Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page R1
Population Dynamics of Senegal POPULATION DYNAMICS OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA DEMOGRAPHIC EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC REVERSALS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA EFFECTS OF HEALTH PROGRAMS ON CHILD MORTALITY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA FACTORS AFFECTING CONTRACEPTIVE USE IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA POPULATION DYNAMICS OF KENYA POPULATION DYNAMICS OF SENEGAL SOCIAL DYNAMICS OF ADOLESCENT FERTILITY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
OCR for page R2
Population Dynamics of Senegal NOTE: This map, which has been prepared solely for the convenience of readers, does not purport to express political boundaries or relationships. The scale is a composite of several forms of projection.
OCR for page R3
Population Dynamics of Senegal POPULATION DYNAMICS OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA POPULATION DYNAMICS OF SENEGAL Gilles Pison, Kenneth H. Hill, Barney Cohen and Karen A. Foote, Editors Working Group on Senegal Panel on the Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa Committee on Population Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995
OCR for page R4
Population Dynamics of Senegal NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 95-68873 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05280-7 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20418. Call 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area). B546 Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
OCR for page R5
Population Dynamics of Senegal WORKING GROUP ON SENEGAL GILLES PISON (Chair), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France ANOUCH CHAHNAZARIAN,† Johns Hopkins University and Institute Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération (ORSTOM), Dakar, Senegal PHILIPPE HUGON, Université de Paris X, Paris, France CHEIKH MBACKE, Rockefeller Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya AWA THIONGANE, Direction de la Prévision et de la Statistique, Dakar, Senegal BARNEY COHEN, Staff Officer PATRICIA A. DeFRISCO, Senior Project Assistant KAREN A. FOOTE, Staff Officer JOAN MONTGOMERY HALFORD, Senior Project Assistant* PAULA J. MELVILLE, Senior Project Assistant** SUSAN L. SHUTTLEWORTH, Senior Project Assistant*** † deceased December 1993 * through July 1992 ** through April 1994 *** through April 1995
OCR for page R6
Population Dynamics of Senegal PANEL ON THE POPULATION DYNAMICS OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA KENNETH H. HILL (Chair), Department of Population Dynamics, Johns Hopkins University ADERANTI ADEPOJU, Institut de Développement Economique et de la Planification (IDEP), Dakar, Senegal JANE T. BERTRAND, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University CAROLINE H. BLEDSOE, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University WILLIAM BRASS, Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, England DOUGLAS C. EWBANK, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania PHILIPPE FARGUES, Centre d'Etudes et de Documentation Economique, Sociale et Juridique (CEDEJ), Cairo, Egypt RON J. LESTHAEGHE, Faculteit van de Economische, Sociale en Politieke Wetenschappen, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium PATRICK O. OHADIKE, Regional Institute for Population Studies (RIPS), Accra, Ghana ANNE R. PEBLEY, RAND, Santa Monica, California DANIEL M. SALA-DIAKANDA, Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
OCR for page R7
Population Dynamics of Senegal COMMITTEE ON POPULATION RONALD D. LEE (Chair), Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley CAROLINE H. BLEDSOE, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University JOSE-LUIS BOBADILLA, World Bank, Washington, D.C. JOHN BONGAARTS, The Population Council, New York JOHN B. CASTERLINE, The Population Council, New York LINDA G. MARTIN, RAND, Santa Monica, California MARK R. MONTGOMERY, The Population Council, New York ROBERT A. MOFFITT, Department of Economics, Brown University ANNE R. PEBLEY, RAND, Santa Monica, California RONALD R. RINDFUSS, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill JAMES P. SMITH, RAND, Santa Monica, California BETH J. SOLDO, Department of Demography, Georgetown University MARTA TIENDA, Population Research Center, University of Chicago AMY O. TSUI, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill JOHN G. HAAGA, Director BARNEY COHEN, Research Associate PATRICIA A. DeFRISCO, Senior Project Assistant KAREN A. FOOTE, Program Officer JOEL A. ROSENQUIST, Project Assistant JOYCE E. WALZ, Administrative Associate
OCR for page R8
Population Dynamics of Senegal This page in the original is blank.
OCR for page R9
Population Dynamics of Senegal This report is dedicated to the memory of Anouch Chahnazarian, Ph.D., who died on December 26, 1993, at the tragically early age of 40, cutting short a distinguished career. Dr. Chahnazarian was an active member of the Working Group on Senegal until her final illness. Her enthusiasm, energy, and intellectual rigor combined to make an enormous contribution to the preparation of this report. Dr. Chahnazarian grew up in Belgium, obtaining a B.A. in social sciences from the Free University of Brussels and a master's degree in demography from the Catholic University of Louvain. She then came to the United States to pursue her graduate training, obtaining a Ph.D. in sociology/demography from Princeton University in 1986. From Princeton, Dr. Chahnazarian joined the Department of Population Dynamics at The Johns Hopkins University, first as a research associate, and then in 1988, as an assistant professor. Her initial work at Johns Hopkins consisted largely of responsibility for all aspects of a child health survey in Haiti, but on joining the faculty, she took on teaching responsibilities and acquired a devoted group of doctoral advisees. While at Princeton, she had been involved in a child mortality study in Zaire, and she returned there in 1989 to design and conduct a follow-up survey of the same area. Her lifelong interest in Africa, where she had lived as a child, led her to take a leave of absence from Johns Hopkins in 1991 to join the Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération (ORSTOM), working as the demographer for the population observatory in Niakhar, Senegal. She concentrated her work on systematizing the data collection, processing, and analysis procedures for the observatory, to provide a sound basis for future use of the data for research purposes. Tragically, she was unable herself to take advantage of the important improvements she introduced. She was taken ill in March 1993. Dr. Chahnazarian's contribution to this report, both intellectual and inspirational, was enormous. She is sorely missed by her colleagues and friends on this working group, the Panel on Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa, the Committee on Population, and throughout the demographic community.
OCR for page R10
Population Dynamics of Senegal This page in the original is blank.
OCR for page R11
Population Dynamics of Senegal Preface This report is last in a series of studies carried out under the auspices of the Panel on the Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa of the National Research Council's Committee on Population that were initiated during my term as chair. The National Research Council has a long history of examining population issues in developing countries. In 1971 it issued the report Rapid Population Growth: Consequences and Policy Implications. In 1977, the predecessor Committee on Population and Demography began a major study of levels and trends of fertility and mortality in the developing world that resulted in 13 country reports and 6 reports on demographic methods. Then, in the early 1980s, that committee undertook a study of the determinants of fertility in the developing world, which resulted in 10 reports. In the mid-and late 1980s, the Committee on Population assessed the economic consequences of population growth and the health consequences of contraceptive use and controlled fertility, among many other activities. No publication on the demography of sub-Saharan Africa emerged from the early work of the committee, largely because of the paucity of data and the poor quality of what was available. However, censuses, ethnographic studies, and surveys of recent years, such as those under the auspices of the World Fertility Survey and the Demographic and Health Survey programs, have made available data on the demography of sub-Saharan Africa. The data collection has no doubt been stimulated by the increasing interest of both scholars and policy-makers in the demographic development of Africa
OCR for page R12
Population Dynamics of Senegal and the relations between demographic change and socioeconomic developments. In response to this interest, the Committee on Population held a meeting in 1989 to ascertain the feasibility and desirability of a major study of the demography of Africa, and decided to form the Panel on the Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa. The panel, which is chaired by Kenneth Hill and includes members from Africa, Europe, and the United States, met for the first time in February 1990 in Washington, D.C. At that meeting, the panel decided to set up six working groups, composed of its own members and other experts on the demography of Africa, to carry out specific studies. Four working groups focused on cross-national studies of substantive issues: the social dynamics of adolescent fertility, factors affecting contraceptive use, the effects on mortality of child survival and general health programs, and the demographic effects of economic reversals. The two other working groups were charged with in-depth studies of Kenya and Senegal, with the objective of studying linkages among demographic variables and between those variables and socioeconomic changes. The panel also decided to publish a volume of papers reviewing broad topics across sub-Saharan Africa: levels and trends of fertility; the proximate determinants of fertility, nuptiality, child mortality, adult mortality, internal migration, and international migration; and the demographic consequences of the AIDS epidemic. This report, one of the two in-depth country studies, analyzes the population dynamics of Senegal. Senegal was chosen for two key reasons. First, it provided an interesting comparison with the case study on Kenya: in contrast with Kenya, demographic changes have not been apparent in Senegal. Second, Senegal has an abundance of national-and local-level data, not all of which had previously been analyzed. This report is the result of the joint efforts of the working group members and staff and represents a consensus of the members' views on the issues addressed. The Committee on Population and the Panel on the Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa appreciate the time and energy devoted by all the working group members to the study. Gilles Pison wrote the first drafts of Chapter 1 and the child mortality portion of Chapter 5; Ken Hill wrote the first draft of the adult mortality section in Chapter 5; Philippe Hugon wrote the first draft of Chapter 2; Karen Foote, Philippe Hugon, and Awa Thiongane wrote the first draft of Chapter 3; and Anouch Chahnazarian and Barney Cohen wrote the first draft of Chapter 4. As noted above, however, this report represents the views of the working group as a whole, and considerable effort by all the members and staff went into the refinement of the early drafts. The working group would like to acknowledge the help of the Statistical Division of the government of Senegal in releasing tables and data from the 1988 census. In addition, Papa Thiécouta Ndiaye, Ibrahim Sarr, and
OCR for page R13
Population Dynamics of Senegal Boubacar Sow worked with members of the working group in analyzing the 1988 census data on fertility. We would also like to thank Emmanuel Lagarde, Nathalie Paquet, and Ely Sene for their valuable research assistance, and Barbara McKinney for writing a valuable background paper on fertility in Senegal. Most specially, we wish to express our sincere appreciation to Anouch's colleagues who were very supportive of Anouch's efforts on this working group both before and during her illness. As is the case for all of the panel's work, this report would not have been possible without the cooperation and assistance of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program of Macro International, Inc. We are grateful to the DHS staff for responding to our inquiries and facilitating our early access to the survey data. We are also most grateful to the organizations that provided financial support for the work of the Panel on the Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa: the Office of Population and the Africa Bureau of the Agency for International Development, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, and the Rockefeller Foundation. Besides the funding provided, the representatives of these organizations were a source of information and advice in the development of the panel's overall work plan. Special thanks are also due to Paul Hurwit for translating portions of the manuscript that were originally written in French; to Joan Montgomery Halford and Paula Melville for providing superb administrative and logistical support to the working group; to Paula Melville, Trish DeFrisco, and Susan Shuttleworth for meticulous assistance in the preparation of the report manuscripts; to Rona Brière and Elaine McGarraugh for skillful editing of the report; and, last but not least, to Eugenia Grohman for guidance and extraordinary patience through the review and production process. SAMUEL H. PRESTON Chair (through November 1993) Committee on Population
OCR for page R14
Population Dynamics of Senegal This page in the original is blank.
OCR for page R15
Population Dynamics of Senegal Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 7 2 GEOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC SETTING 9 Geographic Overview 9 Historical Overview 10 Education 13 Economic Background 13 Notes 29 3 POPULATION GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION 30 Overview of National Population Trends 30 Overview of Regional Trends 34 Migration 35 Notes 43 4 FERTILITY 45 Introduction 45 Levels and Trends of Fertility 46
OCR for page R16
Population Dynamics of Senegal Proximate Determinants of Fertility 77 Summary and Conclusions 106 Notes 108 5 MORTALITY 113 Introduction 113 Child Mortality 114 Adult Mortality 157 Appendix: Health Infrastructure and Programs 185 Notes 194 6 CONCLUSIONS 196 Fertility 196 Mortality 197 The Demographic Transition in Senegal in an African Context 198 Notes 201 APPENDIX A: Data Sources 203 APPENDIX B: Correcting the Fertility Estimates in the 1988 Census 208 APPENDIX C: Methodology for Analysis of Child Mortality 220 APPENDIX D: Growth Balance Methods for Estimating Coverage of Adult Deaths 222 REFERENCES 225 INDEX 237