Index

A

Acoustic quantification. See Cardiac imaging

Advanced Technology Program. See National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 24

American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering, 11

Anger, Hal, 146

Aronson, Raphael, 47

Atomic Energy Commission

regulation of radiopharmaceuticals, 146

See also Regulation

B

Baird, Logie, 71

Ballantyne, John, 107, 116

Bayh-Dole Patent and Trademark Laws Amendment, 32, 34.

See also Intellectual property;

Legislation, federal;

Patent Office, U.S.

Berg, Paul, 160, 174

Bessis, M. C., 56

Biochemistry

interdisciplinary nature of, 174-175, 181-182

Biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector, 11, 19, 26

acquisitions and mergers in, 194, 211

collaboration among firms, 188, 192-193, 196-197

cooperation among specialists, 4

drugs, 26, 29

federally sponsored research in, 190-191

Harvard University, partial ownership of biotechnology firms in, 34

integration by large firms and, 193-197, 202

minority participation in, 194

networks and, 188

new biology and, 213-215

R&D investments, 24-28, 28, 196

small firms, 190-195, 198, 201-202

specialization and, 188-189

strengthening, 34

transaction-cost economics and, 195-196, 199

undesirability of collaboration, 199-201

See also University-industry interactions

Black, Sir James, 214-215



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Sources of Medical Technology: Universities and Industry Index A Acoustic quantification. See Cardiac imaging Advanced Technology Program. See National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) American Association for the Advancement of Science, 24 American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering, 11 Anger, Hal, 146 Aronson, Raphael, 47 Atomic Energy Commission regulation of radiopharmaceuticals, 146 See also Regulation B Baird, Logie, 71 Ballantyne, John, 107, 116 Bayh-Dole Patent and Trademark Laws Amendment, 32, 34. See also Intellectual property; Legislation, federal; Patent Office, U.S. Berg, Paul, 160, 174 Bessis, M. C., 56 Biochemistry interdisciplinary nature of, 174-175, 181-182 Biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector, 11, 19, 26 acquisitions and mergers in, 194, 211 collaboration among firms, 188, 192-193, 196-197 cooperation among specialists, 4 drugs, 26, 29 federally sponsored research in, 190-191 Harvard University, partial ownership of biotechnology firms in, 34 integration by large firms and, 193-197, 202 minority participation in, 194 networks and, 188 new biology and, 213-215 R&D investments, 24-28, 28, 196 small firms, 190-195, 198, 201-202 specialization and, 188-189 strengthening, 34 transaction-cost economics and, 195-196, 199 undesirability of collaboration, 199-201 See also University-industry interactions Black, Sir James, 214-215

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Sources of Medical Technology: Universities and Industry Boston Consulting Group (BGC), 25 Boyer, Herbert, 160, 162, 164, 184 Boyle, W. S., 78 Bray, 97 Broome, 171 C Cameron, William J., 70 Campbell, Charles J., 48-50, 52 Cardiac imaging acoustic quantification, 152-153 color flow, 153-154 diagnostic effectiveness of, 137 echocardiography, 129-138 innovation process and, 126, 141 nuclear cardiology, 127-128, 130-138 overview, 126-127 prototype for, 133-134 Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, 150-151 Tc-99 sestamibi tracer, 148-149 thallium imaging, 146-148 transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), 151-152 Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government, 22 Chick, William, 168, 175 Children cochlear implants in, 113, 118 See also Cochlear implants Chirgwin, John, 166, 174 Chorimac. See Cochlear implants Chouard, C. H., 110-113, 118-119 Clemens, 83 Clinical trials cardiac imaging and, 137-138, 140-141 case study approach, 146-154, 209 children in, 113, 118 cochlear implantation and, 99-101, 104-106, 108 experimental versus, 117-121 laser use in optical surgery and, 50 role in innovation of, 215 Cloning See Gene-splicing; Insulin Cochlear implants Chorimac, 113 clinical versus experimental, 119-121 debate, 108-110 external power source, 113-115 industrial interest, 116 media role in, 112, 121-122 microphonic potential and electrical stimulation, 97-102 otologically respectable, 116 patterns of collaboration and R&D strategies, 12, 97-124 single- and multi-channel, 106-108, 110 See also Children; Deafness Cohen, Stanley, 160 Color flow. See Cardiac imaging Complimentary DNA (cNDA). See Insulin Contraception. See Endoscopy, gynecological applications Coulson, A. R., 161 Crick, 159 Curtiss, Larry, 73-74, 90 D Davis, H., 98 Davison, Alan, 149 Deafness definition, 103, 119, 122 See also Cochlear implants Dearman, James R., 56 Decker, 79 Diabetic retinopathy, 53-54. See also Insulin Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 191 Djourno, A., 99-100, 102 Douek, Ellis, 113-115, 119 Dual-use technology development, 23 See also Financing of research and development E E. coli bacteria. See Insulin Echocardiography. See Cardiac imaging Efstratiadis, Argiris, 168, 169, 171, 177

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Sources of Medical Technology: Universities and Industry Einstein, Albert, 42 Elion, Gertrude, 214-215 Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), 77 Endoscopy bile duct stones and, 77 cholecystectomy, 87-88 colonoscopy and, 76-78 device manufacturers and, 73-75, 89-90 early history, 68-69 fiber optics and, 71-78 gastrointestinal, 70-76 gynecological applications, 78-84 insulation of, 73 interdisciplinary nature, 69, 90-93 Minimally Invasive Therapy and, 67-68 photography and, 75, 80-81 reusable devices, 90 television and, 81-83 video and, 84 See also Laparoscope, The; Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS); Minimally Invasive Therapy (MIT) Ethnocardiography description, 129 See also Cardiac imaging Evans, Edward, 107, 116 Eyries, C., 99-100, 102, 110 F Federal Technology Transfer Act, 32-33 See also Intellectual property; Legislation, federal Fiber optics originator, 51 See also Endoscopy Filipi, 84 Financing of research and development chronic diseases and, 25 federal, 15, 17-22, 33, 35, 55 funders and, 16 medical devices and, 19 national goals and, 22 nonprofit, 16-17 private, 17, 24-30, 169-171, 176, 178-179, 211-212 state and local, 16 tax credits and, 24 See also Dual-use technology development Flocks, Milton, 46, 48-53, 55 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cardiac imaging approvals, 149 combination products, 4n1, 215 early approval of medicines and vaccines by, 29, 215 insulin approval by, 173 licensing of medical devices, 58 medical devices, 28, 58, 87 regulation of radiopharmaceuticals, 146 regulations harmful to small biotech firms, 201-202 See also Regulation Fourcin, 114-115 Fox, Renee, 119 Frangenheim, 79 Fugain, Claude, 111 Fuller, Forrest, 168-169, 177 G Gastroscopy, 70 Genetic engineering. See Insulin Gene-splicing, 160 cloning, 163, 166 components of, 164 moratorium on research, 161 See also Insulin Gene synthesis, 161-162, 167, 169, 181 See also Insulin General Accounting Office (GAO), 32, 34 Genetic engineering, 159. See also Insulin Gilbert, Walter, 161-163, 167-168, 171, 174, 176, 177, 179-180, 182-183 Goeddel, David, 169, 177-178 Goldman, Leon, 54-56 Goodman, Howard, 162-163, 167-168, 171, 173-174, 179-180 Gordon, Eugene, 52-53 Gordon, James P., 43

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Sources of Medical Technology: Universities and Industry Gould, R. Gordon, 44, 47 Gynecological laparoscopy. See Endoscopy H Ham, William, Jr., 47 Haubrich, William, 74-75 Health Affairs, 26, 29, 34 Health care reform clinical tests and, 141-142 managed care and, 209. See also Financing of research and development marketplace pressures on research and, 212 supply and demand in, 34 Health Care Financing Administration, 58 Health Care Technology Institute, 28 Helmholtz, 97 Heyneker, Herb, 168 Hirshchowitz, Basil, 72-74, 76, 90 Hitchings, George, 214-215 Hopkins, H. H., 72, 81, 83 House, William, 99-100, 102-103, 105-106, 109-111, 116-120, 122 Hulka, 83 Huygens, Christiaan, 71 I Innovation barriers to, 138-142 cost-containment and, 141, 158, 212 environment conducive to, 140-144 historical view of, 6 interorganizational fields and, 104 linear model of, 3 medical definition of, 125 process defined, 56, 67, 130-138 surgical procedures and, 212 technological feasibility and, 131-133 See also Biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector; Organic chemistry; University-industry interactions Insight and Industry, 104 Institutional boundaries. See University-industry interactions Insulin chromosonal gene and, 170, 173 complimentary DNA (cDNA), 165, 168-169, 181, 184 E. coli bacteria, 157, 162-163, 165-166, 168, 173 gel electrophoresis, 161 gene-splicing for, 160-161, 164, 166, 173, 183, 220 Humulin (synthetic insulin), 173 messenger RNA, 165 production of, 172 recombinant DNA, 158, 164-166, 168, 173, 175, 178-179, 183-184, 189 synthetic insulin, 157 See also Gene-splicing; Gene synthesis Intellectual property acquisition of biotech firms and, 203 adaptations needed in, 203 biotechnology firms and universities, licenses between, 194 DNA patent, 34 fiber optics and, 71, 74-75 gynecological laparoscopy, 80 laser patent, 44-45 licensing agreements, growth of, 10-11 life forms, 191 medical devices less protectable as, 57-58 property rights and, 181, 191-192 public versus proprietary, 219-220 publicly developed technology, 219-220 technology transfer and, 32-34 scientific findings, 220 See also Bayh-Dole Patent and Trademark Laws Amendment; Patent Office, U.S.; Research contracts and agreements Interdisciplinary research cardiac imaging, 125-126, 144 clinicians and engineers in, 139-140, 142 cochlear implants, 104-105, 122 endoscopy and, 69, 90-94

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Sources of Medical Technology: Universities and Industry importance of, 4, 11-12 insulin production and, 173-176 multidisciplinary professionals and their role in, 144, 176 Itakura, Keiichi, 167, 168, 175, 181 J Joint Services Electronics Program (JSEP), 42-43. See also Lasers Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 55 K Kafatos, Fotis, 168 Kapany, Narinder, 48, 51, 72-73, 76, 91 Keyes, John, 132, 150 Khorana, Gobind, 161, 181 Kiang, Nelson, 109, 119 Kleid, Dennis, 169, 177-178 Koester, Charles, 48, 52-53, 55 Kuhl, David, 131, 150 L L'Esperance, Francis, 46, 52-53 La Nouvelle Presse Medical, 111 Labuda, Edward, 52-53 Lancet, 74 Langenbuch, Carl, 85 Laparoscope, The, 111-112. See also Endoscopy Laser Focus/Electro-Optics, 54-55, 56, 61 Lasers argon, 52-53 armed forces research on, 42-43, 47-48, 55-56 blue-green, 52 dangers, 45, 50 dentistry, 56 invention of, 42-45, 65 Maser research, 43-44, 65 medical conferences, and laser research, 56 medical effectiveness, 59 medical market, 57-62 medical schools, 61-62 patent for, 44 photocoagulator, 41, 45-47, 49-52 retinal damage, 46-47 ruby, 52-55 uses of, 56-57, 59 Leibowitz, Elliot, 146 Legislation, federal, 30 See also Bayh-Dole Patent and Trademark Laws Amendment; Federal TechnologyTransfer Act; Stevenson-Wydler Technology Transfer Act; Waxman-Hatchv Act Lehrbuch und Atlas der Gastroskopie, 70 Licensing agreements. See Intellectual property Lithotriptor, and university-industry interactions, 7. See also University-industry interactions Litwin, Capt. Martin S., 56 Liu, Ig, 51 Loeb, Gerald, 110 Lurie, M. H., 98, 102 M MacLeod, Patrick, 110-111 Magnin, Paul, 154 Maiman, Theodore, 42, 45, 48 Managed care. See Health care reform Maxam, Allan, 161 Maser. See Lasers McGuff, Paul E., 56 Medical device sector, 7, 11, 19, 28 1976 Medical Device Amendments, 58 cardiac imaging and, 131 endoscopic device competition in, 89-94 fiberscope and, 73-74 heterogeneous range of devices, 4 laser R&D, 55-62 manufacturing by, 136 marketing by, 135 photocoagulator R&D and, 50-53 prototype development, 133-135 R&D spending, 211-212 small firms, 11

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Sources of Medical Technology: Universities and Industry strengthening of, 34 See also Financing of research and development; Medical schools; University-industry interactions Medical schools, 175 medical device innovation, 78 See also Medical device sector; Training Medicare European payment system differences, 88 payment system for, 69 reimbursement for endoscopic procedures by, 87 See also Health care reform Merzenich, Michel, 110, 117 Messenger RNA. See Insulin Meyer-Schwickerath, Gerd, 46, 49 Michelson, Robin, 103, 105, 107, 110, 117, 120 Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) and cost-effectiveness, 60 See also Endoscopy Minimally Invasive Therapy (MIT) endoscope's role in, 67-68 See also Endoscopy Minton, John P., 56 Molecular biology biotechnology and, 189-190 double helix DNA structure, 159, 189 gene-splicing, 160-161 interdisciplinary role, 174-175, 181-182 Morrison, Andrew, 107, 116 Mouret, Philippe, 86 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 33 National Cancer Institute competition for appropriations and, 20 laser research, 56 See also National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institutes of Health (NIH), 49, 51, 55 appropriations to, 17-20 cochlear implant support, 102, 106, 110, 119 compared to industry grants, 30 gene-splicing regulations by, 162, 164, 166 laser research focus, 57 national goals and, 22-24 Stevenson-Wydler and Bayh-Dole Acts and, 32-33 National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness, 52 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 22 Advanced Technology Program (ATP) and, 23 National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC), 33 Nature, 45, 72 New biotechnology firms. See Biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector New England Journal of Medicine, 85 Nonprofit institutions. See Financing of research and development Nuclear cardiology. See Cardiac imaging O Ontology, See Cochlear implants Organic chemistry interdisciplinary role of, 175 See also Innovation Overholt, Bergein, 76 P Palmer, 79, 82 Patent Office, U.S. lack of scientific information, 220 See also Intellectual Property Patents. See Intellectual Property Peters, C. Wilbur, 72-74, 90 Pharmaceutical companies. See Biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector

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Sources of Medical Technology: Universities and Industry Pharmaceutical Manufacturer's Association (PMA), 24-25 Plank, Max, 42, 65 Proceedings of the Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers, 45 Public Health Service, 52, 54, 76-77 R Ratz, John L., 54 Recombinant DNA (rDNA). See Insulin Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC), 166, 168, 170, 178, 181 See also National Institutes of Health (NIH) Reemstma, K., 85 Regulation clinical tests and, 191-192 European, 88 moratorium on gene-splicing, 161 New York State, 89 See also Atomic Energy Commission; Food and Drug Administration (FDA); National Institutes of Health (NIH); Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) Research and development. See Innovation Research contracts and agreements, 11, 35, 173, 193, 195 See also Financing of research and development; Intellectual property Reverse transcriptase, 165. See also Insulin Richardson, Powell, 148 Riggs, 167, 172 Rioux, 83 Rutter, William, 162-163, 167-168, 171, 173, 176-177, 179-181 S Sanger, Frederick, 161 Schawlow, Arthur, 44-45 Schindler, Rudolf, 70-72 Science, 47-48, 101-102, 166, 169, 220 Science-based industries contributions to medical innovation, 213 new biology, 213 See also Biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector; Medical device sector Science--the Endless Frontier, 17 Science in the National Interest, 35 Secretion of protein, 169 Seeberg, Peter, 171 Semm, Kurt, 79, 83 Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography. See Cardiac imaging Shinya, Hiromi, 77 Simmons, Blair, 100, 102-103, 105-110, 115, 117, 119, 122 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), 23-24 Small Business Technology Transfer Program (SBTT), 23-24 Smith, G. E., 78 Snitzer, Elias, 49, 53 Solon, Leonard, 47 Somatosatin synthetic, 167-169, 172 See also Insulin Sooy, Francis, 110 Speech coding and recognition, 101, 105-109, 111, 113, 115 See also Cochlear implants Steptoe, P., 79 perception tests, 115 Stevens, S. S., 98, 102 Stevenson-Wydler Technology Transfer Act, 32, 34. See also Intellectual property; Legislation, federal Streifeneder, Louis, 71 Storz, 80-81, 83, 84, 86 Synthetic insulin. See Insulin T Tax policy, 24. See also Financing of research and development