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GOALS Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System for Predicting Seasonal-to-Interannual Climate: A Program of Observation, Modeling, and Analysis References Anderson, D.L.T., and J.P. McCreary. 1985a. Slowly propagating disturbances in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. J. Atmos. Sci. 42:615-629. Anderson, D.L.T., and J.P. McCreary. 1985b. On the role of the Indian Ocean in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model of El Niño and the Southern Oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci. 42:2439-2442. Atlas, R., N. Wolfson, and J. Terry. 1993. The effect of SST and soil moisture anomalies on GLA model simulations of the 1988 U.S. summer drought. J. Climate 6:2034-2048. Barber, R.T. 1988. The ocean basin ecosystem. Pp. 166-188 in Concepts of Ecosystem Ecology, J.J. Alberts and L.R. Pomeroy, eds. New York: Springer-Verlag. Barnett, T.P. 1983. Interaction of the monsoon and Pacific trade wind system at interannual time scales. Part I: The equatorial zone. Mon. Wea. Rev. 111:756-773. Barnett, T.P. 1984a. Interaction of the monsoon and Pacific trade wind system at interannual time scales. Part II: The tropical band. Mon. Wea. Rev. 112:2380-2387. Barnett, T.P. 1984b. Interaction of the monsoon and Pacific trade wind system at interannual time scales. Part III: A partial anatomy of the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev. 112:2388-2400. Barnett, T.P., N. Graham, M. Cane, S. Zebiak, S. Dolan, J. O'Brien, and D. Legler. 1988. On the prediction of the El Niño of 1986-1987. Science 241:192-196. Barnett, T.P., M. Latif, E. Kirk, and E. Roeckner. 1991. On ENSO physics. J. Climate 4:487-515. Battisti, D.S. 1988. The dynamics and thermodynamics of a warm event in a coupled atmosphere/ocean model. J. Atmos. Sci. 45:2889-2919. Battisti, D.S., and A.C. Hirst. 1988. Interannual variability in the tropical atmosphere/ocean system: Influence of the basic state and ocean geometry. J. Atmos. Sci. 45:1687-1712. Battisti, D.S., A.C. Hirst, and E.S. Sarachik. 1989. Instability and predictability in coupled atmosphere-ocean models. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A329:237-247.

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GOALS Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System for Predicting Seasonal-to-Interannual Climate: A Program of Observation, Modeling, and Analysis Bengtsson, L., T.P. Barnett, N. Graham, M. Latif, E. Roecker, and U. Schlese. 1993. A two-tiered approach to long range climate forecasting. Science 26:1026-1029. Bjerknes, J. 1966. A possible response of the atmospheric Hadley circulation to equatorial anomalies of ocean temperature. Tellus 18:820-829. Bjerknes, J. 1969. Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev. 97:163-172. Branstator, G. 1985. Analysis of general circulation model sea-surface temperature anomaly simulations using a linear model. Part II: Eigenanalysis . J. Atmos. Sci. 42:2242-2254. Branstator, G. 1987. A striking example of the atmosphere's leading traveling mode. J. Atmos. Sci. 44:2310-2323. Busalacchi, A.J., and J.J. O'Brien. 1981. Interannual variability of the equatorial Pacific in the 1960s. J. Geophys. Res. 86:10901-10907. Busalacchi, A.J., K. Takeuchi, and J.J. O'Brien. 1983. Interannual variability of the equatorial Pacific--revisited. J. Geophys. Res. 88:7551-7562. Cane, M.A., S.E. Zebiak, and S.C. Dolan. 1986. Experimental forecasts of El Niño. Nature 321:827-832. Cane, M., and S.E. Zebiak. 1987. Predictability of El Niño events using a physical model. Pp. 153-182 in Atmospheric and Oceanic Variability , H. Cattle, ed. London: Royal Meteorological Society Press. Cane, M.A., M. Munnich, and S.E. Zebiak. 1990. A study of self-excited oscillations of the tropical ocean atmosphere system. Part I: Linear analysis. J. Atmos. Sci. 47:1562-1577. Cane, M.A. 1991. Forecasting El Niño with a geophysical model. Pp. 345-369 in Teleconnections Linking Worldwide Climate Anomalies, M.H. Glantz, R.W. Katz, and N. Nicholls, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press. Cane, M.A., and E.S. Sarachik. 1991. Prospectus for a TOGA Program on Seasonal to Interannual Prediction. NOAA Climate and Global Change Program Special Report No. 4. Boulder, Colorado: UCAP Publications. 46 pp. Chapman, W.L., and J.E. Walsh. 1993. Recent variations of sea ice and air temperature in high latitudes. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74:33-47. Charney, J.G., and J. Shukla. 1981. Predictability of monsoons. In Monsoon Dynamics, J. Lighthill and R.P. Pierce, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press. Cook, K. H., and A. Gnanadesikan. 1991. Effects of saturated and dry land surfaces on the tropical circulation and precipitation in a general circulation model. J. Climate 4:873-889. Delworth, T., and S. Manabe. 1989. The influence of soil wetness on near-surface atmospheric variability. J. Climate 2:1447-1462. Derber, J.C., and A. Rosati. 1989. A global oceanic data assimilation system. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 19:1333-1347. Dickson, R.R., J. Meincke, S.A. Malmberg, and A.J. Lee. 1988. The ''great salinity anomaly'' in the North Atlantic 1968-82. Progr. Oceanogr. 20:103-151. Feely, R.A., R.H. Gammon, B.A. Taft, P.E. Pullen, L.S. Waterman, T.J. Conway, J.F. Gendron, and D.P. Wisegarver. 1987. Distribution of chemical tracers in the eastern equatorial Pacific during and after the 1982-1983 El Niño/Southern Oscillation event. J. Geophys. Res. 92:6545-6558. Fennessy, M., and J. Shukla. 1992. Influence of initial soil wetness on prediction of global atmospheric circulation and rainfall. Paper presented at Second International Conference on Modeling of Global Climate Change and Variability, Hamburg, Germany, 7-11 September 1991.

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