Biographical Memoirs

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES



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Biographical Memoirs Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 67 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1995

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Biographical Memoirs The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER0-309-05238-6 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER5-26629 Available fromNATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Biographical Memoirs CONTENTS     PREFACE   vii     ROBERT KYLE BURNS BY JAMES MURRAY   3     WILLIAM B. CASTLE BY JAMES H. JANDL   15     PRESTON CLOUD BY JOHN C. CROWELL   43     ANDRÉ FRÉDÉRIC COURAND BY EWALD R. WEIBEL   65     JACOB PIETER DEN HARTOG BY STEPHEN H. CRANDALL   101     PAUL HUGH EMMETT BY WALTER S. KOSKI   119     KURT OTTO FRIEDRICHS BY CATHLEEN SYNGE MORAWETZ   131     HERBERT SPENCER GASSER BY MERRILL W. CHASE AND CARLTON C. HUNT   147

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Biographical Memoirs     DAVID ROCKWELL GODDARD BY RALPH O. ERICKSON   179     CHARLES ROY HAUSER BY CHARLES K. BRADSHER   201     CLARENCE LEONARD (KELLY) JOHNSON BY BEN R. RICH   221     HAROLD LESTER JOHNSON BY GERARD H. DE VAUCOULEURS   243     TJALLING CHARLES KOOPMANS BY HERBERT E. SCARF   263     ROWLAND PETTIT BY JOHN C. GILBERT   293     ALFRED C. REDFIELD BY ROGER REVELLE   315     JOHN MILTON ROBERTS BY WARD H. GOODENOUGH   331     ERNEST ROBERT SEARS BY RALPH RILEY   345     BURRHUS FREDERIC SKINNER BY HOWARD RACHLIN   363     LEE IRVIN SMITH BY VIRGIL BOEKELHEIDE   379

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Biographical Memoirs PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy's goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject's work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation's contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. PETER H. RAVEN Home Secretary

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