care, nurturance, and general well-being; their capture and transfer with minimal disruption and trauma; their physical comfort; the expression of species-specific behavior; and their social interactions with cagemates. Other than increasing activity itself, the beneficial effects of such devices as television, video tasks, mechanical puzzles, and manipulanda should be demonstrated. Research and development on these topics should be systematic, based on a comprehensive theory or concept of primate maintenance, and conducted and reported so as to contribute to the literature of animal science and animal behavior.

The committee believes that nonhuman primates benefit by having some control over their environment (see Markowitz and Aday 1998 for a discussion on providing captive animals control over their environment) and that, lacking such control, they generally benefit by being able to predict environmental events over which they have no control. Considerable research will be required to demonstrate that control and prediction enhance the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. The benefits of predictability could vary in accordance wit whether the procedure is positive, negative, or innocuous to the animals. Extensive work will then be required to learn which features in the environment are most critical to this sense of well-being.

Cognition

Primates in general have substantial cognitive capacities for complex learning and memory. We know that primates' cognitive abilities and the specifics of their attention and motivational processes vary, probably in relation to ecological factors that are important to their adaptation to their natural environment. In addition, each species is naturally curious about or interested in particular kinds of things and will readily learn and remember particular kinds of things. These special interests and abilities are often related to the natural lives of animals in their species-typical habitats.

The following questions, however, remain to be answered: Are the cultivation and use of cognitive capacity basic to the well-being of captive primates? How can primates' intellect (i.e., cognition) be challenged in cost-effective ways to help to sustain their well-being, particularly where social companions are few or absent? How can knowledge of primates' natural history contribute to the design of materials and tasks that will be of interest and will stimulate appropriate behavior and enhance well-being? What species-related criteria are relevant to the empirical assessment of well-being as influenced by the cognitive operations of learning and memory?

Husbandry Practices

Husbandry practices are likely to have a substantial effect on psychological well-being, but little research has been done to underscore this point. For ex-



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