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1 The Boord's MQSSO9Q Since 1991 the National Research Council's Board on Engineering Education (BEEd) has been taking stock of issues in engineering education, listening to the concerns of scores of educators and employers of engineers, and considering the future of this vital enterprise. in the course of that stucly, the board has icientified many aspects of the education enterprise that must be improved.' However, as the millennium approaches, no single concept or action is evident that can bring to engineering education the fundamental changes the board believes are needed. Expansion of the nation's population and a growing demand for technol- ogy in the mid- SOOs yiel(lecl the idea of land grant institutions incorporat- ing engineering experiment stations, as codified in the Morrill Act and the Hatch Act. The experience gainer! in weapons system development and precision manufacturing during World War IT highlighted the neecl, re- flected in the "Grinter report" of 1955 (ASEE, 1955), to provide a sound scientific base for the education of engineers. These were specific re- sponses to a clearly defined need. The end of the Cold War has produced a different situation. While it certainly has had an impact on the engineering profession and will continue to do so-it is but one more major change added to the astounding development of information technology, the rigors of global economic competition, the challenges of environmental protection, problems with an 1 The BEEd did not attempt to rank-order its many recommended actions; such an exercise would be not only difficult but also highly subjective. Instead, a more reasonable approach was taken by dividing the proposed actions into two categories: those relevant to all institutions and "other possible actions for consideration." Also, four areas are singled out in this chanter as high-priority actions.

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2 ENGINEERING EDUCATION: DESIGNING AN ADAPTIVE SYSTEM aging infrastructure, the accelerating diversity of the nation's popu- lation, and other great technical and social transformations. In all these influences, the common denominator is complexity and rapic! change; this is the challenge faced today in engineering educa- tion. The BEEd's deliberations have led the board to conclude that there is no simple, universal: prescription for dlealing with complexity and constant change. Rather, there must be many responses, all incliviclualizec! and tailored to local circumstances. Yet these localized responses must be mace in the light of a global perspective, shared by all engineering educators and enlightened by input from employers and graduates, of the broader purposes, goals, and desired outcomes of engineering education. The nation's engineering institutions must together make up the core of a robust system, cleliberately seeking to educate students so that they will attain the characteristics described in the board's "vision for the twenty-first century" (see Chapter 21. To meet the challenges that the nation faces, each engineering college or schools should enter a period of experimentation, moni- tored by self-assessment andfeedbackfrom industry, that is charac- terize(i by a willingness to change and by open, active communication across the engineering community. This process will likely reveal many needed actions. The BEEd believes that one of the highest- priority actions within many engineering schools is to align the faculty reward system more fully with the total mission and purpose of the institution. The reward system at each institution must ensure a proper balance among teaching, research, service, and professional activities to support the institutional mission. Institutional economic pressure must not be permitted to take priority in establishing this balance. The BEEd anticipates that another high-priority item emerging from experimentation and self-assessment by engineering schools will be a recognition of the need to reform the undergraduate engineering education curriculum. The undergraduate educational experience establishes the professional orientation and knowledge base for the vast majority of the nation's engineers. It must impart to students as many as possible of the characteristics described in the BEEd's vision. Several curriculum reform efforts are now under way in engineering schools and coalitions of schools across the nation. Institutions not already involved in such reform should monitor these activities and use them as models or catalysts for their own internal 2 The committee recognizes that different terms are used in different institutions, but for the sake of brevity the term "engineering school" will be used throughout this report to refer to the largest organizational unit for engineers within the univer- sity.

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THE BOARD'S MESSAGE 3 reform efforts. (Reforms also are needed in graduate engineering eclucation; but the primary focus of this report is on undergraduate education, since it builds the base for future strengthening of graduate education.) Also important in this regard, the BEEd believes, is the need to seriously consider alternatives to the standardfour-year bachelor's degree. Many now recognize that four years is no longer enough time for the formal education of an engineer about to enter a lifelong career of professional practice-even assuming a commitment to continuous education after entering practice. Table I-] presents the key ideas contained in this report. The left- hand column summarizes desired characteristics of the system ant} its output (primarily engineering gracluates), as Ascribed in the BEEd's vision for the twenty-first century (see Chapter 21. To achieve these goals will require the actions delineated in the "call to action" that appears in the final chapter (Chapter 5) of the report; these actions are summarized in the second column of the table. Finally, the table identifies the sectors that wouIcl necessarily be involved as agents in carrying out these actions. The actions and sectors are spelled out in detail in Chapter 5. Actions for all institutions inclucle the following: Conduct institutional self-assessment. Redress imbalances in the faculty incentive system. Improve teaching methods and practices. Ensure that the curriculum supports the institution's strategic plan. Expand beneficial interactions and outreach. There are other possible actions for consideration, which are grouped in Chapter 5 according to the type of organization for which the action is recommended. Such organizations include institutions, inclustry, professional societies, government, government-industry-university cooperatives, accrediting authorities, and other groups of the engi- neering community.

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4 TABLE I-] Achieving BEEd's Vision of the Engineering Education System Actions and Agents VISION: DESIRED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM ACTIONSa Page AGENTS b No. System is highly adaptable and flexible Curriculum at each institution integrates fundamentals with early and broad exposure to . . . engineering practice aspects, as well as with design Each institution must conduct a self-assessment and self-evaluation Conduct periodic evaluation and obtain feedback on performance of system and its outputs (engineers) Establish/improve coordination with rest of university 2,3, 14, 18, 42 43, 44 46 2, 44 46 33, 43, 50 Consider "modularizing" the curriculum 1, 4 23, 48 Work with Accreditation Board for 1, 4 53, 54 Engineering and Technology toward more flexible accreditation criteria Explore educational innovations and practices in other countries Pursue undergraduate curricular reform, including early exposure to "real" engineering and more extensive exposure to interdisciplinary, hands-on, industrial practice aspects, team work, systems thinking, and creative design Monitor ongoing experiments in curricular reform and implement pertinent aspects, ensuring continued strong grounding in engineering science and math Employ on the faculty more engineers from industry and government with design and management experience National Science Foundation should 1 ,3 disseminate and implement results of the Engineering Education Coalitions as they become available 1, 2, 3 54 1, 4, 5 2, 21 25, 48 49 1.4 2,22 23, 49 27, 50, 51 53 aItems in boldface are applicable to all institutions; items not in boldface should be considered for possible implementation by some institutions. bLEGEND: 1 = Engineering school faculty and administration 2 = Professional societies 3 = Federal agencies 4 = Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and regional accrediting bodies 5 = Industry

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s TABLE I-! Continued VISION: DESIRED CHARACTERISTICS OF Page THE EDUCATION SYSTEM ACTIONSa AGENTSb No. Offers a variety of paths to the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. to provide for different combinations and types of knowledge and experience . . . Consider and implement, as appropriate, 1 4, 5 3, 16, alternative paths to the undergraduate 24 48 degree, including: pre-professional "general engineering" degree three- or four-year pre-engineering programs leading to a graduate engineering degree cooperative degree ~ five-year bachelor's Consider and implement, as appropriate, 1, 4, 5 16, 48 alternative paths to the graduate degree, including: - practice-oriented M.S. - combined B.S./M.S. - industrial research and development track Ph.D. or D.Eng. - practice-oriented doctorate Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology should adopt, whenever possible, measurable performance- or output-oriented accreditation criteria 1,4,5 16 Offers a wide variety of Develop practice-oriented graduate study 1, 2, 5 48 opportunities and incentives modules for effective continuous Remove barriers and provide incentives to 5 15, 52 education engineers to pursue continuing education Adopt a sabbatical system to reward 5 52 industrial employees with continuing education options Societies and universities should collaborate 1, 2 38 in providing lifelong learning Societies should hold more education 2 53 sessions at technical conferences A federally supported coalition of university 1, 2, 3, 5 53-54 and industrial organizations should develop multimedia networks for continuing education Includes mechanisms to Pursue diversity of the student body by: 1, 3 16-17, ensure diversity of students (1) improving access for all to engineering 27-30, and faculty education; (2) conducting self-assessment 49-50 of the diversity of the student body to identify needed corrective actions: (3) v I' ~ ~ creating a positive, supportive climate that ensures racial9 gender, and ethnic

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TABLE I-! Continued VISION: DESIRED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM ACTIONSa Page AGENTSb No. diversity; (4) establishing formal commitments and incentives to balance faculty/student demographics; (5) improving articulation with community colleges and providers of continuing education; and (6) giving academic credit for specified "life experience" Improve faculty diversity of race, gender, 1, 3, S 16-17 ethnic background, and age by: 30, SO (13 altering the mix of faculty characteristics through self-initiated actions; and (2) employing more engineers from private industry and government with engineering design experience and management experience Develop a variety of faculty types and tracks, 1' S . . . . employing practltloners Fund fellowship programs and scholarships for women and minority engineering students Educational experience is richer and is delivered with . . . maximum productivity and cost-effectiveness 51 s Provide incentives to encourage excellence 1, 2, 3 in teaching, pedagogy, curriculum development, and multimedia teaching approaches Develop and adopt criteria and practices 1, 2, 3, 4 for evaluating teaching effectiveness Employ state-of-the-art teaching methods informed by cognitive science and resecting changing learning styles, with expanded use of educational technology Ensure greater participation by faculty in 1 31, 47 teaching undergraduates, emphasizing student-faculty interaction Create a positive, supportive climate for engineering students 52 3, 32, 47 31-32, 46-47 17 25 27, 47 25-26, 47 aItems in boldface are applicable to all institutions; items not in boldface should be considered for possible implementation by some institutions. bLEGEND: 1 = Engineering school faculty and administration 2 = Professional societies 3 = Federal agencies 4 = Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and regional accrediting bodies 5 = Industry

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7 TABLE i-1 Continued VISION: DESIRED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM ACTIONSa . Offers a wide diversity of educational approaches ~ . ~ . . . across different Institutions Page AGENTSb No. Employ on the faculty more practicing 1 27, SO, engineers with design and management 51 experience who demonstrate good teaching abilities Specialize the institution's program 1, 3, 4, 5 offerings to focus available resources Consider alternatives to tenure such as 1, 2 fixed-year contracts Document excellent teaching and teachers 1 Develop curricular models and 1 instructional modules from inter disciplinary building-blocks Release industry professionals to teach in universities for a limited period Societies should honor faculty excellence in education National Science Foundation could fund development of teaching tools for use by engineering educators Develop a nationwide instructional television network for undergraduate instruction 2 Consider and implement, as appropriate, 1, 4 alternative paths to undergraduate and graduate degrees Consider graduate education reform as an 1, 4 integral part of graduate track B.S. and joint B.S./M.S. program reforms Pursue appropriate undergraduate curricular reform Develop "new collegiality"-a shared sense of mission and purpose for the faculty and the institution Specialize the institution's program offerings to focus available resources 50-5 1 51 3 1, 3 51 23, 48, 51 52 53 53 1, 3, 5 54 48 1, 4, 5 2, 48 49 33, 50 1, 3, 4, 5 50-51

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8 TABLE I-! Continuer! VISION: DESIRED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EDUCATIONAL OUTPUTS ACTIONSa Page AGENTSb No. Engineers are versatile, Pursue undergraduate curricular reform, 1, 4, 5 2, 16, able to identify and solve including early exposure to "real" 48-49 problems engineering and providing for more extensive exposure to interdisciplinary, hands-on, industrial practice aspects, team work, systems thinking, and creative design Establish mechanisms to provide faculty 1, 3 5 47-48 members with greater exposure to - engineering practice National Science Foundation should disseminate and implement results of the Engineering Education Coalitions as they become available 1, 3 23 U.S. engineers compete Pursue undergraduate curricular reform, 1, 4, 5 2, 16, well in rapidly changing including early exposure to "real" 48-49 global markets engineering and providing for more extensive exposure to interdisciplinary, hands-on, industrial practice aspects, team work, systems thinking, and creative design Experiment with ways to expose students 1,4 24-25 to the internationalization of industrial competitiveness and technology development Establish mechanisms to provide faculty 1, 3, 5 47-48 members with greater exposure to - engineering practice Become more international in institutional 1 51 orientation and programs . 49 Engineers possess better Create a positive, supportive climate for 1 25-26, communications skills, a engineering students by emphasizing 47 penchant for collaboration, success and personal encouragement and the capability for Pursue undergraduate curricular reform, 1, 4, 5 2, 15, business and civic leadership including greater required exposure to 22, 48 principles of design, team projects, 49 business, and liberal arts aItems in boldface are applicable to all institutions, items not in boldface should be considered for possible implementation by some institutions. 1 = Engineering school faculty and administration 2 = Professional societies 3 = Federal agencies 4 = Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and regional accrediting bodies 5 = Industry

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9 TABLE I-! Continued VISION: DESIRED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EDUCATIONAL OUTPUTS Page AGENTSb No. Having the habit of lifelong Instill in students a desire for continuous 1 15, 24, learning and a knowledge of and lifelong learning to promote professional 37-39, how to learn, engineers are achievement and personal enrichment 49 prepared to function Societies and universities should collaborate 1, 2 38, 53 productively over the course in providing continuing education of a career and, if they wish, A federally supported coalition of university 1, 3, 5 53-54 to pursue successful careers and industrial organizations should develop in other fields multimedia networks for continuing education Establish an on-line electronic library of 1, 3, 5 documents used to build modular tutorials for use by engineers and students 38-39, 54 Engineers are aware of the Ensure early exposure to "real" 1, 4, 5 16, 48 complex interrelationships engineering and a sense of the role of between engineering and responsible engineers in society society Require the study of science, technology, 1, 4 49 and society (or equivalent) for undergraduates . Engineers understand how to design and develop complex technological systems Employ on the faculty more engineers from industry and government with engineering design experience and management experience 1, 3, s 50, 51 Expand the definition of creative research 1 46 activity to incorporate measures of industrial relevance in assessing faculty performance Employ on the faculty more engineers from industry and government with engineering design experience and management experience Provide released time for faculty professional 1, 5 51 development, emphasizing participation in large, cross-disciplinary industry/government research projects 1,3,5 50,51 Engineers are comfortable Experiment with such teaching techniques 1, 3 26, 47 with working on cross- as cooperative learning and peer teaching disciplinary teams Reform the undergraduate curriculum 1, 4, 5 16, 48 to provide for more extensive exposure to 49 cross-disciplinary industrial practice aspects and team work

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10 TABLE l-! Continued VISION: DESIRED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE Page EDUCATIONAL OUTPUTS ACTIONSa AGENTSb No. Most graduates have Find creative ways to utilize more industry 1, 5 47, 51 significant industrial engineers in teaching undergraduates contacts and exposure to Establish mechanisms to provide faculty 1, 3, 5 47-48 hands-on aspects of members with greater exposure to engineer . . . . engineering sing practice Reform the undergraduate curriculum to 1, 5 16, 48 provide for more extensive exposure to 49 hands-on, industrial practice aspects, team work, and creative design Encourage engineering staff to participate in 5 52 engineering education development activities Speak to student groups, describing 2, 5 52 successful careers in industry Fund faculty fellowships, internships, and 1, 5 adjunct professorships 52 Graduates reflect the Pursue diversity of the student body by: 1, 3 16-17, nation's full range of gender, (1) improving access for all to engineering 27-30 racial, and ethnic diversity education; (2) conducting self-assessment 49 of the diversity of the student body to identify needed corrective actions; (3) creating a positive, supportive climate that ensures racial, gender, and ethnic diversity; (4) establishing formal commitments and incentives to balance faculty and student demographics; (5) improving articulation with community colleges and providers of continuing education; and (6) giving academic credit for specified "life experience" Stems in boldface are applicable to all institutions; items not in boldface should be considered for possible implementation by some institutions. bLEGEND: 1 = Engineering school faculty and administration 2 = Professional societies 3 = Federal agencies 4 = Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and regional accrediting bodies 5 = Industry

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11 TABLE I-1 Continuer! VISION: DESIRED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE Page EDUCATIONAL OUTPUTS ACTIONSa AGENTSb No. Increased public understanding Formally recognize the pursuit of of the nature and role in society of technology in general and engineering in particular 1 36-37 technological literacy among the general population as part of the school's mission Require all non-engineering undergraduates 1, 3 17, 51 in the institution to take 1-2 survey courses on engineering and technology To the extent possible, involve parents in 1 35, 51 K-12 technology literacy programs ~^ ~ ~ ) K-12 students and teachers Establish, through statewide consortia, 1, 2, 3 35, 51 are technologically literate centers where K-12 teachers could acquire and have a better under- in-service training on teaching tools/topics standing of engineering supporting technological literacy as a profession Conduct a pre-service "summer school" for 1, 3 51 college students majoring in science/math education Encourage engineering faculty to establish 1, 2 52, 53 partnerships with K-12 teachers Encourage faculty to establish mentoring relationships with middle- and high-school teachers and students 1, 2 36, 52 Establish mechanisms by which some 1, 2, 3 50 . engineering graduates would teach K-12 Provide engineering instructional materials to K-12 schools and encourage practitioners to form partnerships with K-12 teachers 2, 5 5 1 K-12 students demonstrate Take responsibility for improving K-12 1 17, 33 improved competency science, math, and pre-engineering education 36, 51 in science and mathematics Support efforts to reform K-12 science and 1, 2 34-35, mathematics at the national, state, and local 54 levels