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--> Safety in the Underground Construction and Operation of the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain Proceedings of a Symposium held at Yucca Mountain and Las Vegas, Nevada November 30-December 1, 1993 U.S. National Committee on Tunneling Technology Geotechnical Board Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995
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--> NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was supported primarily by the Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Project Office. Other agencies provided core support for the activities of the Geotechnical Board under the auspices of which this project was initiated. These agencies include the Department of the Army (Defense Nuclear Agency), Department of the Air Force (Air Force Office of Scientific Research), Department of the Interior (Bureau of Mines and Burreau of Reclamation), Department of Transportation (Federal Transit Administration), Department of Energy (Office of the Superconducting Super Collider), Department of the Army (Defense Nuclear Agency, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and National Science Foundation—MSS-9203139. Limited copies of this report are available from the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. Additional copies of this book are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20055, 1-800-624-6242. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 95-68330 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05243-2 Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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--> U.S. National Committee on Tunneling Technology 1993-1994 RAYMOND L. STERLING (Chair), Director, Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis RICHARD W. BALCERZAK, Assistant General Manager, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, Los Angeles LLOYD A. DUSCHA, NAE, Consulting Engineer, Reston, Virginia GEORGE FOX, NAE, Chairman, The Grow Tunneling Corporation, New York, New York RICHARD F. HARIG, St. Vice President and Technical Director (Retired), Mining and Industrial, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., Denver, Colorado JOHN W. HUTCHINSON NAE, NAS, Gordon McKay Professor of Applied Mechanics, Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts MARTIN KELLEY, President (Retired), Keiwit Engineering Company, Omaha, Nebraska ALBERT A. MATHEWS NAE, President, Al Mathews Corporation, Federal Way, Washington PRISCILLA P. NELSON, Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at Austin HARVEY W. PARKER, Senior Vice President, Shannon & Wilson, Inc., Seattle, Washington NAS = Member, National Academy of Sciences NAE = Member, National Academy of Engineering
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--> Geotechnical Board 1993-1994 JAMES K. MITCHELL (Chair), University of California, Berkeley CLARENCE R. ALLEN, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena JOAN (JODIE) Z. BERNSTEIN, Waste Management, Inc., Oak Brook, Illinois DAVID E. DANIEL, University of Texas at Austin WILLIAM S. GARDNER, W.S. Gardner and Associates, Blue Bell, Pennsylvania JAMES P. GOULD, Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers, New York, New York FRANCOIS E. HEUZE, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California CHARLES C. LADD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JAMES D. MURFF, Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, Texas SHLOMO P. NEUMAN, The University of Arizona, Tucson THOMAS D. O'ROURKE, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York REUBEN SAMUELS, Parsons Brinckerhoff, New York, New York ROBERT L. SCHUSTER, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado DON W. STEEPLES, The University of Kansas, Lawrence Staff MAHADEVAN MANI, Director PETER SMEALLIE, Director, Geotechnical Board (1990 through 1994) JENNIFER ESTEP, Administrative Assistant AMELIA MATHIS, Project Assistant/Senior Secretary
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--> Board on Energy and Environmental Systems H. M. (HUB) HUBBARD (Chair), President and Chief Executive Officer, Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), Honolulu, Hawaii RICHARD MESERVE (Vice-Chair), Partner, Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C. STEPHEN D. BAN, President, Gas Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois ROBERT D. BANKS, Program Director of Technology and Environment, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. ALLEN J. BARD, NAS, Professor, Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin BARBARA R. BARKOVICH, Partner, Barkovich and Yap, Consultants, San Rafael, California JAN BEYEA, Chief Scientist, National Audubon Society, New York, New York DAVID E. DANIEL, L.B. (Preach) Meaders Professor of Civil Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin LINDA C. DOLAN, Staff Environmental Engineer, Martin Marietta Electronics and Missiles, Orlando, Florida ROBERT L. HIRSCH, Senior Vice President, General Atomics, Washington, D.C. FRANCOIS E. HEUZE, Head, Geotechnical Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California CHARLES D. KOLSTAD, Professor, Department of Economics, University of California, Santa Barbara JANE C. S. LONG, Staff Scientist, Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California SEYMOUR MEISEL, NAE, Vice President, Research (Retired), Mobil R&D Corporation, Princeton, New Jersey SHLOMO P. NEUMAN, NAE, Regents' Professor, Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson THOMAS O'ROURKE, NAE, Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York LAWRENCE T. PAPAY, NAE, Vice President & Manager of Research & Development, Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, California RUTH A. RECK, Director, Global Climate Change Program, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois MARC H. ROSS, Professor, Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
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--> HAROLD H. SCHOBERT, Chairman, Fuel Sciences Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park JOEL SPIRA, NAE, Chairman and Director of Research, Lutron Electronics Co., Inc., Coopersburg, Pennsylvania JON M. VEIGEL, President, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Liaison Members to the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems RICHARD A. CONWAY, NAE, Senior Corporate Fellow, Union Carbide Corporation, South Charleston, West Virginia TREVOR O. JONES, NAE, Chairman of the Board (Retired), Libbey-Owens-Ford Company, Cleveland, Ohio Staff MAHADEVAN MANI, Director SUSANNA CLARENDON, Administrative Assistant THERON FEIST, Project Assistant HELEN JOHNSON, Administrative Associate AMELIA MATHIS, Project Assistant WENDY ORR, Project Assistant JILL WILSON, Program Officer TRACY WILSON, Senior Program Officer JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Senior Program Officer Editorial Consultants CAROLETTA J. POWELL, Editorial Concepts, Inc. LINDA D. VOSS, Inklings, Inc. NAS = Member, National Academy of Sciences NAE = Member, National Academy of Engineering
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--> Preface In 1987, Congress instructed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to study Yucca Mountain, located on the Nevada Test Site, as a potential repository site for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine the suitability of the site for that purpose, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) will be constructed at Yucca Mountain. There scientists and engineers will perform tests and experiments to evaluate Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. In addition, ESF construction and excavation data will be used to guide potential repository design and construction. Underground construction safety management is challenging on any project, but it will be particularly so at the ESF. Many tests and experiments will be conducted even as the ESF is being constructed. Construction workers, scientists, and engineers will be working in close proximity. ESF construction and operation will be concurrent. To increase DOE project personnel's level of understanding regarding underground construction safety management, the U.S. National Committee on Tunneling Technology held a symposium on underground safety November 30 through December 1, 1993, in Las Vegas, Nevada. Experts from the United States and abroad presented their experiences with safety management and practice, as well as lessons learned on their respective projects. Within these proceedings, papers and presentations from the symposium have been organized into two sections. The first of these addresses the broad topic of underground safety management. Papers and presentations within this section discuss the process of planning for safety, the value of approaching underground construction with a mindset conducive to safety, safety regulations and the regulatory environment, interpretation of safety regulations, and the enforcement process. Papers in the second section present several underground safety management experiences in the United States and around the world. Each of them illustrates organization for safety management and gives examples of successful approaches to creating a safe underground work place. To some degree, each of them addresses the
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--> particular issue of safely integrating different tasks and different safety cultures underground, a situation certain to be encountered at the ESF. Each of the authors has some insight to offer those who are planning and carrying out the construction and operation of the ESF. These proceedings are being published to make their insights available to those who were not able to attend the symposium, as well as to those who did attend.
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--> Acknowledgements The U.S. National Committee on Tunneling Technology acknowledges the assistance of the Yucca Mountain Project Office of the U.S. Department of Energy in the conduct of the symposium and for arranging a site visit for the participants to the Exploratory Studies Facility. The committee thanks all of the speakers for their contributions at the symposium and for their help in preparing the proceedings.
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--> Contents Underground Construction Safety: Be Sure You're on the Right Track Joseph E. Fitzgerald 1 Abstract, 1 Introduction, 2 Worker Safety and Health, 2 Safety Experience in Underground Construction Safety, 3 Worker Safety and Health Issues at Yucca Mountain, 5 Underground Construction Safety: What is Important?, 7 Investments in Prevention, 9 Conclusion, 10 Reference, 11 Department of Energy's Construction Safety Program Patrick F. Finn 13 Abstract, 13 Introduction, 13 Department of Energy Policy, 14 Summary, 21 References, 22 OSHA Regulations and Their Implications Fred A. Anderson 23 Abstract, 23 Introduction, 23 Provisions, 24
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--> Conclusions, 29 Discussion, 30 Underground Regulatory Safety Today Byron M. Ishkanian 33 Abstract, 33 Introduction, 33 Employee-Safety Jurisdiction, 34 Which Safety Code Will Apply at the Yucca Mountain Site?, 34 Encouraging a Cooperative Safety Effort, 38 Developing and Maintaining Good Channels of Communication, 39 Meaningful Safety Monitoring of All Operations, 41 Job Hazard Analysis of Planned Operations, 41 Analysis of Accidents After Investigation for Correction of Conditions, 44 Initiation of Changes in Safety and Health Requirements, 44 Safety Training, Safety Oversight, and Instruction, 47 Expected Exposures and Risks Associated with Differing Types of Excavation Equipment, 47 Managing Safety Liability on a Multicontract Work Site, 48 Handling of Emergency Response in Case of Accidents, Fires, or a Disaster, 49 Conclusion, 49 Discussion, 52 Bibliography, 54 Safety Engineering Design Analysis For Tunneling Equipment Bruce L. Blackford 55 Abstract, 55 Introduction, 56 Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis, 57 Fault-Tree Analysis, 60 Summary, 63 Milwaukee Water Pollution Abatement Program: Underground Safety—Dealing With OSHA John Ramage 65
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--> Abstract, 65 Background, 65 Organization of MWPAP, 66 Program Safety, 67 Safety Record, 67 The Regulatory Environment and the Team's Response, 70 The Event, 71 The Fallout, 71 Lessons Learned, 74 Discussion, 74 Bibliography, 76 OSHA Today and Tomorrow Patrick Tyson 77 Abstract, 77 OSHA: The Agency and Its Mission, 78 OSHA Penalties, 78 How OSHA Conducts an Inspection, 79 The Issue of Jurisdiction, 81 OSHA Under the New Administration, 81 What OSHA Will Require of the Exploratory Studies Facility, 82 Conclusion, 83 Discussion, 83 Underground Operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A True Safety Culture Fred G. Ashford and Linda M. Calderon 85 Abstract, 85 Foundation of a True Safety Culture, 86 Underground Facilities, 86 Underground Operations, 89 In Compliance: Evidence of Success, 91 Organizational Relationships, 93 Evolution of a True Safety Culture, 94 Conclusion, 99 Building a True Safety Culture, 99 Initiating Culture Change, 100
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--> Employee Participation and Management Commitment, 101 Conclusion, 103 Discussion, 103 Safety in Construction and Operation of Underground Facilities Joseph W. LaComb 105 Abstract, 105 Background, 105 Yucca Mountain Requirements and Design, 106 DNA Findings, 108 Comments and Suggestions, 109 Summary, 111 Underground Safety at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory Olle Zellman 113 Abstract, 113 Introduction, 114 The Facility, 115 Regulatory Authorities and Laws, 115 Planning and Design, 116 Site Office Routines, 117 Rock Works, 117 Coordination Between Research and Tunneling Work, 118 Safety-Related Equipment, 119 Conclusion, 119 Discussion, 119 Safety Management in PNC's Shaft Excavation Effects Project in Japan Kozo Sugihara 121 Abstract, 121 Introduction: A History of the Tono Mine, 122 Overview of the Shaft Excavation Effects Project, 123 Objective and Approach, 128 Project Management and Organization, 128 Shaft Excavation Effects Project Safety Management, 132 The Result, 136 Conclusion, 137
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--> The Channel Tunnel Timothy Green 139 Abstract, 139 Outline of the Channel Tunnel Project, 139 The Channel Tunnel and Yucca Mountain, 141 Organization for Safety, 142 Early Steps, Easily Taken, 143 Analysis of Accidents, 144 A Series of Initiatives, 148 Environmental Monitoring and Control of Incidents, 152 Discussion, 154 Appendix A: Symposium Agenda 155
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--> List of Illustrations Byron M. Ishkanian Figures 1 Sample safety meeting report form. 40 2 Sample construction safety inspection checklist. 42 3 Sample job hazard analysis form. 43 4 Sample supervisor's accident investigation report form. 45 5 Sample monthly accident experience summary form. 46 6 Sample summary of construction safety reports. 50 7 Tunnel incident command organization chart. 51 Table 1 Minimum Illumination Intensities in Foot-Candles 38 Bruce L. Blackford Figures 1 FMECA worksheet example. 58 2 Example of a criticality matrix. 60 3 Example of a simplified fault-tree diagram. 62 John Ramage Figures 1 Metropolitan Milwaukee area map showing the confluence of the Menomonee, Milwaukee, and Kinniokinnic Rivers. 68
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--> 2 Soft-ground tunneling method used to control the inflow of water. 69 3 Tunnel ventilation system using fully reversible, explosion-proof fans. 72 Fred G. Ashford and Linda M. Calderon Figures 1 Diagram of the WIPP facility layout. 87 2 Underground test rooms and waste storage panels. 88 3 WID underground operations violations from 1989 to 1993. 92 Table 1 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1993 Injury/Illness Summary 96 Kozo Sugihara Figures 1 Map showing the location of the Tono Mine in Japan. 122 2 Geoscientific studies in the Tono Mine. 124 3 Standard section of the shaft. 126 4 Cross section of the shaft. 127 5 Location of sections and boreholes for measurements in the SEE project. 129 6 Relevant organization chart of PNC. 130 7 Organization chart of PNC's Chubu Works. 131 8 Organization chart of safety management in the Tono Mine. 134 9 Accident report system of PNC's Chubu Works. 135 10 A sample KY sheet. 137 Table 1 Rock Mechanical Properties of the Sedimentary Rocks 125
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--> Timothy Green Figures 1 Accident frequency rate per 100,000 hours of work. 145 2 Work-related medical center attendances at the tunnel subproject. 146 3 Number of eye injuries of attendances at the tunnel subproject medical center. 147 4 Example of an in-house poster used to market a safety spectacles campaign at TML. 150 5 Example of an in-house poster used to market the TML track safety campaign. 151 6 TML' s safety wall 153
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--> List of Acronyms ANSI American National Standards Institute CFR Code of Federal Regulations DOE Department of Energy ESF Exploratory Studies Facility ET Eurotunnel FAR Federal Acquisition Regulation FMECA failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis FTA fault-tree analysis KY Kiken Yochi LEL lower explosive limit MMSD Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration MWPAP Milwaukee Water Pollution Abatement Program NLRB National Labor Relations Board OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration REECo Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Company SKB Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB SNL Sandia National Laboratories TBM tunnel boring machine TML Transmanche Link WID Waste Isolation Division WIPP Waste Isolation Pilot Plant YMP Yucca Mountain Project