TABLE D-1 Studies of Prenatal Care Attainment Associated with Pregnancy Intention

Definition of Intention



Control Factors



Initiation of Prenatal Care (PNC) after the First Trimester





(a) at conception, (b) at fourth month,

(c) in last trimester

120 black women, Boston City Hospital, married with at least one living child, 1964

Prospective at three points during gestation


Late PNC, (a) ORa = 2.89 (0.96,9.02)c, (b) OR = 3.57 (1.38,9.36)c , (c) OR = 2.42 (0.65,9.31)c

Watkins, 1968; (a) 77.5%, (b) 27.9%, (c) 11.7%            

(a) Mistimed, (b) unwanted

NSFG, 1982 (random sample of U.S. women 15–44, with live births 1979–1982)

Retrospective (œ3 yrs. postpartum)


(a) RRb, all = 1.6c; RR, white = 1.6c; RR, black = 1.4c (b) RR, all = 1.8c; RR, white = 1.7c; RR, black = 1.75c

Pamuk and Mosher, 1988            

"Intended" vs. "unintended"

NNS, 1980 (random sample of U.S., married)

Retrospective (>6 mo postpartum)

Race, residence, education, birth order

Crude OR = 1.25c Adjusted OR = -1.19c

Wells et al., 1987            

Planned vs. unplanned

416, central Harlem residents in PNC, 1982–1983

Retrospective (at first PNC visit)


OR = 1.31c

McCormick et al., 1987; 73% were unplanned

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