Index

A

Abortion, 77, 102-105

(See also Index of induced abortion)

Abstinence, 96-99

(see also Index of postpartum infecundability)

Accidents

and adult mortality, 175

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 178-180

Administrative divisions, 9-10, 11

(see also Departments;

Regions;

and specific departments and regions)

Adolescence

and age at marriage, 85

Adoption effect (see Orphanhood method)

Africa

(see also specific countries)

age at marriage in, 198-199

demand for children in, 199

demographic transition in, 7, 45, 198-201

family planning in, 197

fertility decline in, 3, 7, 198-199

illegitimacy in, 3, 107, 198-199

mortality decline in, 7, 113

Africa, north

(see also Tunisia)

age at marriage in, 3, 199-200

contraceptive use in, 3, 107, 200

fertility decline in, 107, 199-200

fertility in, 3, 107, 109

ideal family size in, 3, 200

Africa, sub-Saharan

contraceptive use in, 3

fertility decline in, 7, 45, 56, 107

marriage and fertility in, 3

mortality trends in, 113

population growth in, 45

Age

and adult mortality, 161-180, 184

of child, and child mortality, 130-135

data quality for, 32, 115, 163

and desired family size, 103

exaggeration, 161, 163, 168, 223-224

and fertility (see ASFRs)

at first marriage (see Age at marriage)

heaping in censuses, and mortality estimation, 159

and internal migration, 37, 40

and life expectancy, 5, 161-163, 165, 166-175, 175, 180, 184

misreporting, 32, 159, 161, 163

of mother, and child mortality, 152-154

and polygyny, 91-95

and proportions never married, 80-85, 86-87



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Population Dynamics of Senegal Index A Abortion, 77, 102-105 (See also Index of induced abortion) Abstinence, 96-99 (see also Index of postpartum infecundability) Accidents and adult mortality, 175 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 178-180 Administrative divisions, 9-10, 11 (see also Departments; Regions; and specific departments and regions) Adolescence and age at marriage, 85 Adoption effect (see Orphanhood method) Africa (see also specific countries) age at marriage in, 198-199 demand for children in, 199 demographic transition in, 7, 45, 198-201 family planning in, 197 fertility decline in, 3, 7, 198-199 illegitimacy in, 3, 107, 198-199 mortality decline in, 7, 113 Africa, north (see also Tunisia) age at marriage in, 3, 199-200 contraceptive use in, 3, 107, 200 fertility decline in, 107, 199-200 fertility in, 3, 107, 109 ideal family size in, 3, 200 Africa, sub-Saharan contraceptive use in, 3 fertility decline in, 7, 45, 56, 107 marriage and fertility in, 3 mortality trends in, 113 population growth in, 45 Age and adult mortality, 161-180, 184 of child, and child mortality, 130-135 data quality for, 32, 115, 163 and desired family size, 103 exaggeration, 161, 163, 168, 223-224 and fertility (see ASFRs) at first marriage (see Age at marriage) heaping in censuses, and mortality estimation, 159 and internal migration, 37, 40 and life expectancy, 5, 161-163, 165, 166-175, 175, 180, 184 misreporting, 32, 159, 161, 163 of mother, and child mortality, 152-154 and polygyny, 91-95 and proportions never married, 80-85, 86-87

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Population Dynamics of Senegal sex ratios by, 33 and stunting, 137, 142-143 and wasting, 137, 140-141 Age at first birth (see also specific areas) and age at marriage, 88-91 changes in, 68 in Dakar, 91 and education, 200 by ethnicity, 90-91 Age at marriage, 80-85 (see also Marriage; Proportions never married; and specific areas and ethnic groups) and adolescence, 85 and age at first birth, 88-91 and ASFRs, 77 and birth interval, 111 and education, 2, 83, 85, 106 by ethnicity, 83, 90-91 and fertility, 80-85, 92, 95 and fertility decline, 2, 3, 77, 106-107, 197-201 by grand region, 83-84 and internal migration, 83 rise in, 3, 89, 91, 106 singulate mean age at marriage (SMAM), and socioeconomic indicators , 74 in small-scale studies, 63, 90, 91 by urban/rural residence, 83, 85 Age distribution of Dakar, 34, 36 and intercensal growth rates, 161 stationary (5Lx), 166-167 of total country, 31-32 Age-specific fertility rates (see ASFRs) Age-specific mortality rates (ASMRs), 163-164, 166-167 AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), 178-180 Amenorrhea (see Postpartum amenorrhea) Anovulatory interval (see Index of postpartum infecundability) Antimalarial campaign, 186-187 ASFRs (age-specific fertility rates) (see also Fertility; and specific areas) and age at marriage, 77 from census and other sources, compared, 64, 66 changes in, 2, 58, 106 in Dakar, 68, 70, 210 by department, 59-61, 210-219 by education, 70-72, 73 by ethnicity, 70-71 by grand region, 57-59, 60 national, 209 by region, 210-219 in small-scale studies, 62-67 and TFR, 51-52, 55, 57, 72-75 by urban/rural residence, 69, 209-219 from various sources, compared, 51 ASMRs (age-specific mortality rates), 163-164, 166-167 B B60 (censored parity progression ratios), 55-57, 108 Bakel (department) child mortality in, 127-129, 128, 130, 149-150 Bambey (department) child mortality in, 127-129 Bandafassi (study area) adult mortality in, 168-170, 173, 175, 184 and age at marriage and age at first birth, 90-91 ASFRs in, 62-66 birth intervals in, 98-99 fertility in, 49, 62-63 life expectancy at ages15 or 20 in, 169, 175, 184 life tables for, 173 sterility in, 106 survey of, 62, 204, 205 vaccination coverage in, 191-193 Bandafassi, child mortality in by age, 131-135 causes of, 138-139, 144, 145 by ethnicity, 151 and infant mortality, 116, 117 in rural areas of, 123 by sex, 134, 136 Basse Casamance (region) (see Ziguinchor) BCG vaccine (see Tuberculosis) Bedik (ethnic group) (see also Ethnicity) and age at marriage and age at first birth, 90-91 fertility of, 63 Beds, hospital distribution and numbers of, 185, 187 Birth histories data sources with, 204-206

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Population Dynamics of Senegal and fertility estimation, 47, 50, 53-54 and mortality estimation, 115 as source of mortality data, 119-122 Birth intervals (see also specific areas) and abstinence, amenorrhea, and breastfeeding, 95-99 and age at marriage, 111 and child survival, 97 and fertility, 2 and fertility decline, 2 by urban/rural residence, 98-99 Birth order and child mortality, 152-154 Birth registers, 46 Botswana family planning program in, 197 fertility decline in, 3, 45, 55, 107, 198-199 illegitimacy in, 3, 198-199 teenage marriage in, 3, 198-199 Brass Growth Balance Method for estimating coverage of adult deaths , 222-224 Brass orphanhood method (see Orphanhood method) Brass P/F ratio fertility estimating technique, 47-50, 53, 54 Breastfeeding, 78 (see also Index of postpartum infecundability; and specific areas) and abstinence, amenorrhea, and birth intervals, 95-99 and anovulatory intervals, 96 and contraception, 112 and education, 112 by urban/rural residence, 97-98 Burkino-Faso emigration to, 41-42, 43 Burundi fertility decline in, 45 C Ca (see Index of induced abortion) Cap-Vert (Dakar) Fertility Survey, 205 Casamance (region), 10 (see also Kolda; Ziguinchor) age at marriage in, 106 Cc (see Index of contraception) Censored parity progression ratios (see B60) Census (see Population census) Central region (see Grand regions) Child mortality (see Mortality, child) Child survival and birth intervals, 97 preceding, and child mortality, 152, 154 Children, demand for (see Ideal family size) Chloroquinization (antimalarial program), 187 Cholera and adult mortality, 175 Ci (see Index of postpartum infecundability) Circulatory system diseases of, 175 Cm (see Index of marriage) Coale-Demeny model life tables (see Model life tables) Coitus, frequency of, 77 and polygyny, 91-92 Community health workers in new health policy, 188 Composite facilities indicator (see also Electricity; Housing quality; Latrine facilities; Socioeconomic indicators; Water) defined, 23, 75 by department, 24-25, 75-76 and fertility, 75 and nuptiality, 76 by region, 24-25, 28 Condoms (see Contraception) Consensual unions, 111 Construction, good (see also Housing quality) defined, 29 by region, 23-26 Contraception effectiveness of methods of, 110 knowledge of modern methods of, 100, 101 Contraceptive use (see also Index of contraception) and breastfeeding, 112 in Dakar, 3 and education, 100, 101, 112 effectiveness of, 110 factors affecting, 108 and fertility decline, 106-108, 197 levels of, 2-3, 100-101, 106, 200 and MCH, 3-4 in north Africa, 3, 107, 200 in other African countries, 3, 198-199, 200

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Population Dynamics of Senegal by parity, 72 and urban/rural residence, 100, 101 Correlations between socioeconomic indicators and adult mortality, 183 and child mortality, 155 and fertility and nuptiality, 74 Côte d'Ivoire emigration to, 42, 43 D Dagana (department), child mortality in, 127-129 by urban/rural residence, 128, 149 Dakar adult mortality in, 176, 177, 181, 182 age at first birth in, 91 age at marriage in, 2, 3, 106 age distribution of, 34, 36 ASFRs in, 68, 70, 210 concentration of health infrastructure in, 187 contraceptive use in, 3 distance from, and child mortality, 125-126 distance from, and socioeconomic status, 28 dominant ethnic group in, 32 fertility and marriage in, 91 fertility decline in, 2, 3 fertility in, 2, 48-49, 60, 68, 109 fertility survey of, 205-206 health infrastructure in, 185 health personnel in, 185, 187 HIV prevalence in, 178-179 immigrants in, 41 and migration, temporary, 39, 40 migration to and from, 34, 36, 37, 38 population density of, 34 population size and growth of, 31, 32-33, 34 proportion of total population, 34 proportions never married in, 81, 85, 87, 91 sex ratio in, 32 socioeconomic indicators for, 23-29 urbanization in, 34 and urban/rural comparisons of child mortality, 146 vaccination coverage in, 191-193 vital registration system in, 12 Dakar, child mortality in, 4, 118-124, 156 by age, 130-131, 132 by migrant status, 120-121 Dakar-Pikine Survey, 207 Data quality in 1988 census, 65-67, 115-117, 208-209 for adult mortality, 194 for age, 32, 159, 161, 168, 173, 223-224 for child mortality, 118, 133 and estimates of population growth, 32-33 for fertility, 50-54, 108 and period parity distribution, 52 and P/F ratio, 47 and reference period error, 108 Data sources, 7-8, 8, 46 (see also DHS; DS; NDS; Population census; Small-scale studies; WFS) for abortion, 102-104 for adult mortality, 157, 159 for child mortality, 114-122 for fertility, 46-47 historical, 12 listed and described, 203-206 for migration, internal, 35-36 DDT use in antimalarial campaign, 186-187 Death age at, data quality for, 115, 163 causes of, among adults, 169-175 causes of, among children, 138-139, 144, 145 registration of, 12, 175 Deaths in previous year, and mortality estimation, 163-164, 166, 178, 184 Demand for children, 109 (see also Desired family size) in other African countries, 199 Demographic and Health Surveys (see DHS) Demographic indicators and child mortality, 139-151, 152, 153 correlations of, with socioeconomic indicators, 74 Demographic Survey (see DS) Demographic transition in Africa, 7, 45, 198-201 Density, population, 9 by region, 34, 35

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Population Dynamics of Senegal Departments, administrative, 9-10, 11 (see also specific departments) adult mortality in, 177 ASFRs in, 59-61, 210-219 composite facilities indicator in, 24-25, 75-76 fertility in, 59-61, 72-75, 210-219 HIV prevalence in, 178-179 infant and child mortality in, 116, 117 nuptiality in, 75-76 socioeconomic indicators for, 24-25 Departments, administrative, child mortality in, 127-130, 149-150 and infant mortality, 116, 117 by urban/rural residence, 128, 149 Depo-Provera (see Contraception) Desired family size (see also Ideal family size) by age, 103 decline in, 107, 200-201 by education, 200-201 and fertility decline, 107, 196-197 level of, 101-102 by parity, 101-102 Development assistance and economic reforms, 20 and family planning, 100 and GDP, 19 and mortality decline, 156 DHS (Demographic and Health Surveys) and B60, 55-57 child mortality estimates from, 116, 118-122, 127 child nutrition estimates from, 137 data on vaccinations from, 189, 193-194 described, 204, 205 fertility data from, 1, 48-54, 56-59 regions in, 6 as source for abortion data, 105 as source for fertility data, 46-47, 50 as source for nuptiality data, 85 as source for vaccination data, 193-194 as source of child mortality data, 115 Diahanor (study area) birth intervals in, 98-99 survey of, 204, 206 Diarrhea and adult mortality, 175 and child mortality, 138-139 Diffusion of fertility trends, 76 Digestive system diseases of, 175 Digit preference and mortality estimation, 159, 161, 163 Diola (ethnic group), 32 (see also Ethnicity) and age at marriage and migration, 83 fertility of, 49, 70-71 polygyny among, 95 temporary migration of, 41 Diourbel (region), 10 (see also Louga) adult mortality in, 6, 176, 178 ASFRs in, 211 dominant ethnic group in, 32 and migration, temporary, 40 migration to and from, 37, 38 population density of, 34 population size and growth of, 32-33 proportions never married in, 81 socioeconomic indicators for, 23-27 vaccination coverage in, 191-192 Diphtheria, 188 (see also DPT) Dispensaries and child mortality, 130 distance from, and vaccination coverage, 193 distribution and number of, 185-187 under EPI, 188 Divorce (see Marital disruption; Marital stability) Doctors distribution of, 185, 187 DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus) vaccination levels of, 189, 190 DS (Demographic Survey), 203 fertility data from, 47-48, 53, 55 as source of child mortality data, 114-115 as source of fertility data, 46 E Economic indicators, 22 (see also Socioeconomic indicators) Economic policy, 5, 14-15, 155-156 Economic setting, 13-29 Education, 13 (see also School enrollment) and adult mortality, 180-183 and age at first birth, 200 and age at marriage, 2, 83, 85, 106 and ASFRs, 70-72, 73 and breastfeeding, 112

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Population Dynamics of Senegal and child mortality, 5, 139, 146-150, 152-157 and contraceptive use, 100, 101, 112 and demographic indicators, 74 and desired family size, 200-201 and fertility, 2, 3, 50, 67, 70-74, 77, 107, 196-197 and fertility decline, 2, 3, 107-108, 197 and formal sector employment, 110 level of, 13, 17, 23-26 and marital stability, 88 and marriage, 74 and mortality decline, 198 and polygyny, 93, 95, 112 and population growth, 13 and proportions never married, 81-83, 85, 86 quality of, 13 by region, 24-27 and stunting, 137-138, 142 and wasting, 137-138, 140 Egypt age at marriage in, 3 desired family size in, 3 fertility decline in, 3, 107, 199 Electricity (see also Composite facilities indicator; Socioeconomic indicators) and adult mortality, 180, 183 and demographic indicators, 74 by region, 23-26 Emigration data on, 42 destinations of, 41-42, 43 Employment in formal sector and education, 110 and marital stability, 88 public-sector, 14, 20, 21 Enquête Sur les Priorités (structural adjustment survey), 205 Enrollment (see School enrollment) EPI (Expanded Programme on Immunization), 187-194, 198 and decline in child mortality, 5 impacts of, 114 results of, 139, 155 Ethnic groups (see also specific ethnic groups) composition of, 43 major, 32 wealth of, and child mortality, 130 Ethnicity and age at first birth, 90-91 and age at marriage, 83, 90-91 and ASFRs, 70-71 and child mortality, 146, 150-151, 152-153 and fertility, 49, 63, 68-71, 93 and life expectancy at age20, 169 and marital stability, 88 and marriage process, 110-111 and migration, 83 and migration, temporary, 41 and polygyny, 95 and proportions never married, 82 European contact, 10-12 e(x) (see Life expectancy) Exchange rate, 22 Expanded Programme on Immunization (see EPI) Expectation of life (see Life expectancy) Exports, 14, 15, 19 F Fakao (study area) birth intervals in, 98-99 survey in, 204, 206 Family planning clinics, number of, 185 demand for, 101-102 and fertility decline, 196-197 and foreign assistance, 100 growth in, 100 and ideal family size, 101-102, 104 in other African countries, 197 Family size (see also Desired family size; Ideal family size) and measles, 131 Fatick (department), child mortality in, 127-129 and infant mortality, 116, 117 Fatick (region) adult mortality in, 6, 176, 177 antimalarial campaign in, 186-187 ASFRs in, 212 demographic survey of, 206 dominant ethnic group in, 32 and migration, temporary, 39, 40-41 migration to and from, 37, 38 population size and growth in, 32-33, 34 proportions never married in, 81

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Population Dynamics of Senegal socioeconomic indicators for, 24-28 urbanization in, 34 vaccination coverage in, 192 Fertility, 1-4, 45-112 (see also ASFRs; Proximate determinants; TFR; and specific areas) and abortion, 105 African fertility transition, 198-199 and age at marriage, 80-85, 92, 95 and birth intervals, 2 control of (see Contraception) in Dakar, 2, 48-49, 60, 68, 91, 109 data quality, 50-54, 108 data sources, 46-47 by department, 59-61, 72-75, 210-219 and education, 2, 3, 50, 67, 70-74, 77, 107, 196-197 estimates of, from censuses, 46, 51-53, 59-61, 64-67, 109, 208-219 estimating techniques, 47, 208-209 by ethnicity, 49, 68-70, 71 by grand region, 48, 57-60, 61, 77 and housing quality, 74 illegitimate (see Illegitimacy) increase in, 53-55, 76, 106 and infertility, 55 levels of, 46-57, 106 and marital stability, 55, 88 and marriage, 3, 77-95 new home economics model of, 67, 109 policies, 3-4, 107-108 and polygyny, 91-95 and population growth, 196 premarital (see Illegitimacy) and proportions never married, 92 by region, 48, 57-67, 77, 210-219 by socioeconomic characteristic, 67-76 teenage, 89-91, 90 transition in, 198-201 trends in, 46-57, 76, 106 and urbanization, 2, 3, 74, 197 by urban/rural residence, 49, 59, 60, 68, 69, 107, 197 Fertility decline (see also specific areas) by age, 2, 106 (see also ASFRs) and age at marriage, 2, 3, 77, 91, 106-107, 197-201 and birth intervals, 2 and child mortality, 196-197 conditions for, 196-197 and contraceptive use, 106-108, 197 contrasted with other African countries, 3, 7 in Dakar, 2, 3 and desired family size, 107, 196-197 detecting, 55-59 diffusion of, 76 and education, 2, 3, 107-108, 197 factors affecting, 2-4, 196-197 and family planning, 196-197 and ideal family size, 2-3, 106, 196 and illegitimacy, 107 and income, 67 and mortality, 196-197 in north Africa, 107 policies regarding, 3-4, 107-108 by region, 57-59 in rural areas, 197 in Senegal compared with Tunisia, 199-201 in sub-Saharan Africa, 7, 45, 56, 107 and urbanization, 2, 3, 197 by urban/rural residence, 107 First births (see Age at first birth) Fissel (study area) abstinence, amenorrhea, and breastfeeding in, 98-99 child mortality in, 123-125, 151 survey of, 204, 207 Formal sector and education, 110 Foundiougne (department) child mortality in, 127-129 France migration to and from, 42 French presence of, 10-12 Frequency of intercourse, 77 and polygyny, 91-92 G Gambia, The migration to and from, 42, 43 struggle over, 12 GDP (gross domestic product) change in, 13-14 and development assistance, 19 growth in, 20, 21, 22 General Growth Balance Method for estimating coverage of adult deaths , 222-224

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Population Dynamics of Senegal GNP (gross national product) (see also Per capita GNP) and external debt, 19 Grand regions and age at marriage, 83-84 ASFRs in, 57-59, 60 child mortality in, 4, 126, 149, 152-153 defined, 6, 57, 108, 194, 204 fertility in, 48, 57-60, 61, 77 proportions never married in, 81, 83, 84, 85 Gross domestic product (see GDP) Gross national product (see GNP; Per capita GNP) Growth (see also Population growth) of children, and nutrition, 134-138, 140-143 Growth Balance Method for estimating coverage of adult deaths, 164, 222-223 Guinea immigration from, 41, 42 Guinea-Bissau migration to and from, 41, 42, 43 H Hazard models (see Multivariate analysis) Hazards of child mortality in Poisson regression method of analysis, 220-221 Health centers distribution and number of, 185, 187 MCH centers, operation of, 188 Health infrastructure, 185-186, 187 decentralization of, 126, 185, 188 and mortality decline, 155, 197-198 Health knowledge and mortality decline, 197-198 Health personnel distribution and number of, 185, 187 Health policy, 126, 155, 185 impacts of, 138, 198 reform of, in 1978, 114, 188 Health programs, 186-194 (see also EPI) Health services (see also Primary health care) availability of, and distance from Dakar, 125 and child mortality, 130, 132-133 decentralization of, 126, 185, 188 development of, 113-114 expenditures on, 15 Height of children (see Stunting; Wasting) HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevalence rates of, 178-180 Hospitals and hospital beds distribution and number of, 185, 187 Household size and child mortality, 151 Housing quality (see also Composite facilities indicator; Socioeconomic indicators) and adult mortality, 180, 183 and child mortality, 151, 154 by demographic indicator, 74 by department, 24-25 and fertility, 74 good construction defined, 29 and marriage, 74, 75, 76 by region, 23-26 by urban/rural residence, 26 I Ideal family size and family planning, 101-102, 104 and fertility decline, 2-3, 106, 197 in north Africa, 3, 200 Illegitimacy in Africa, 3, 107, 198-199 difficulty in defining, 111 and fertility decline, 107 levels of, 88-90 rise in, 111 Immigration, 41, 42 and population growth, 196 IMR (infant mortality rate), 16 (see also Mortality, child; 1q0) estimates from various sources, 116 underestimation of, 108 Income distribution of, 14, 21-22 and fertility decline, 67 and mortality decline, 197-198 and urban/rural residence, 14 Index of contraception (Cc), 78, 79, 100-102, 110 (see also Contraceptive use) Index of induced abortion (Ia), 78, 79, 105, 110 (see also Abortion) methods of calculating, 112 Index of marriage (Cm), 78, 79-95, 110 (see

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Population Dynamics of Senegal also Age at marriage; Marital stability; Marriage; Polygyny; Proportions never married) Index of postpartum infecundability (Ci), 78, 79, 110 and breastfeeding, 96-97 methods of calculating, 112 Index of potential fertility (TF), 78 Index of sterility (Ip), 78, 79, 105-106, 110 Indicators (see Composite facilities indicator; Demographic indicators; Economic indicators; Socioeconomic indicators) Infant mortality rate (see IMR) Infectious and parasitic diseases (see also specific diseases) and adult mortality, 175 and household size, 151 Infecundity (see Index of postpartum infecundability) Infertility (see also Sterility) and fertility trends, 55 levels of, 106 Informal sector, 19, 21 Intercensal survival methods of estimating adult mortality, 157-163, 184 Intercourse, frequency of, 77 and polygyny, 91-92 Intermediate variables (see Proximate determinants) Intrauterine device (IUD) (see Contraception) Investment, domestic, 22 Ip (see Index of sterility) Islam, 10 and postpartum abstinence, 96 IUD (Intrauterine device) (see Contraception) J Le jebalé (traditional waiting period before marriage consummation), 110-111 K Kaffrine (department) child mortality in, 128, 149 Kaolack (city) HIV prevalence in, 178-179 Kaolack (department) child mortality in, 127-129, 130, 149 Kaolack (region), 10 adult mortality in, 6, 176, 177 ASFRs in, 213 demographic survey of, 206 dominant ethnic group in, 32 and migration, temporary, 39-41 migration to and from, 37, 38 population size and growth in, 32-33, 34 proportions never married in, 81 socioeconomic indicators for, 24-28 tetanus vaccination coverage in, 193 vaccination coverage in, 191-192 Kébémer (department) child mortality in, 127-129 low mortality of, 194 Kédougou (department) infant and child mortality in, 116, 117 Kenya family planning program in, 197 fertility decline in, 3, 45, 55, 107, 198-199 illegitimacy in, 3, 198-199 reasons for choice as case study, 7 teenage marriage in, 3, 198-199 Khombole (rural area) abstinence, amenorrhea, birth intervals. and breastfeeding in, 98-99 MCH center in, 123, 188 Kolda (department) child mortality in, 128, 149 Kolda (region) adult mortality in, 5, 176, 177 ASFRs in, 214 dominant ethnic group in, 32 immigrants in, 41 and migration, temporary, 40, 41 migration to and from, 37, 38 population size and growth in, 32-33, 34 proportions never married in, 81 socioeconomic indicators for, 24-28 vaccination coverage in, 191-192 La Korité (Muslim holiday) and fertility estimation, 51, 108, 207 and mortality estimation, 115, 116, 163, 207

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Population Dynamics of Senegal L l(x) (proportion surviving from birth to age x) from census estimates, 166-167 5Lx (stationary age distribution), 166-167 Latrine facilities for households (see also Composite facilities indicator; Socioeconomic indicators) and child mortality, 154-155, 156 and demographic indicators, 74 by region, 23-26 Leprosy control efforts, 186 Life expectancy by age and sex, 161-175, 180, 184 Life tables functions of, estimated from census, 166-167 for small-scale studies, 171-174 Linguère (department) child mortality in, 128, 149-150 Literacy (see Education) Living conditions (see Housing quality) Louga (department) child mortality in, 127-129, 149 Louga (region), 10 adult mortality in, 6, 176, 177 ASFRs in, 215 dominant ethnic group in, 32 immigrants in, 41 and migration, temporary, 40 migration to and from, 37, 38 population size and growth of, 32-33 proportions never married in, 81 socioeconomic indicators for, 23-29 vaccination coverage in, 191-192 Lung diseases and adult mortality, 175 M 4M1 (death rate for ages) 1-4 (see also Mortality, child) compared with 45q15, 178, 179 Major Endemic Diseases Department, 186 Malaria and adult mortality, 175 campaign against, 186-187 and child mortality, 127-128, 131-132, 138-139, 145, 157 factors affecting, 131-132 Malawi fertility decline in, 45 Mali migration to and from, 42, 43 Malinké (ethnic group), 43 (see also Ethnicity) and age at marriage and age at first birth, 90 child mortality of, 151 life expectancy at age20 in, 169 Malnutrition of children, 134-138, 139 and postpartum amenorrhea, 97 Mandingo (ethnic group), 43 (see also Ethnicity) child mortality of, 146, 150, 151, 152-153 fertility of, 49, 70, 71 polygyny among, 95 Marital disruption, 85 and fertility, 55 Marital stability, 85-88 compared with other countries, 85-87 and fertility, 88 by socioeconomic characteristics, 87-88 Marriage (see also Age at marriage; Index of marriage; Polygyny; Proportions never married) consensual unions, 111 in Dakar, 91 definitions of, 111 by department, 75-76 and education, 74 and fertility, 3, 77-95 forms of, 111 and housing quality, 74, 75, 76 as process, 110-111 and socioeconomic indicators, 72, 74 teenage, 89, 90 and urbanization, 74 Matam (department) child mortality in, 127-129, 149-150 Maternal and child health (see MCH) Maternal mortality in small-scale studies, 175 Maternity clinics after health policy reform, 188 number of, 185, 186

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Population Dynamics of Senegal Mauritania migration to and from, 42, 43 Mbacké (department) child mortality in, 127-129 Mbour (department) child mortality in, 127-129 MCH (maternal and child health) centers, 123, 188 MCH services and contraceptive use, 3-4 history of, 186 Measles and child mortality, 131-132, 134, 138, 145 factors affecting, 131-132 and family size, 131 vaccinations for, 130, 187-192 Medical technology and mortality decline, 197-198 Meningitis vaccinations for, 187 Midwives distribution of, 185, 187 Migration, internal, 34-43 (see also specific areas) by age and sex, 37, 40 and age at marriage, 83 and child mortality, 120-122 to Dakar, 34, 36-40 data sources for, 35-36 defined, 35 and development, 43 effects of, 35, 41 lifetime, 36-37 net, 37-39 north to south, 34 and orphanhood data, 176 recent, 36-38 by region, 38 rural-urban, 34, 37-39 seasonal, 39-41 by sex, 37, 40 temporary, 36-37, 39-41 by urban/rural residence, 37 Migration, international, 41-42 Minimum wage (SMIG), 21-23, 29 Mlomp (study area) adult mortality in, 168-169, 174, 175, 176 age at marriage in, 63, 90 ASFRs in, 65-66 birth intervals and abstinence in, 98-99 fertility in, 49, 63-65 life expectancy at age15 in, 175 life tables for, 174 and migration, temporary, 63 mortality decline in, 198 survey of, 62, 204, 206 Mlomp, child mortality in, 4-5 by age, 131-135 causes of, 130, 138-139, 144, 145 decline in, 4-5 and infant mortality, 116-117 rural areas of, 125, 130 by sex, 136 Mobile health teams, 186-189, 193 Model life tables, 166-167 and adult mortality estimates, 158-163, 164-178 and applicability to Senegal data, 194 child mortality in, 134 and estimates of 45q15, 176-178 in intercensal survival methods, 157-163 in orphanhood method, 164-165 survivorship ratios from, 160 Mortality, 4-6, 113-198 Mortality, adult, 5-6, 157-184 (see also Life expectancy; 45q15; and specific areas) by age, 161-180, 184 by cause, 169-175 in Dakar, 176, 177 data quality, 159, 161, 163, 194 data sources, 157, 159 by department, 177 estimates of, from censuses, 157-169, 176-180, 184 estimates of, from small-scale studies, 165-176 methods for calculating, 157-163 by region, 5-6, 176-184 by sex, 161-184, 194 and socioeconomic factors, 6, 180-183 Mortality, child, 118-157, 198 (see also IMR; 1q0; 4q1; and specific areas) and age of child, 130-135 and age of mother, 152-154 analysis methodology, 220-221 and birth order, 152-154 causes of, 138-139, 144, 145 in Dakar, 4, 118-124, 130-131, 132, 156 data quality for, 118, 133 data sources for, 114-122

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Population Dynamics of Senegal and demographic indicators, 139-151, 152, 153 by department, 127-130, 149-150 and distance from Dakar, 125-126 and education of mother, 5, 139, 146-150, 152-157 and EPI program, 5 estimates of, from 1988 census, 127-130, 149-150, 154-155 estimation methods, 117-118 by ethnicity, 146, 150-151, 152-153 and fertility decline, 196-197 by grand region, 4, 126, 149, 152-153 and health policy, 5, 155 and health services, 130, 132-133 and household size, 151 and housing quality, 151, 154 and income growth, 198 levels and trends of, 113, 117-126, 155-156 and malaria, 127-128, 131-132, 138-139, 145, 157 and measles, 131-132, 134, 138, 145 measures of, 114 by migrant status, 120-122 multivariate analysis of, 146-149, 151-155, 220-221 and NGOs, 156 north-south gradient in, 127, 149 and nutrition, 138-139, 151 and population growth, 196 and rainfall, 127 by region, 4, 126, 149-150, 152-153 in rural areas, 122-133, 135, 139 by sex, 133-134, 136, 194 and socioeconomic factors, 139-155 and structural adjustment policies, 5, 155-156 and urbanization, 5 by urban/rural residence, 4, 122, 124, 127-130, 139, 146-150, 152-157 and vaccinations, 134 Mortality, neonatal (see also Mortality, child) causes of, 138, 144 Mortality, postneonatal (see also Mortality, child) causes of, 138-139, 145 Mortality decline, 4-6, 12 (see also specific areas) in Africa, 7, 113 factors affecting, 113, 197-198 and fertility, 196-197 and foreign assistance, 156 and health care, 155, 197-198 and income, 197-198 and medical technology, 197-198 and population growth, 196 Mortality rates, age-specific (ASMRs), 163-164, 166-167 Multivariate analysis of child mortality, 146-149, 151-155 methodology of, 220-221 N Namibia fertility decline in, 45 National Vaccination Coverage Surveys, 205 Natural increase, rate of, 196 Ndemene (study area) child mortality in, 151 survey of, 204, 206 NDS (National Demographic Survey), 203 and child mortality data, 115 and fertility, 46, 54 as source of fertility data, 47 Neonatal mortality, 138, 144 (see also Mortality, child) Neonatal tetanus (see Tetanus) New home economics model of fertility, 67, 109 Ngayokhème (see Niakhar/Ngayokhème) NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) and child mortality, 156 Niakhar/Ngayokhème (study area) adult mortality in, 168-175 age at marriage in, 91 age exaggeration in, 168 ASFRs in, 63-67 birth intervals and breastfeeding in, 98-99 changing boundaries of, 194 fertility in, 48, 54, 62 infant and child mortality in, 117 life expectancy at age 15 in, 169, 175, 184 life tables for, 171, 172 maternal mortality in, 175 polygyny and fertility in, 93 survey of, 62, 204, 206

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Population Dynamics of Senegal Niakhar/Ngayokhème, child mortality in by age, 130-132, 135 causes of, 138-139, 144, 155 and infant mortality, 116, 117 rural areas of, 123, 124 by sex, 133-134, 136 Nigeria fertility decline in, 45 Nioro du Rip (department) child mortality in, 128, 149-150 Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and child mortality, 156 Norplant (see Contraception) Northeastern region (see Grand regions) Nuptiality (see Marriage) Nurses distribution of, 185, 187 Nutrition and Health Protection Program, 186 Nutritional status of children and growth, 134-138, 140-143 and mortality, 138-139, 151 O Odds ratios (see Multivariate analysis) Orphanhood method of estimating adult mortality, 158, 164-165, 168-169, 177 adoption effect in, 165 effect of migration on, 176 Oussouye (department) child mortality in, 127-129, 130, 149-150 infant and child mortality in, 116, 117 P Paos Koto/Ndemene birth intervals and breastfeeding in, 98-99 fertility in, 49 survey of, 204, 206 Parental survivorship estimating adult mortality from, 164-165, 168-169, 176-178, 184 Parity and desired family size, 101-102 and fertility control, 72, 96 Parity progression ratios (see B60) Per capita GNP, 14, 15, 16, 21 Period parity distribution and data quality, 52 Person-years lived in life table (5Lx) estimated from census data, 166 Pertussis (see also DPT) and child mortality, 139, 145 vaccinations for, 188 Peul (ethnic group), 43 (see also Ethnicity) and age at marriage and age at first birth, 90 child mortality of, 151 fertility of, 63 P/F ratio technique for estimating fertility, 47-50, 53, 54 Pharmacists distribution of, 185, 187 Pikine (see also Dakar) abortion in, 105 child mortality in, 120-122, 124, 148-149 survey of, 204, 207 Pill, contraceptive (see Contraception) Place of residence (see Urban/rural residence) Pneumonia and child mortality, 138, 145 Podor (department) low mortality of, 194 Poisson regression (see Multivariate analysis) Polio vaccinations for, 188-190 Political divisions, 9-10, 11 Polygyny, 91-95, 111 and coital frequency, 91-92 and education, 93, 95, 112 and fertility, 91-93, 95 and socioeconomic characteristics, 93, 95 Population census, 12 Population census (1976), 207 adult mortality estimates from, 157-163, 184 coverage rates of, 163, 184, 63 as source of fertility data, 46 Population census (1988), 207 adult mortality estimates from, 157-165, 166-169, 176-178, 184 ASMR estimates from, 163-164 child mortality estimates from, 127-130, 149-150, 154-155

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Population Dynamics of Senegal correcting fertility estimates from, 208-219 coverage rates of, 163, 184 data quality of, 51-53, 65-67, 115-117, 208-209 death reporting in, completeness of, 115-117, 164, 222-224 fertility estimates from, 51-53, 59-61, 64-67, 109 life-table estimates from, 178, 180 as source of fertility data, 46 as source of mortality data, 115-118 Population density, 9, 34, 35 Population distribution (see also Migration, internal) changes in, 10, 34 Population growth causes of, 1 in Dakar, 31, 34 and data quality, 32-33 and decline in child mortality, 196 and education, 13 and fertility, 196 and immigration, 196 rates of, 14, 30-31, 196 by region, 32-33, 34 in sub-Saharan Africa, 45 Population policies, 3-4, 107-108 Population projections, 1 Population pyramid (see Age distribution) Population size and health infrastructure, 186 by region, 32-33 Postneonatal mortality, 138-139, 145 (see also Mortality, child) Postpartum abstinence, 96, 97, 98-99 (see also Index of postpartum infecundability) Postpartum amenorrhea, 96-99 (see also Index of postpartum infecundability) Postpartum infecundity (see Index of postpartum infecundability) Potential fertility (TF), 78 Poular (ethnic group), 32 (see also Ethnicity) age at marriage of, 83 child mortality of, 146, 151, 152-153 fertility of, 49, 70, 71 marital stability of, 88 marriage process of, 110-111 polygyny among, 95 PPR (Parity Progression Ratio) (see B60) Pregnancies, unwanted, 105 (see also Abortion) Prematurity and neonatal mortality, 138, 144 Preston-Bennett method of estimating adult mortality, 158, 159-163 Primary health care, 113-114 and decline in child mortality, 155 history of, 185-186 policy and mortality decline, 198 and policy reform of 1978, 188 Proportions married, 77, 88 correlations of, with socioeconomic indicators, 72, 74 Proportions never married, 80-85, 88 (see also Age at marriage) by age, 80-85, 86-87 in Dakar, 81, 83, 87, 91 by education, 81-83, 85, 86 by ethnicity, 82 and fertility, 92 by grand region, 81, 83, 84, 85 by region, 81, 84 by sex, 80-83 for small-scale studies, 81-82 by urban/rural residence, 82, 85, 87, 92 Proximate determinants of fertility, 77-106 (see also Index of contraception; Index of induced abortion; Index of marriage; Index of postpartum infecundability; Index of sterility; Potential fertility) levels of, 79 model of, 78, 110 Public health (see Health) Q 5q0 (probability of dying before fifth birthday), 114 (see also Mortality, child) 1q0 (probability of dying before first birthday) (see also IMR; Mortality, child) comparisons from various sources, 116-118 relationship of, to 4q1, 130-133, 134, 135, 194 4q1 (probability of dying between 1st and 5th birthdays) (see also Mortality, child) comparisons from various sources, 116-118 by department, 127-130

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Population Dynamics of Senegal factors affecting, 131 and malaria, 131-132 and measles, 131-132 relationship of, to 1q0, 130-133, 134, 135, 194 45q15 (probability of dying between 15th and 60th birthdays), 165, 175 (see also Mortality, adult) compared with 4M1, 178, 179 by region, 5-6, 176-178, 179, 180, 181 by sex, 175, 176-178, 179, 180, 181, 184 R Ramadan (see Korité) Reference point error in 1988 census, 115 in birth histories, 47 Regions, administrative, 9-10, 11 (see also Grand regions; and specific regions) abstinence, amenorrhea, birth intervals, and breastfeeding in, 96-99 adult and child mortality in, 178, 182 adult mortality in, 5-6, 165-184 age at marriage in, 106 antimalarial campaign in, 186-187 ASFRs in, 210-219 child mortality in, 4, 126, 131, 132, 149-150, 152, 153 composite facilities indicators for, 24-25, 28 dominant ethnic group in, 32 education in, 23-28 fertility decline in, 57-59 fertility in, 48, 57-67, 77, 210-219 good construction in, 23-26 health care system in, 28 immigrants in, 41 migration, temporary, in, 41 migration to and from, 37-38 nuptiality and economic status in, 7 population density of, 34, 35 population size and growth of, 32-33, 34 proportions never married in, 81, 84 quality of data on, 108 socioeconomic indicators for, 6, 23-29 surveys of, 205-207 urbanization in, 24-25, 34 vaccination coverage in, 191-193 Regression analysis (see Multivariate analysis) Religion (see Islam) Remarriage, 85, 88 (see also Marital stability) and polygyny, 92 Remittances and balance of payments, 19 and health investment, 130 Residence (see Rural residence; Urban/rural residence) Respiratory infections and child mortality, 138-139, 145 Ross-Mauldin Index of family planning program effort, 197, 201 Rural residence (see also Urban/rural residence) and child mortality, 122-133, 135, 139 and fertility decline, 197 and HIV prevalence, 180 S Saint-Louis (city) causes of death in, 175 child mortality in, 122-124 HIV prevalence in, 178-179 registration of deaths in, 175 vital registration in, 12, 116-117, 122 Saint-Louis (region) adult mortality in, 6, 176, 177 ASFRs in, 216 child mortality in, 131, 132 and migration, temporary, 40 migration to and from, 37, 38 population size and growth in, 32-33, 34 proportions never married in, 81 socioeconomic indicators for, 24-28 vaccination coverage in, 191-192 Sanitation (see Latrine facilities) School enrollment (see also Education) and fertility, 3 levels and trends of, 3, 17, 29 by region, 23-25 Seasonal migration, 36-37, 39-41 Sédhiou (department) child mortality in, 127-129 Serer (ethnic group), 32 (see also Ethnicity) and age at marriage and migration, 83 child mortality of, 146, 151, 152-153 fertility of, 70, 71, 93 identification by, with Wolof, 109

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Population Dynamics of Senegal and migration, temporary, 41 polygyny among, 95 Sex and adult mortality, 161-184, 194 and child mortality, 133-134, 136, 194 and life expectancy, 161-167 and migration, 37, 40 and proportions never married, 80-83 and socioeconomic characteristics and adult mortality, 180 Sex ratios, 32, 33 Sexually transmitted diseases, 105-106 (see also AIDS) Sine-Saloum (region), 10 (see also Fatick; Kaolack) abstinence, amenorrhea, breastfeeding, and birth intervals in, 96-99 quality of data on, 108 survey of, 206 Singulate mean age at marriage (SMAM) (see also Age at marriage) correlations with socioeconomic indicators, 74 Smallpox, 186, 187 Small-scale studies (see also Bandafassi; Mlomp; Niakhar/Ngayokhème) abstinence, amenorrhea, birth intervals, and breastfeeding in, 98-99 adult mortality in, 165-176, 184 age at first birth in, 90-91 age at marriage in, 63, 90-91 age exaggeration in, 168 ASFRs in, 62-67 boundaries of, 194 causes of death in, 169-175 fertility in, 48-49, 54, 62-67 infant and child mortality in, 116, 117 life expectancy at ages 15 or 20 in, 169, 175, 184 life-tables for, 171-174 location of sites, 204 maternal mortality in, 175 proportions never married in, 81-82 45q15 in, 175 sterility in, 106 surveys of, 62, 204-207 vaccination coverage in, 191-193 Small-scale studies, child mortality in, 4-5 by age, 130-135 causes of, 130, 138-139, 144, 145, 155 decline in, 4-5 by ethnicity, 151 and infant mortality, 116, 117 in rural areas of, 123, 124, 125, 130 by sex, 133-134, 136 SMAM (singulate mean age at marriage) (see also Age at marriage) correlations with socioeconomic indicators, 74 Socioeconomic factors and adult mortality, 6, 180-183 and child mortality, 139-155 and marital stability, 87-88 and polygyny, 93, 95 and stunting, 137, 142-143 Socioeconomic indicators, 23-29 (see also Composite facilities indicator) correlations of, with adult mortality, 183 correlations of, with child mortality, 155 correlations of, with fertility and nuptiality indicators, 74 by department, 24-25 and distance from Dakar, 28 by region, 6, 23-29 Soninke (ethnic group) (see also Ethnicity) wealth of, and child mortality, 130 South Africa fertility decline in, 45 Southern region (see Grand regions) STDs (sexually transmitted diseases), 105-106 (see also AIDS) Sterility, 78, 105-106 (see also Index of sterility) Sterilization (see Contraception) Structural adjustment and child mortality, 5, 155-156 policies, 5, 14, 155-156 survey of, 205 Stunting (low height for age), 134-138, 142-143 Sub-Saharan Africa (see Africa, sub-Saharan) Surveillance systems (see Small-scale studies) Survey on Child Mortality in the Sahel (EMIS), 124, 207 Surveys (see Data sources) Survival, child and birth intervals, 97 preceding, and child mortality, 152, 154

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Population Dynamics of Senegal Survivorship estimating adult mortality with, 157-163, 164-168, 169, 176-178, 184 T Tambacounda (region) adult mortality in, 5, 176, 177 ASFRs in, 217 dominant ethnic group in, 32 and migration, temporary, 40 migration to and from, 37, 38 population density of, 34 population size and growth of, 32-33, 34 proportions never married in, 81 socioeconomic indicators for, 24-28 vaccination coverage in, 191-193 Tanzania fertility decline in, 45 Technology, medical and mortality decline, 197-198 Temporary migration, 36-37, 39-41 Tetanus (see also DPT) and neonatal mortality, 138, 144 vaccinations for, 188, 193 TF (potential fertility), 78 TFR (total fertility rate) (see also ASFRs; Fertility) defined, 108 levels and trends of, 1-2, 16, 47-50, 196, 199, 200 Thiénaba (study area) abstinence, amenorrhea, birth intervals, and breastfeeding in, 98-99 child mortality in, 123-125, 151 survey in, 204, 207 Thiès (department) child mortality in, 127-129, 149 Thiès (region) adult mortality in, 6, 176, 177 antimalarial campaign in, 186-187 ASFRs in, 218 child mortality in, 149 dominant ethnic group in, 32 and migration, temporary, 40 migration to, 37 population density of, 34 population size and growth of, 32-33 proportions never married in, 81 socioeconomic indicators for, 24-28 vaccination coverage in, 192 Tivaouane (department) child mortality in, 127-129, 149 TMFR (total marital fertility rate), 79 Toilet facilities for households (see also Composite facilities indicator; Socioeconomic indicators) and child mortality, 154-155, 156 and demographic indicators, 74 by region, 23-26 Total fertility rate (see TFR) Tuberculosis vaccinations for, 188-190 Tunisia demographic transition in, 199-201 fertility decline in, 3, 107, 199-201 U Unwanted pregnancies, 105 (see also Abortion) Urbanization and child mortality, 5 definitional problems, 43-44 and demographic indicators, 74 by department, 24-25 and fertility, 74 and fertility decline, 2, 3, 197 level of, 16 by region, 24-25, 34 Urban/rural residence (see also Rural residence) and abortion, 104 and access to clean water and electricity, 26 and age at first birth, 68, 200 and age at marriage, 83, 85 and ASFRs, 69, 209-219 and birth intervals, 98-99 and breastfeeding, 98-99 and child mortality, 4, 122, 124, 127-130, 139, 146-150, 152-157 and contraceptive use, 100, 101 and fertility, 49, 60, 68, 69, 107, 197 and housing quality, 26 and income, 14 and marital stability, 88 and migration, 37 and polygyny, 93, 95 and postpartum amenorrhea, 97, 98 and proportions never married, 82, 85, 87, 92

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Population Dynamics of Senegal and stunting, 137, 142 and vaccination coverage, 114, 191-192 and wasting, 140 V Vaccination coverage differentials in, 5 and distance from dispensaries, 193 before EPI, 187-188 under EPI, 5, 114, 189-194 methods of estimating, 190-191 by region, 191-193 in small-scale studies, 191-193 surveys of, 205 uneven, 189 by urban/rural residence, 114, 191-192 Vaccinations (see also specific diseases) and child mortality, 134 complete, defined, 195 programs of, before 1978, 187-188 Verbal autopsies and causes of death, 169 Vital registration systems, 12, 175 W Wages, 21-23, 29 Wasting (low weight for height), 134-138, 140-141 Water supply for households (see also Composite facilities indicator; Socioeconomic indicators) and adult mortality, 180, 183 and child mortality, 148-149, 151, 154 by region, 23-26 Weaning and stunting, 137 Weight of children (see Wasting) Western region (see Grand regions) WFS (World Fertility Survey of 1978), 2, 204 ASFRs from, 57, 58 child mortality estimates in Dakar from, 119-122 data quality of, 108 fertility estimates from, 46-50, 51, 57, 58 regions in, 6 as source of abortion data, 104 as source of child mortality data, 115 as source of nuptiality data, 85 Wolof (ethnic group), 12, 32, 43 (see also Ethnicity) child mortality of, 146, 151, 152-153 fertility of, 49, 70, 71 polygyny among, 95 Serer identifying as, 109 World Fertility Survey (see WFS) Y Yellow fever vaccinations for, 187, 190 Z Zambia fertility decline in, 45 Ziguinchor (city) HIV prevalence in, 178-179 Ziguinchor (department) nuptiality and socioeconomic status in, 75 Ziguinchor (region), 10 adult mortality in, 6, 176, 177 ASFRs in, 219 dominant ethnic group in, 32 educational indicators in, 28 health care system in, 28 level of urbanization in, 34 and migration, temporary, 39, 40-41 migration to and from, 37, 38 nuptiality and socioeconomic status in, 76 population size and growth in, 32-33, 34 proportions never married in, 81 socioeconomic indicators for, 23-27 vaccination coverage in, 191-192 Zimbabwe family planning program in, 197 fertility decline in, 3, 45, 55, 107, 198-199 illegitimacy in, 3, 198-199 teenage marriage in, 3, 198-199