The ecology and epidemiology of L. tropica are insufficiently studied. Many important questions remain unanswered concerning host species, vectors, and means of transmission to military personnel. The possible role of dogs as reservoirs of disease and the existence of vectors other than sandflies are questions that have been raised.
DoD should closely monitor all information regarding ecological and clinical studies of L. tropica being conducted in the U.S. and abroad.
International and U.S. researchers should be queried concerning any advances in diagnostic techniques for identifying L. tropica.