Promoting the National Spatial Data Infrastructure Through Partnerships

Mapping Science Committee

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1994



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Promoting the National Spatial Data Infrastructure Through Partnerships Promoting the National Spatial Data Infrastructure Through Partnerships Mapping Science Committee Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994

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Promoting the National Spatial Data Infrastructure Through Partnerships NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Support for this study by the Mapping Science Committee was provided by the Defense Mapping Agency, the United States Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Bureau of the Census. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 94-66772 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05141-X Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20418 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in Washington Metropolitan Area) B-499 COVER: An early North American partnership—an etching of the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe at Jamestown, Virginia, April 5, 1614. SOURCE: Library, Richmond (VA) Newspapers, Inc. Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Promoting the National Spatial Data Infrastructure Through Partnerships MAPPING SCIENCE COMMITTEE LARRY J. SUGARBAKER, Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, Chairman LAWRENCE F. AYERS, Intergraph Corporation, Reston, VA, Vice-Chairman HUGH N. ARCHER, Plan Graphics, Inc., Frankfort, KY WILLIAM M. BROWN, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor BARBARA P. BUTTENFIELD, State University of New York, Buffalo MICHAEL W. DOBSON, Rand McNally and Company, Skokie, IL FREDERICK J. DOYLE, McLean, VA (retired, U.S. Geological Survey) MICHAEL J. FOLK, University of Illinois, Urbana LEE C. GERHARD, Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD, University of California, Santa Barbara STANLEY K. HONEY, The News Corporation, Ltd., Los Angeles TERRENCE J. KEATING, Autometrics, Inc., Bangor, ME MICHAEL D. MARVIN, Map Info Corporation, Troy, NY SARA L. McLAFFERTY, Hunter College, New York, NY KAREN C. SIDERELIS, North Carolina Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Raleigh ROBERT TUFTS, TASC, Reston, VA NANCY VON MEYER, Fairview Industries, Middleton, WI Staff THOMAS M. USSELMAN, Senior Staff Officer JUDITH L. ESTEP, Administrative Assistant Members Who Completed Their Terms on December 31, 1993 JOHN D. BOSSLER, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Chairman ROBERT LEE CHARTRAND, Naples, Florida (retired, Congressional Research Service) DONALD F. COOKE, Geographic Data Technology, Inc., Lyme, NH GIULIO MAFFINI, SHL Systemhouse, Inc., Toronto, Canada JOHN D. McLAUGHLIN, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton BERNARD J. NIEMANN, JR., University of Wisconsin, Madison GERARD RUSHTON, University of Iowa, Iowa City

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Promoting the National Spatial Data Infrastructure Through Partnerships BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES FREEMAN GILBERT, Chair, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA GAIL M. ASHLEY, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ THURE CERLING, University of Utah, Salt Lake City MARK P. CLOOS, University of Texas at Austin NEVILLE G.W. COOK, University of California, Berkeley JOEL DARMSTADTER, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC DONALD J. DEPAOLO, University of California, Berkeley MARCO EINAUDI, Stanford University, Stanford, CA NORMAN H. FOSTER, Independent Petroleum Geologist, Denver, CO CHARLES G. GROAT, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge DONALD C. HANEY, Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington ANDREW H. KNOLL, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA PHILIP E. LAMOREAUX, P.E. LaMoreaux and Associates, Inc., Tuscaloosa, AL SUSAN LANDON, Thomasson Partner Associates, Denver, CO MARCIA K. MCNUTT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge J. BERNARD MINSTER, University of California, San Diego JILL D. PASTERIS, Washington University, St. Louis, MO EDWARD C. ROY, JR., Trinity University, San Antonio, TX Staff JONATHAN G. PRICE, Staff Director THOMAS M. USSELMAN, Associate Staff Director WILLIAM E. BENSON, Senior Program Officer KEVIN CROWLEY, Program Officer BRUCE B. HANSHAW, Program Officer ANNE LINN, Program Officer LALLY A. ANDERSON, Staff Assistant CHARLENE ANDERSON, Administrative Assistant JUDITH L. ESTEP, Administrative Assistant SHELLEY MYERS, Project Assistant

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Promoting the National Spatial Data Infrastructure Through Partnerships COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN, The Johns Hopkins University, Chairman, Baltimore, MD PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, PA EDITH BROWN WEISS, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, DC JAMES P. BRUCE, Canadian Climate Program Board, Ontario WILLIAM L. FISHER, The University of Texas at Austin EDWARD A. FRIEMAN, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville W. BARCLAY KAMB, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena PERRY L. McCARTY, Stanford University, Stanford, CA JUDY L. MEYER, University of Georgia, Athens RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario, Canada THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ELLEN K. SILBERGELD, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC STEVEN M. STANLEY, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parson, Tallahassee, FL WARREN WASHINGTON, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director MORGAN GOPNIK, Assistant Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate ROBIN ALLEN, Senior Project Assistant

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Promoting the National Spatial Data Infrastructure Through Partnerships The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Promoting the National Spatial Data Infrastructure Through Partnerships PREFACE The Mapping Science Committee serves as a focus for external advice to the federal agencies on scientific and technical matters related to spatial data handling and analysis. The purpose of the committee is to provide advice on the development of a robust national spatial data infrastructure for making informed decisions at all levels of government and throughout society in general. Within the context of the above mission statement, the committee issued a report in the Spring of 1993, Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation, which articulated its vision on how spatial information handling might best be approached from an organizational perspective. There are, of course, many specific issues that are raised when one examines what a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) encompasses. The committee is undertaking a series of focused studies to examine individual components of the NSDI. This study on partnerships within the NSDI was verbally requested by the Federal Geographic Data Committee (operating under the aegis of the Office of Management and Budget) at a joint meeting with the Mapping Science Committee on February 2, 1993. A study which addresses the criteria for determining priority geographic data is companion to this study on partnerships. Together, they set the stage for the NSDI which will take our nation into the twenty-first century. The committee wishes to thank Lisa Warnecke for the compilation of state legislation and authorities concerning spatial data and of the coordination mechanisms within each state.

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Promoting the National Spatial Data Infrastructure Through Partnerships CONTENTS 1   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1     RECOMMENDATIONS   3     NOTE   4 2   THE NATIONAL SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE   5     BACKGROUND   5     PREVIOUS REPORTS   8     Spatial Data Needs: The Future of the National Mapping Program   8     Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation   8     DISCUSSION   9     NOTES   11 3   THE CONCEPTS OF FEDERAL/STATE PARTNERSHIPS   12     CREATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SPATIAL DATA SETS   12     SPATIAL DATA STEWARDSHIP PRINCIPLES   13     ECONOMICS OF THE NSDI   14     The Costs of NSDI   15     Minimizing Costs Through Partnerships   16     NOTES   18 4   THE PARTNERSHIP MODEL   19     KEY ELEMENTS OF PARTNERSHIPS   19     IMPEDIMENTS TO PARTNERSHIPS   22     Formulae for Cost Sharing   22     Compromised Standards   22     Cost Recovery   23     Federal Procurement   23     Focused Coordination   24     ROLES IN PARTNERSHIPS   24     NOTES   26 5   RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION   27     KEY ELEMENTS OF A PARTNERSHIP   27     RECOMMENDATIONS   27     CONCLUSION   28

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Promoting the National Spatial Data Infrastructure Through Partnerships     APPENDICES         APPENDIX A RELATED ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENT OF PARTNERSHIPS   33     NOTES   35     APPENDIX B: COOPERATION/PARTNERSHIP MODELS IN EXISTENCE TODAY   37     BUREAU OF THE CENSUS—STATE DATA PROGRAM   37     NATIONAL GEODETIC SURVEY   38     SOUTH CAROLINA WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION   39     MARYLAND DIGITAL ORTHOPHOTO PROGRAM   41     APPENDIX C:EXAMPLE MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING   43     APPENDIX D:STATE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AUTHORIZATIONS AND COORDINATION—SUMMARY   47     STATE STATUTES   47     EXECUTIVE ORDERS   48     MEMORANDA OF UNDERSTANDING   48     DISCUSSION   49     STATE COMPILATION   52     ACRONYMS   113

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