Boston Consulting Group (BGC), 25

Boyer, Herbert, 160, 162, 164, 184

Boyle, W. S., 78

Bray, 97

Broome, 171

C

Cameron, William J., 70

Campbell, Charles J., 48-50, 52

Cardiac imaging

acoustic quantification, 152-153

color flow, 153-154

diagnostic effectiveness of, 137

echocardiography, 129-138

innovation process and, 126, 141

nuclear cardiology, 127-128, 130-138

overview, 126-127

prototype for, 133-134

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, 150-151

Tc-99 sestamibi tracer, 148-149

thallium imaging, 146-148

transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), 151-152

Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government, 22

Chick, William, 168, 175

Children

cochlear implants in, 113, 118

See also Cochlear implants

Chirgwin, John, 166, 174

Chorimac. See Cochlear implants

Chouard, C. H., 110-113, 118-119

Clemens, 83

Clinical trials

cardiac imaging and, 137-138, 140-141

case study approach, 146-154, 209

children in, 113, 118

cochlear implantation and, 99-101, 104-106, 108

experimental versus, 117-121

laser use in optical surgery and, 50

role in innovation of, 215

Cloning

See Gene-splicing; Insulin

Cochlear implants

Chorimac, 113

clinical versus experimental, 119-121

debate, 108-110

external power source, 113-115

industrial interest, 116

media role in, 112, 121-122

microphonic potential and electrical stimulation, 97-102

otologically respectable, 116

patterns of collaboration and R&D strategies, 12, 97-124

single- and multi-channel, 106-108, 110

See also Children;

Deafness

Cohen, Stanley, 160

Color flow. See Cardiac imaging

Complimentary DNA (cNDA). See Insulin

Contraception. See Endoscopy, gynecological applications

Coulson, A. R., 161

Crick, 159

Curtiss, Larry, 73-74, 90

D

Davis, H., 98

Davison, Alan, 149

Deafness

definition, 103, 119, 122

See also Cochlear implants

Dearman, James R., 56

Decker, 79

Diabetic retinopathy, 53-54.

See also Insulin

Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 191

Djourno, A., 99-100, 102

Douek, Ellis, 113-115, 119

Dual-use technology development, 23

See also Financing of research and development

E

E. coli bacteria. See Insulin

Echocardiography. See Cardiac imaging

Efstratiadis, Argiris, 168, 169, 171, 177



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