations at the national level.


Alternate estimates for the undercount from the PES showed rates that were more than 6 times higher for blacks than for whites, 4.6 and 0.7 percent, respectively (Hogan and Robinson, 1993:18). Undercount rates were 3 time higher for Asians, 7 times higher for Hispanics, and 17 times higher for American Indians than for whites.


 PES clusters are small areas of the country that are sampled for the survey, prior to the selection of individual housing units. PES clusters were either a census block or collection of blocks in 1990, chosen as the primary sampling unit for the survey. The purpose of selecting clusters is to get the most reliable results per unit of costs.


Because formula grant allocations depend on factors other than population, the disbursements can be affected by errors in other data. Siegel (1975) argued that the underreporting of income in the 1970 census affects grant allocations more than population undercoverage.


Not all local jurisdictions are eligible for all federal allocation formula grants. The Community Development Block Grant program, for example, is restricted to cities and towns with 50,000 or more population and to urban counties.

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