general, however, adult men are invisible in the 23 evaluated programs. It seems, in some sense, that programs do not know what to do with men, save to provide them with condoms. It is possible, however, that programs could be developed to educate men about their own and their partners' reproductive lives, that men could be encouraged to offer increased personal and financial support for their partners' use of contraception, and that they could be drawn into a wider variety of reproductive health programs. There is some evidence of new interest in programming for males, but it is too soon for evaluations of recent efforts to have been completed (Edwards, 1994).
Few of the 23 evaluated programs target couples, or address male-female decision-making about contraception and pregnancy, despite the fact that sexual and contraceptive decisions often occur within the context of a couple. Although some programs focused on adolescents do seem to address the interaction of the couple, the context is usually to support girls in resisting sexual advances and in saying no to precocious sexual activity. These are exceedingly important skills, but it might also be helpful for individuals and couples to learn about non-adversarial cooperation and communication about sexual and contraceptive issues.
3. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether abstinence-only programs have been effective in increasing the age of first sexual intercourse. Abstinence is frequently emphasized in programs for young adolescents, and it is an important option at all life stages. As noted earlier in the historical review, a number of local programs (such as programs D, L, and S) were funded in the 1980s to stress abstinence as the only means of avoiding unprotected intercourse. Many of these programs were funded by OAPP through the 1981 Adolescent Family Life Act and funding recipients were required to evaluate the effectiveness of abstinence-only programs. To date, these evaluations are too weak to provide evidence for or against the ability of abstinence-only programs to help adolescents delay the onset of sexual activity.
One example of this approach is Success Express, an abstinence-only, school-based program for sixth through eighth graders. This program used a curriculum focusing on family values and self-esteem, pubertal development and reproduction, communication strategies and interpersonal skills about "how to say no," examination of future goals, the effects of peer and media pressures, and complications of premarital sexual activity, adolescent pregnancy, and STDs. Although the evaluation was carefully developed by using a quasi-experimental design, post-test data were gathered immediately following the 6-week intervention; no follow-up data were collected at a later point. It is not surprising that such short-term results showed no significant difference in timing of first sexual intercourse between the intervention and control groups (Christopher and Roosa, 1990; Roosa and Christopher, 1990). The only