people prefer not to handle alert adults macaques and baboons, but human handling clearly is necessary to ensure the health and well-being of nursery-reared infant macaques and baboons. In the case of adults, techniques involving training, tunnels, pole and collar devices, leashes, transfer cages, and pharmacological restraint agents can greatly reduce the need for physical contact between monkey and human (Chambers and others 1992; Clarke and others 1988; Knowles and others 1995; Laude and others 1996; Phillippi-Falkenstein and Clarke 1992; Reinhardt 1992a, 1995, 1997a).

Behavioral training is absolutely essential for caregivers and other relevant personnel (Laule and others 1996). Both baboons and macaques are hardy animals and stoic in response to illness and injury. The same is generally true of other cercopithecines and colobines. Moreover, the thick hair of many guenons might completely hide even extensive wounding. Good detecting skills might be required to discern wounds, emaciation, and other serious conditions. In general, only a knowledgeable and alert observer can recognize changes in individual behavior in a macaque or baboon that are indicative of altered health. Caregivers familiar with their charges can develop different strategies that facilitate the caregiver-monkey interaction with "difficult" animals. Most monkeys respond appropriately to consistent considerate treatment but can be quite dangerous when teased, tricked, or bullied.

Veterinary Care

No requirements for the veterinary care of Old World monkeys differ from the general requirements for nonhuman primates (Butler and others 1995; NRC 1996). Old World monkeys can be trained to cooperate in some routine procedures when those procedures occur regularly (e.g., the use of vaginal swabs and blood-sampling). In some cases, individual animals can even be trained to accept restraint for short-term treatment regimens, which eliminates the need to subject them to repeated pharmacological restraint. (See "Restraint and Training," Chapter 3.)

Monkeys can be medicated for illness or for other reasons in several ways—through gavage or injections or by masking the agent in a food treat. Medications can be sprinkled or spread on bread and covered with peanut butter, jelly, or both; and they can be hidden in fruit. Monkeys will often suck on a tube for medicated fruit juice as well. Although oral dosing is least disruptive to the animal and thus most desirable, some monkeys will not eat the treat and so require other strategies. It is also important to determine that the monkey consumes the treat, rather than storing it in a cheek pouch and later rejecting it. Offering a second piece of food immediately often forestalls detailed inspections of the first treat by the animal. Knowledgeable personnel can determine which method works best and which foods mask medications best for a particular monkey.

If any Old World monkey goes off-feed during an illness, it should be offered a variety of foods to stimulate appetite. For macaques, relatively bland but



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