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developmental resources available to these children; however, those deficits were associated with the sociodemographic differences among the families in which wanted, mistimed, and unwanted conceptions occurred. When background characteristics were controlled, a few developmental effects of planning status remained significant. Before 2 years of age, children whose conceptions had been mistimed or unwanted exhibited higher levels of fearfulness and lower levels of positive affect. When they were of preschool age, they had lower scores on verbal development tests, even though they had no deficit of verbal memory. The authors hypothesize that this critical developmental skill is lagging because ''significant adults, particularly the mother may be less available" to the children (Baydar and Grady, 1993:14).
In the most extreme examples of unwanted conceptions—children born after women were denied abortions—various social development problems and relationship problems have been documented among children in Sweden (Forssman and Thuwe, 1981, 1966; Blomberg, 1980; Hook, 1975, 1963), Finland (Myhrman, 1988), and Czechoslovakia (Kubicka et al., 1994; David et al., 1988; Matejcek et al., 1978). All studies compared children born to women denied abortions (DA group) with children born to women with accepted pregnancies (AP group). Children in the first group were found to be less well adjusted socially, more frequently in psychiatric care, and more often found in criminal registers. In all but the Czechoslovakian study, the deficits of children born after their mothers had been denied abortion could have been due to the less favorable family environments in which they were raised. However, Matejcek and colleagues (1978) also compared the DA group with siblings in both AP and DA families when the original cohort was 35 years of age. They found that the siblings did share some of the less favorable characteristics within the DA group, but DA females were more frequently emotionally disturbed than their AP female controls whereas their female siblings did not exhibit emotional deficits. Girls were also at a greater disadvantage in the Finnish study by Myhrman (1988), but in the Czechoslovakian group earlier problems were more pronounced among male offspring. In all groups studied, differences attenuated with increasing age, but they did not disappear, even by the time the children were in their 30s.
In severe situations of financial and emotional deprivation, children whose conceptions had been mistimed or unwanted may be at higher risk of physical abuse or neglect (Zuravin, 1991). One controlled, prospective study of physical abuse supports this hypothesis (Altemeier et al., 1979), although three retrospective studies do not (Zuravin, 1991; Kotelchuck, 1982; Smith et al., 1974). Four other studies of children of parents reported for abuse or neglect found higher numbers of such families with children whose pregnancies had not been intended than among families with no reports of abuse or neglect (Murphy et al., 1985; Oates et al., 1980; Egeland and Brunnquell, 1979; Hunter et al., 1978). In a study that separated abused from neglected children and that included