Appendix B
Contributors

ASHISH ARORA is assistant professor of economics at the H. John Heinz School of Public Policy at Carnegie-Mellon University. He has a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University. His research focuses on the economics of technological change, intellectual property rights and technology licensing, technology transfer to developing countries, and the patterns of specialization and division of labor in industrial structure. Recently Dr. Arora co-authored a report to the National Institute of Standards and Technology on Manufacturing Technology Centers. He is currently a visiting scholar at Stanford University, carrying out research on the dynamics of international comparative advantage in the chemical industry.

GREGORY K. BELL is senior associate at Charles River Associates (CRA) and heads their health economics consulting practice. He specializes in business and marketing strategy for the health-related industry. He has played a key role in a variety of projects dealing with international investment policy, pricing strategy, transfer pricing, OTC switches, and management of R&D process. In the health technology area, Dr. Bell works with firms to develop sustainable competitive advantages in specific product markets. Before joining CRA, Dr. Bell taught at Harvard University, developing and leading a course on the economics of business strategy. He received his Ph.D. in business economics from Harvard University and his M.B.A. from the Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration.



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Sources of Medical Technology: Universities and Industry Appendix B Contributors ASHISH ARORA is assistant professor of economics at the H. John Heinz School of Public Policy at Carnegie-Mellon University. He has a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University. His research focuses on the economics of technological change, intellectual property rights and technology licensing, technology transfer to developing countries, and the patterns of specialization and division of labor in industrial structure. Recently Dr. Arora co-authored a report to the National Institute of Standards and Technology on Manufacturing Technology Centers. He is currently a visiting scholar at Stanford University, carrying out research on the dynamics of international comparative advantage in the chemical industry. GREGORY K. BELL is senior associate at Charles River Associates (CRA) and heads their health economics consulting practice. He specializes in business and marketing strategy for the health-related industry. He has played a key role in a variety of projects dealing with international investment policy, pricing strategy, transfer pricing, OTC switches, and management of R&D process. In the health technology area, Dr. Bell works with firms to develop sustainable competitive advantages in specific product markets. Before joining CRA, Dr. Bell taught at Harvard University, developing and leading a course on the economics of business strategy. He received his Ph.D. in business economics from Harvard University and his M.B.A. from the Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration.

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Sources of Medical Technology: Universities and Industry STUART BLUME has been professor and chair of the Department of Science and Technology Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, since 1982. Between 1977 and 1980 he was research secretary of the Committee on Social Inequalities in Health, Department of Health and Social Security, London. Since that time, his research has focused in particular on sociological aspects of medical research and innovation. Principal publications in this area include Insight and Industry: The Dynamics of Technological Change in Medicine (MIT Press, 1992); (with A. Hiddinga) ''Social contexts of technological change in medicine: The origins and transformation of obstetric pelvimetry" in Science, Technology and Human Values (1992); and "Social process and the assessment of a new imaging technique" in the International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care (1993). Dr. Blume has been a consultant to the OECD for many years and was recently president of the Research Committee on Sociology of Science of the International Sociological Association. ENRIQUETA C. BOND is president of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, a private independent foundation with a mission to advance the medical sciences. Her past employment experiences have included the position of executive director of the Institute of Medicine and faculty positions at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine and at Chatham College. She has a B.A. from Wellesley College in zoology and physiology, an M.A. in genetics from the University of Virginia, and a Ph.D. in molecular biology from Georgetown University. HOLLY V. DAWKINS is a research assistant in the Divisions of Health Care at the Institute of Medicine. Since joining the Institute of Medicine in June 1988, she has worked on over a dozen IOM projects, in particular the IOM program on technological innovation in medicine and the series Medical Innovation at the Crossroads. In 1991, she received the Institute of Medicine staff award for her work on the Institute of Medicine study to evaluate the artificial heart program of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Holly earned her A.B. with honors in English from Brown University in 1986. STAN N. FINKELSTEIN is senior lecturer in Health Policy and Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Sloan School of Management and a consultant for Charles River Associates. He received the S.M. and S.B. degrees from MIT in chemical engineering in 1971 and the M.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1975. Since 1975, he has actively worked in the field of medical technology assessment and transfer at MIT where he has conducted research and taught classes in the areas of the development and evaluation of medical practice and technology and in health policy. Among his interests have been the business-government interface related to the pharmaceutical industry, especially clinical research design and third party reimbursement. Dr. Finkelstein

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Sources of Medical Technology: Universities and Industry is author, editor, or contributor to books and numerous articles on these subjects. ALFONSO GAMBARDELLA received his Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University in 1990. He is currently associate professor at the University of Urbino, and senior research fellow at Bocconi University, Milano, in Italy. He has carried out research on the relationship between science and the innovation process and in the areas of the management of the R&D process. He is currently working on the economics of scientific institutions, examining the factors that influence the nature and efficiency of university-based research. Dr. Gambardella has recently published a book (Cambridge University Press) on corporate strategies in R&D in the pharmaceutical industry. ANNETINE C. GELIJNS is director of the International Center on Health Outcomes and Innovation Research, and an assistant professor in the Department of Surgery, College of Physicians and Surgeons, and the School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City. Her current research focuses on the factors driving the rate and direction of innovative activity in medicine, technological change and its relation to health care costs, and measuring the outcomes of surgical care. Before coming to Columbia in 1993, she directed the Program on Technological Innovation in Medicine at the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. From 1983-1987, she worked for the Steering Committee on Future Health Scenarios and for the Health Council, the Netherlands. Dr. Gelijns has been a consultant to various national and international organizations, including the World Health Organization and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. She holds a Ph.D. from the medical faculty, University of Amsterdam, and bachelors and masters degrees in law from the University of Leyden, the Netherlands. SIMON GLYNN received his B.A. degree from Wesleyan University in 1990 and currently is involved in projects for the Institute of Medicine, as well as the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). Prior to starting at the Institute of Medicine he was senior analyst at Gemini Consulting. GERALD D. LAUBACH holds a B.A. from the University of Pennsylvania and a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was formerly president of Pfizer, Inc., and is the chair of the IOM Committee on Technological Innovation in Medicine. Dr. Laubach is a research chemist by training and served as a laboratory scientist in his early years at Pfizer. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Engineering, and served on the now disbanded IOM Council on Health Care Technology. His current activities also include membership on the executive committee of the Council on Competitiveness (successor group to the President's Commission on

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Sources of Medical Technology: Universities and Industry Industrial Competitiveness), the board of the Food and Drug Law Institute, the Corporation of the Rockefeller University Council, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the National Committee for Quality Health Care, the Medical Center Advisory Board, the New York Hospital–Cornell Medical Center, and the Corporation Committee for Sponsored Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; he is a director of CIGNA Corporation of Philadelphia and the Millpore Corporation of Bedford, Massachusetts. Previously, Dr. Laubach served as chair of the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association from 1977 to 1978 and as a board member until April 1989. He has received honorary doctorates in humane letters from the City University of New York, in law from Connecticut College, and in science from Hofstra University. KEVIN NEELS is vice president, health economics, at Quintiles, Inc. Previously he served as vice president at Charles River Associates. He has played a key role in a wide range of projects dealing with questions of comparative effectiveness of medical therapies, impacts of public policy initiatives, and business strategy development. Previously, Dr. Neels worked at the Rand Corporation and the Urban Institute. He has authored numerous articles on housing and transportation and has offered expert testimony to the federal courts on the economic implications of alternative healthcare delivery arrangements. He received the bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees from Cornell University. RICHARD NELSON is the George Blumenthal Professor of International and Public Affairs, Business and Law, at Columbia University. Before coming to Columbia in 1986, he was professor of economics and director of the Institute for Social and Policy Studies at Yale University. He has served on the staff of the President's Council of Economic Advisors and has been involved in many activities concerned with molding better national policies. His central research interests have been economic growth; that interest has led him into a long career of study of technical advances and the institutions supporting and molding the processes involved. His most recent large project on these topics is described in the book National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis, published in 1993 by the Oxford University Press. NATHAN ROSENBERG is chair of the Department of Economics and professor of economics at Stanford University. Before assuming his current position, he served as chair of the Stanford Program on Values, Technology, and Society and as director of the Stanford Program on Public Policy. Dr. Rosenberg moved to Stanford in 1974; prior to that, he served on the faculties of the University of Wisconsin, Harvard University, Purdue University, and the University of Pennsylvania. He was a Fulbright Scholar at Queens' College, Oxford University, between 1952 and 1954 and a visiting Rockefeller Professor at the University of the Philippines in 1970 and 1971. Dr. Rosenberg served as editor of the Journal

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Sources of Medical Technology: Universities and Industry of Economic History between 1972 and 1974, and in 1981 he became a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Dr. Rosenberg is the author of numerous articles and several books, focusing for the most part on the history of technological change in industry. His most recent book, Exploring the Black Box, was published by Cambridge University press in 1994. Dr. Rosenberg earned his B.A. degree from Rutgers University and his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Wisconsin. JOANNE SPETZ is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Economics at Stanford University. Her research interests include labor markets, medical technology, and hospital behavior. While at Stanford, she has been a National Science Foundation fellow and a recipient of a Bradley Foundation Fellowship. She is also a health research specialist at the Veterans' Administration Medical Center in Palo Alto. She completed her S.B. in economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1990, received her M.A. in economics at Stanford University in 1993, and expects to complete her Ph.D. in 1995. SCOTT STERN is completing his doctoral degree in economics at Stanford University. His dissertation focuses on the effects of competition and the management of innovation within pharmaceutical markets. He received his B.A. in economics from New York University in 1990.

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