See Redfern (1987) for a review of the use of population registers, in association with administrative records, for censuses.


International migration also affects the conventional census, which counts all residents of the United States at the time of the census, including illegal immigrants. Undercount estimates and procedures to correct the physical enumeration would also include undocumented aliens in the country.


It is true that permanent emigrants do not pay taxes and would cease to appear actively in some administrative records. It would still be difficult to determine emigrant status solely on evidence that someone no longer files tax forms.


The SSA is looking at ways to resume the collection of race and ethnicity information from birth certificates. But in 1994 these data are not reported to the SSA from birth certificates.


Technically, this is a difference between postcensal (estimates after a census) and intercensal (estimates made between two existing census) procedures. We refer generally to estimates in the period between censuses as intercensal, ignoring the complexity of different demographic procedures.


For reapportionment and redistricting in 2001, 2011, and so on, conventional census data would be about 1 year old, whereas the cumulated estimates would be centered mid-decade, making them 6 years old. See Fellegi (1981) for a detailed critique of the Kish proposal, including conceptual and operational aspects.


The Census Bureau is currently evaluating continuous measurement designs that include a year-zero census together with rolling surveys throughout the decade to obtain long-form items and update short-form items (see Alexander, 1993). See the discussion in Chapter 6 for additional material on continuous measurement designs.


This line of argument does not necessarily apply to all sample surveys, many of which can make use of area frames.


For example, in March 1986, the Survey of Income and Program Participation and the March Current Population Survey covered only 80-82 percent of black men ages 16 and older and 93 percent of nonblack men ages 16 and older. Coverage ratios were somewhat higher for women. (Coverage ratios compare the estimates from a survey, using the initial survey weights that take into account the sample fraction and household nonresponse, with the corresponding census-based population figures not adjusted for undercount. See Citro and Kalton, 1993: Table 3-12; see also Shapiro and Kostanich, 1988.)


The full cost of creating the address list would be incurred; moreover, the need for reliable small-area estimates would preclude the clustering of field operations, as is typically done in smaller household surveys.

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