TABLE 1-2 International Research Programs That Use Isotopes

Program

Number of Participating Countries

Crop production in salt-affected soils

9

Improving pasture management

16

Nitrogen fixation studies

17

Radiation-induced mutation studies

28

Improving animal production

43

Insect sterilization techniques

17

Pesticide studies

18

Food irradiation

20

Radioimmunoassay reliability studies

4

Radioimmunoassay studies for thyroid-related hormones

12

Studies of respiratory diseases with radio-aerosols

10

Immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis

3

Immunodiagnostic techniques for human schistosomiasis

10

Nuclear techniques for malaria research and control

9

Diagnostic reagents for communicable diseases

5

Determination of absorbed drug dose

5

Sterilization of medical supplies and equipment

18

Radiation treatment of sewage

7

Radiation fermentation studies

12

Environmental pollution studies

26

Study of pollutant transport in the environment

11

Human intake of important trace elements

13

Assessment of toxic elements in foodstuffs

10

Human nutrition research

5

Exploration of natural resources

10

Soil and water studies

7

Polymer radiation treatment for medical and industrial uses

6

Radiation applications in medicine and biotechnology

4

Analysis of agro-industrial products and foods

10

Exploration of geothermal resources

9

Analysis of neutron emission spectra

8

Fast neutron data calculations for structural materials

14

Nuclear data for neutron therapy

6

Waste estimates in fusion reactor technology

5

Data for radiotherapy

7

Gamma-ray calibration of generators

7

 

SOURCE: International Atomic Energy Agency, 1990.

medicine; the Anger scintillation camera, which is the imaging device used in the majority of the U.S. hospitals; thallium-201, the first practical agent used to determine the viability of heart muscle; positron emission tomography (PET); and the radiopharmaceutical 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose, the agent most widely used in combination with PET scanners, were all developed with support from DOE or its predecessors.



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