Although partnerships between academia, industry, and government agencies have served us well in the biomedical research enterprise, there is limited successful experience with purely commercial arrangements. In the United States there is indeed significant concern regarding not only the financial implications but the legal exposure of these types of arrangements as well. It may be that the most appropriate model would be a combination whereby the academic institution would be primarily responsible for the education function in its broadest context, the government agency would be responsible for research (in collaboration with academia) and the facility, and industry would be for marketing, sales, and distribution. An arrangement of this type, although complex and probably unprecedented, might well obviate many of the financial and legal challenges.


Antitrust Division, U.S. Department of Justice, Merger Guidelines §2, 49 Federal Register 26, 823–827 (June 19, 1984).

Antitrust Division, U.S. Department of Justice, Vertical Restraints Guidelines §6.1, 50 Federal Register 6, 263–272 (February 14, 1985).

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