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The Institute of Medicine was chartered in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to enlist distinguished members of the appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. In this the Institute acts under both the Academy's 1863 congressional charter responsibility to be an advisor to the federal government and its own initiative in identifying issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The Committee on Technological Innovation in Medicine was established in 1988 by the Institute of Medicine to design a series of workshops that would (a) provide more fundamental knowledge of the process by which biomedical research findings are translated into clinical practice and (b) address opportunities for improving the rationality and efficiency of the process. This volume consists of the proceedings of the fifth workshop in the series, "The University-Industry Interface and Medical Innovation," held in Stanford, California, on February 21–23, 1993. This workshop and its proceedings were supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Pfizer. The opinions and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Academy of Sciences, any of its constituent parts, or the organizations providing support.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Sources of medical technology: universities and industry / Annetine C. Gelijns and Nathan Rosenberg, editors; Committee on Technological Innovation in Medicine, Institute of Medicine.
p. cm. — (Medical innovation at the crossroads; v. 5)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Medical innovations. 2. Medicine—Research. I. Gelijns, Annetine. II. Rosenberg, Nathan. III. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Technological Innovation in Medicine. IV. Series.
[DNLM: 1. Diffusion of Innovation. 2. Technology, Medical. 3. Research Support—United States. W1 ME342f v. 5 1994 / W 20.5 S724 1994]
for Library of Congress 94-43303
Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The image adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is based on a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held at the Staatlichemuseen in Berlin.